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Joaquín Sorolla: cómo ver lo que otros no ven

Mirando el cuadro «Sol de la tarde», Juan Ramón Jiménez dijo que se sentía como en una ventana que se abre al mediodía: «Yo experimento ante la pintura de este levantino alegre esa emoción sin pensamiento, muda, sorda, plena, de una tarde de campo». Joaquín Sorolla Bastida vivió el desenfreno de la Belle Époque, el Madrid de las tertulias y zarzuelas, y las tribulaciones de la generación del 98, que criticó la «alegría de vivir» de sus cuadros. En este 2023 se cumplen 160 años de su nacimiento (en Valencia, el 27 de febrero) y 100 de su muerte (en Cercedilla, Madrid, el 10 de agosto), efemérides que colocan la obra del valenciano bajo el foco de la actualidad. Y no solo su obra: el libro «Cómo cambiar tu vida con Sorolla» (Lumen), de César Suárez, nos acerca a la desconocida vida del prolífico pintor: requerido por las élites sociales e intelectuales de Europa y América como uno de los grandes artistas de su época, habitó el fascinante mundo de finales del siglo XIX e inicios del XX, con el desarrollo de la modernidad y la llegada de los grandes inventos. Entre ellos la fotografía, cuya irrupción en la vida del pintor queda reflejada en las siguientes líneas extraídas de la biografía firmada por Suárez, un relato maravilloso en el que se dan cita Antonio García Peris y Clotilde García del Castillo, suegro y esposa del pintor, así como Valle-Inclán, Baudelaire, Monet o Gauguin.

{"id":1114,"id_simpleblog_post":"1114","id_simpleblog_category":"66","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"C\u00e9sar Su\u00e1rez","author_url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/206250-cesar-suarez","likes":"0","views":"6697","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:6:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;i:4;b:0;i:5;b:0;i:6;b:0;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"313430,313478,313458","id_category_tematica":"116093,14,116110,19","id_category_autor":"206250","id_category_editorial":"11351","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Joaqu\u00edn Sorolla: c\u00f3mo ver lo que otros no ven","meta_title":"Joaqu\u00edn Sorolla: c\u00f3mo ver lo que otros no ven","meta_description":"En este 2023 se cumplen 160 a\u00f1os del nacimiento y 100 de la muerte de Joaqu\u00edn Sorolla, efem\u00e9rides que colocan la obra del valenciano bajo el foco. El libro \u00abC\u00f3mo cambiar tu vida con Sorolla\u00bb (Lumen), de C\u00e9sar Su\u00e1rez, nos acerca a la vida del pintor.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, C\u00e9sar Su\u00e1rez, Penguin Libros, Joaqu\u00edn Sorolla","short_content":"<p>Mirando el cuadro \u00abSol de la tarde\u00bb, Juan Ram\u00f3n Jim\u00e9nez dijo que se sent\u00eda como en una ventana que se abre al mediod\u00eda: \u00abYo experimento ante la pintura de este levantino alegre esa emoci\u00f3n sin pensamiento, muda, sorda, plena, de una tarde de campo\u00bb. Joaqu\u00edn Sorolla Bastida vivi\u00f3 el desenfreno de la Belle \u00c9poque, el Madrid de las tertulias y zarzuelas, y las tribulaciones de la generaci\u00f3n del 98, que critic\u00f3 la \u00abalegr\u00eda de vivir\u00bb de sus cuadros. En este 2023 se cumplen 160 a\u00f1os de su nacimiento (en Valencia, el 27 de febrero) y 100 de su muerte (en Cercedilla, Madrid, el 10 de agosto), efem\u00e9rides que colocan la obra del valenciano bajo el foco de la actualidad. Y no solo su obra: el libro \u00abC\u00f3mo cambiar tu vida con Sorolla\u00bb (Lumen), de C\u00e9sar Su\u00e1rez, nos acerca a la desconocida vida del prol\u00edfico pintor: requerido por las \u00e9lites sociales e intelectuales de Europa y Am\u00e9rica como uno de los grandes artistas de su \u00e9poca, habit\u00f3 el fascinante mundo de finales del siglo XIX e inicios del XX, con el desarrollo de la modernidad y la llegada de los grandes inventos. Entre ellos la fotograf\u00eda, cuya irrupci\u00f3n en la vida del pintor queda reflejada en las siguientes l\u00edneas extra\u00eddas de\u00a0la biograf\u00eda firmada por\u00a0Su\u00e1rez, un relato maravilloso en el que se dan cita Antonio Garc\u00eda Peris y Clotilde Garc\u00eda del Castillo, suegro y esposa del pintor, as\u00ed como Valle-Incl\u00e1n, Baudelaire, Monet o 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aprieta el bot\u00f3n y nosotros hacemos el resto \u2014dijo a Sorolla el empleado de la flamante sucursal de Kodak.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Eso es lo que dice su publicidad.<\/p><p>\u2014<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/313478-libro-como-cambiar-tu-vida-con-sorolla-9788426418005\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Efectivamente, se\u00f1or Sorolla<\/a><\/span>, y le puedo asegurar que en Kodak cumplimos a rajatabla lo que prometemos.<\/p><p>\u2014No lo dudo, es una compa\u00f1\u00eda de renombre, pero aun as\u00ed prefiero fiarme de la palabra de usted antes que de las promesas de su propaganda. He probado su aparato en Estados Unidos, \u00bfel funcionamiento es igual aqu\u00ed, en Espa\u00f1a?<\/p><p>\u2014En todos los continentes. Usted solo tiene que sacar el cord\u00f3n de la caja, girar la llave y apretar el bot\u00f3n. Cualquiera puede hacerlo, f\u00edjese. Y luego...<\/p><p>\u2014... ustedes hacen el resto.<\/p><p>\u2014Eso es. Solo tiene que enviarnos el rollo fotogr\u00e1fico aqu\u00ed mismo, Puerta del Sol, n\u00famero 4, y en pocos d\u00edas tiene sus fotograf\u00edas.<\/p><p>\u2014Hoy las ciencias adelantan que es una barbaridad \u2014canturre\u00f3 Sorolla.<\/p><p>\u2014Y usted que lo diga. Perm\u00edtame que le muestre nuestro \u00faltimo modelo de la c\u00e1mara Brownie.<\/p><p>\u2014Normalmente es mi hijo, o mi hija, quienes se encargan de tomar las fotograf\u00edas, yo ando torpe para estas cosas... Ver\u00e1, ma\u00f1ana mismo salgo para \u00c1vila. Voy a pintar un estudio de la fuente del Pradillo y me gustar\u00eda fotografiarla. \u00bfPodr\u00eda llevarme una de estas?<\/p><p>\u2014Por supuesto, se\u00f1or Sorolla, ahora mismo se la preparo. Le aseguro que va a cambiar su manera de mirar el mundo.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014A estas alturas de mi vida, caballero, tengo la c\u00e1mara fotogr\u00e1fica instalada en mi vista, y espero que Dios me la guarde por muchos a\u00f1os. Y, d\u00edgame, esta se\u00f1orita tan insinuante de la publicidad \u00bfviene con el aparato?<\/p><p>\u2014<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/bellasartes.ucm.es\/las-chicas-kodak\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfLa chica Kodak?<\/a><\/span> Ah, la mujer moderna con su vestido de rayas azules que viaja sola, monta en bicicleta y quiere votar..., \u00a1d\u00f3nde nos llevar\u00e1, se\u00f1or Sorolla!<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"2\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t5b9q01\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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escena sucede en Madrid en 1913 gracias a que veinticinco a\u00f1os antes el inventor\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/George_Eastman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">George Eastman<\/a><\/span> patent\u00f3 una pel\u00edcula flexible de nitrocelulosa montada sobre un soporte de papel y enrollada en el interior de un aparato dentro de una cajita. Su invento transform\u00f3 la memoria colectiva de la humanidad. Aunque por aquel entonces la primera c\u00e1mara fotogr\u00e1fica Kodak solo pod\u00edan permit\u00edrsela unos pocos (se vend\u00eda por veinticinco d\u00f3lares, unos setecientos cincuenta a d\u00eda de hoy), la promesa de que cualquiera podr\u00eda capturar en instant\u00e1neas su vida cotidiana cautiv\u00f3 a miles de personas y comenz\u00f3 a cambiar la percepci\u00f3n del arte.<\/p><p>Un aficionado sin ning\u00fan conocimiento t\u00e9cnico puede, con una Kodak, hacer lo que los profesionales de la fotograf\u00eda han hecho durante a\u00f1os en sus estudios mediante manipulaciones de laboratorio e ingenios art\u00edsticos. \u00bfDe qu\u00e9 sirve ya el esfuerzo de pintar la realidad si una m\u00e1quina la atrapa de forma sencilla y precisa? \u00abUsted aprieta el bot\u00f3n y nosotros hacemos el resto\u00bb, dec\u00eda el eslogan de Kodak.<\/p><p>Aquel verano de 1888 en el que Eastman presenta su invento, en la localidad bretona de Pont-Aven, que ya empieza a abarrotarse de artistas, el ex agente de bolsa Gauguin pasea por un bosque cerca del r\u00edo con su joven amigo S\u00e9rusier, a quien ha conocido en la pensi\u00f3n Gloanec. El disc\u00edpulo instala su tabla y se dispone a pintar el paisaje.<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfC\u00f3mo ve usted esos \u00e1rboles? \u2014le pregunta <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Paul_Gauguin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gauguin<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p>\u2014Son amarillos \u2014contesta S\u00e9rusier.<\/p><p>\u2014Bien, ponga amarillo. Y aquella sombra \u00bfno es azul? P\u00edntela con azul ultramar puro. \u00bfY aquellas hojas rojas? Use el bermell\u00f3n.<\/p><p>Gauguin se propone romper con las restricciones de la pintura que solo obedece a la realidad. No busca representaciones fidedignas, sino subir la intensidad de su paleta y exagerar sus composiciones hasta la desfiguraci\u00f3n si es necesario. Cuando pinta <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/La_visi%C3%B3n_tras_el_serm%C3%B3n#:~:text=La%20visi%C3%B3n%20tras%20el%20serm%C3%B3n%2C%20tambi%C3%A9n%20llamado%20La%20lucha%20de,Fue%20pintado%20en%201888.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Visi\u00f3n despu\u00e9s del serm\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>\u00a0<\/em>o<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Jacob_luchando_con_el_%C3%A1ngel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jacob luchando con el \u00e1ngel<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0da el paso definitivo de \u00abrenunciar al realismo a favor de la alegor\u00eda dramatizada y el estilo\u00bb, seg\u00fan <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/5274-will-gompertz\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Will Gompertz<\/a><\/span>. Desde luego, a Gauguin no le interesa captar la escena tal cual es, como lo har\u00eda una c\u00e1mara fotogr\u00e1fica, sino pintar su propia idea de lo que ve.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"2\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d1pfoei\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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que anima las nuevas ideas expresivas de Gauguin y le inspira en sus escorzos dram\u00e1ticos, est\u00e1 obsesionado con pintar el movimiento. Busca temas que realcen la belleza del dinamismo, como bailarinas y caballos. Meticuloso en la preparaci\u00f3n de sus encuadres, estudia el trabajo de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Eadweard_Muybridge\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un pionero de la fotograf\u00eda, Muybridge<\/a><\/span>, que muestra en secuencias fotogr\u00e1ficas, fotograma a fotograma, el proceso del movimiento en humanos y animales. \u00abMe propongo captar el movimiento en su verdad exacta\u00bb, dice Degas.<\/p><p>En Valencia, unos a\u00f1os antes del golpe de efecto de Eastman en Rochester (Nueva York), del paseo de Gauguin por la orilla del r\u00edo Aven y poco despu\u00e9s de los experimentos cin\u00e9ticos de Degas, don\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Antonio_Garc%C3%ADa_Peris\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Antonio Garc\u00eda Peris<\/a><\/span> publica en el <em>Almanaque<\/em> del diario <em>Las Provincias<\/em> un anuncio de la innovadora t\u00e9cnica que utiliza en su estudio de fotograf\u00eda: \u00abRetratos pintados al \u00f3leo sobre lienzo a base de fotograf\u00eda, con la cooperaci\u00f3n de distinguidos artistas, obteni\u00e9ndose dichos retratos con exactitud y seguridad absoluta en el parecido, y una important\u00edsima econom\u00eda en su precio sobre los pintados directamente al \u00f3leo\u00bb.<\/p><p>El <em>Almanaque<\/em> es de 1884, a\u00f1o en que Sorolla, con veinti\u00fan a\u00f1os, obtiene su primer reconocimiento en Madrid con el cuadro<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.museodelprado.es\/coleccion\/obra-de-arte\/dos-de-mayo\/e042130f-29cf-4bb1-a64e-1e0d2fc38d23\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dos de Mayo<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0y consigue una plaza de pensionado en Roma gracias a la Diputaci\u00f3n de Valencia por<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/blogs.ua.es\/joaquinsorollahistoria\/2013\/01\/28\/el-grito-de-palleter\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El grito del Palleter<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> Probablemente, don Antonio Garc\u00eda Peris se refiere a su futuro yerno cuando mencionaba en su publicidad la \u00abcooperaci\u00f3n de distinguidos artistas\u00bb.<\/p><p>El bueno de don Antonio fue un pionero de la fotograf\u00eda art\u00edstica en Espa\u00f1a y es considerado el primer reportero gr\u00e1fico de Valencia. Capt\u00f3 la llegada de Alfonso XII del exilio al puerto de Valencia en 1875, la inaudita nevada de 1885 o la crecida del r\u00edo desde el puente de San Jos\u00e9 en 1897. Fue el preferido por los famosos de la \u00e9poca, desde\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Mar%C3%ADa_Guerrero\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la actriz Mar\u00eda Guerrero<\/a><\/span> hasta el torero Frascuelo, y un precursor de la postal tur\u00edstica. Antes que fot\u00f3grafo, quiso ser qu\u00edmico, y luego pintor. Estudi\u00f3 en la Academia de San Carlos y trabaj\u00f3 como escen\u00f3grafo en el Teatro Principal, hasta que comenz\u00f3 a interesarse por la confecci\u00f3n de daguerrotipos y por la fotograf\u00eda en placa h\u00fameda. Cuando lleg\u00f3 la placa seca y sus colegas fot\u00f3grafos celebraron no tener que volver a sumergir las manos en colodi\u00f3n para el revelado, don Antonio murmur\u00f3: \u00abSe acab\u00f3 la profesi\u00f3n. En adelante, todo el mundo har\u00e1 fotograf\u00edas\u00bb. Su estudio en Valencia fue el primero en tener luz el\u00e9ctrica y tel\u00e9fono. El logotipo de las cartas fotogr\u00e1ficas de sus positivos estaba compuesto por la c\u00e1mara del fot\u00f3grafo y la paleta del pintor, con la expresi\u00f3n \u00abArte fotogr\u00e1fico\u00bb.<\/p><p>Un d\u00eda su hijo, Tono, le lleva un cuadrito de un compa\u00f1ero de la Escuela de Bellas Artes, Joaqu\u00edn, por ver si se lo puede comprar, ya que le parece muy bueno y su amigo est\u00e1 necesitado de dinero. A don Antonio le gusta tanto la pintura que no solo la compra, sino que le dice a su hijo que quiere conocer a aquel muchacho de apellido Sorolla, a quien est\u00e1 dispuesto a ayudar en lo que sea. Poco despu\u00e9s, empieza a trabajar en el estudio con \u00e9l como aprendiz.<\/p><p>Con don Antonio, Sorolla aprende a revelar placas y manipular sustancias qu\u00edmicas, a colorear fotograf\u00edas y, sobre todo, aprende a mirar. Le fascina la posibilidad de dominar la luz mediante el gui\u00f1o de un diafragma y poder congelar un instante con su mirada, tal y como se fija la escena en una imagen fotogr\u00e1fica.<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s de ense\u00f1arle la t\u00e9cnica fotogr\u00e1fica, que luego Sorolla traspasa a su pintura, don Antonio le transmite su af\u00e1n innovador y sus ideas progresistas. En las tertulias pol\u00edticas y culturales de Valencia le presenta como su protegido. Cuando se casa con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.culturaydeporte.gob.es\/msorolla\/exposicion\/itinerarios-sorolla\/clotilde.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su hija Clotilde<\/a><\/span>, Sorolla empieza a llamarle cari\u00f1osamente \u00abel abuelo\u00bb. Se convierte en su padre espiritual a la vez que don Antonio siente un gran orgullo de tenerlo como yerno.<\/p><p>Don Antonio tiene una visi\u00f3n comercial que Sorolla empieza a poner en pr\u00e1ctica en cuanto adquiere confianza con el ejercicio de su arte. El fot\u00f3grafo ha viajado, conf\u00eda en su intuici\u00f3n y es respetado en el oficio. Estos son los principales consejos que le da para ganarse un buen lugar en el ambiente art\u00edstico. El pintor los sigue al pie de la letra.<\/p><p>Uno: no te envanezcas.<\/p><p>Dos: ten mucho orden en la marcha de los trabajos y mucha conciencia con ellos. Que las banalidades de la vida art\u00edstica no te desv\u00eden de tu camino.<\/p><p>Tres: mant\u00e9n la pasi\u00f3n por tu trabajo a pesar de las contrariedades y des\u00e1nimos.<\/p><p>Cuatro: presta mucha atenci\u00f3n y formalidad a quien te favorezca y se interese por tu trabajo. No procedas como generalmente lo hacen los artistas, sin caer en la cuenta de que es en perjuicio suyo.<\/p><p>Y cinco: no olvides que la familia ser\u00e1 siempre tu mayor soporte y, en los momentos de duda, tu \u00fanica fuente de 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Antonio_Garc%C3%ADa_Peris\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Don Antonio<\/a><\/span>\u00a0retrata a su yerno en numerosas ocasiones. La primera en 1884, cuando el pintor tiene veinti\u00fan a\u00f1os. Sus fotograf\u00edas permiten conocer cuadros del pintor que se han perdido o han sido destruidos. Tambi\u00e9n algunos que el propio Sorolla modific\u00f3. De igual manera, gracias a estos retratos podemos seguir la evoluci\u00f3n f\u00edsica del artista y su vida familiar. Qued\u00e9monos con dos estampas de 1907, tomadas durante una reuni\u00f3n navide\u00f1a en Valencia, donde est\u00e1 la familia al completo. Las fotograf\u00edas muestran una escena de sobremesa. Cada una de las once figuras, situadas en torno a las tazas de caf\u00e9, posa en un logrado alarde de fingida espontaneidad. En una de las fotograf\u00edas, Sorolla aparece en primer plano sentado en un sill\u00f3n mecedora, pensativo, ajeno a los dem\u00e1s, prendiendo un puro, observado discretamente en diagonal por Clotilde. En otra instant\u00e1nea de la misma escena, casi todos han cambiado de posici\u00f3n. Ahora es don Antonio quien aparece en primera l\u00ednea, acodado en la mesa con un puro fino, dando el perfil a la c\u00e1mara en la silla que antes ocupaba su nieta mayor, Mar\u00eda. Al otro lado de la mesa, Sorolla est\u00e1 de pie, detr\u00e1s de Clotilde, con un rostro m\u00e1s complaciente que antes, atento a la conversaci\u00f3n de su suegro.<\/p><p>Sorolla tambi\u00e9n pint\u00f3 a su mentor y suegro muchas veces. Son significativos sus retratos de madurez. En 1908 pinta a don Antonio sentado en un perfil de tres cuartos dirigiendo la mirada con naturalidad al espectador, una posici\u00f3n que era muy del gusto de Sorolla, con una armon\u00eda de grises que funden su traje con el fondo. En las manos tiene un sombrero canotier. Poco despu\u00e9s le pinta en su estudio, entre cachivaches de fotograf\u00eda, observando una placa que acaba de revelar con el rostro iluminado por una luz artificial.<\/p><p>En el verano de 1909 le pinta en la playa, sentado en el mismo sill\u00f3n mecedora de mimbre de la foto familiar antes mencionada. Don Antonio observa con placidez el mar que est\u00e1 a pocos metros mientras sostiene distra\u00eddamente un pincel, un elemento que quiz\u00e1 Sorolla introduce como s\u00edmbolo de todo lo que le debe. A su lado, en una banqueta, no falta su inseparable canotier. El encuadre de la composici\u00f3n es absolutamente fotogr\u00e1fico. La figura de don Antonio est\u00e1 enmarcada por una ventana que se abre al horizonte, como si el pintor lo viera desde el porche de una casa en la misma orilla.<\/p><p>Una prueba del inter\u00e9s de Sorolla por la fotograf\u00eda es la colecci\u00f3n de seis mil instant\u00e1neas que conserv\u00f3, entre positivos antiguos, placas de vidrio y rollos de celuloide. En un mueble guardaba, entre otras, reproducciones fotogr\u00e1ficas de cuadros de Vel\u00e1zquez. Algunas, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.museodelprado.es\/coleccion\/obra-de-arte\/menipo\/698f7cc0-8483-40f8-b66b-7c9a99f358d8\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">como una del <\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.museodelprado.es\/coleccion\/obra-de-arte\/menipo\/698f7cc0-8483-40f8-b66b-7c9a99f358d8\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Menipo<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> presentan perforaciones que indican que fueron clavadas en distintos lugares. Adem\u00e1s, muestran manchas de pintura que delatan que el pintor las ten\u00eda cerca cuando trabajaba. En su casa-museo puede verse, en un lugar principal de su estudio, una reproducci\u00f3n fotogr\u00e1fica del retrato de Inocencio X que encarg\u00f3 al estudio especializado en facs\u00edmiles de Domenico Anderson en Roma, con unas medidas solo ligeramente menores que las del cuadro original. Sorolla nunca se atrevi\u00f3 a copiar este cuadro de Vel\u00e1zquez, que para \u00e9l simboliza lo que debe ser la pintura. <em>\u00abTroppo vero!\u00bb<\/em> (demasiado veraz), se cuenta que exclam\u00f3 el papa cuando contempl\u00f3 por primera vez su retrato.<\/p><p>Sorolla no tiene reparos en aplicar las t\u00e9cnicas de la fotograf\u00eda a la pintura. Incluso su postura casi acechante con la paleta y los pinceles en la mano, la mirada fija en la escena que acostumbra a mantener cuando trabaja, se asemejan a la frialdad exacta del objetivo fotogr\u00e1fico. \u00abHay cuadro\u00bb, afirma cuando su retina capta la luz deseada y encuentra la composici\u00f3n adecuada. \u00abMientras pinto, solo veo la obra que est\u00e1 realiz\u00e1ndose \u2014le dice a su disc\u00edpulo estadounidense <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/William_Starkweather\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">William E. B. Starkweather<\/a><\/span>\u2014, exactamente como un fot\u00f3grafo en el revelado de una placa, cuando emerge sobre la pel\u00edcula la escena que \u00e9l fotografi\u00f3\u00bb.<\/p><p>A su potente mirada se une un temperamento decisivo. Seg\u00fan Maeztu, Sorolla solo pinta \u00abcon calor de vida\u00bb cuando lo hace de un modo sint\u00e9tico. Si se pone a analizar, su pintura se vuelve convencional. Si pinta sin fe, no es Sorolla. Por eso necesita abordar el lienzo de forma impetuosa.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gbbrr85\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Este hombre debe de tener la avaricia de querer pintarlo todo \u2014dice Maeztu\u2014: la pasi\u00f3n de sorprender todos los aspectos de la naturaleza, aun los m\u00e1s fugitivos e inestables. No hay quien tenga preparada en la paleta una s\u00edntesis de la primera visi\u00f3n de las cosas. Con su arte r\u00e1pido y sint\u00e9tico, puede llevar a los lienzos asuntos que una pintura m\u00e1s reposada y anal\u00edtica no osar\u00eda siquiera abordar. Se nace periodista y Sorolla es el periodista del color.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"eihm9kh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Para producir esa fugaz \u00abilusi\u00f3n de vida\u00bb, realiza de forma inconsciente el proceso de la fotograf\u00eda. Solo despu\u00e9s de \u00abhaber visto\u00bb bien, tras varios estudios y a veces decenas de bocetos, se lanza a sintetizar en el lienzo lo que ha percibido. Planta su caballete en la arena de la playa, monta un tenderete con telas y sombrillas para protegerse del sol y se pone manos a la obra. Siempre \u00abal natural\u00bb, al aire libre, sin perder de vista la realidad. Descarta representar de manera minuciosa lo que ve. No le importa eliminar los aspectos que pueden restar espontaneidad a la escena. Para \u00e9l, la naturaleza produce efectos de color instant\u00e1neos, visiones evanescentes que trata desesperadamente de atrapar. Eso es lo \u00fanico que le interesa. \u00abEn tales momentos \u2014explica\u2014, soy inconsciente de los materiales, del estilo, de las reglas, de todas las cosas que intervienen entre mi percepci\u00f3n y el objeto o idea percibido\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Edgar_Degas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Al igual que Degas<\/a><\/span>, Sorolla persigue plasmar la idea del movimiento en un instante. En Par\u00eds, en Florencia y en Nueva York, pinta el vaiv\u00e9n de los transe\u00fantes y los cabriol\u00e9s sin atender al entorno arquitect\u00f3nico. Utiliza composiciones diagonales, como las de las fotograf\u00edas realizadas desde un edificio en picado. Su mirada le permite, adem\u00e1s, fijar la luz de los objetos de tal manera que a\u00f1ade vitalidad al lienzo. En Par\u00eds ha visto una de las cumbres impresionistas, el <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/fr.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Boulevard_des_Capucines_(Monet)\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Boulevard des Capucines<\/em> de Monet<\/a><\/span>. En sus escenas de playa, se atreve a descomponer los rostros en fases y efectos lum\u00ednicos para conseguir esa sensaci\u00f3n de movimiento. \u00c9l tambi\u00e9n conoce las cronofotograf\u00edas de Muybridge. \u00abSu ojo ha impresionado lo que una m\u00e1quina fotogr\u00e1fica hubiera hecho con una cierta exposici\u00f3n\u00bb, dice el historiador del arte Javier P\u00e9rez Rojas. En el archivo de Sorolla se conservan varias placas estereosc\u00f3picas con barcas realizando la tradicional pesca del bou, as\u00ed como fotograf\u00edas y postales con escenas de playa y ni\u00f1os corriendo por la arena.<\/p><p>Hacia 1900 deja de pintar temas sociales y, salvo los retratos, solo pinta al aire libre. Tras a\u00f1os de b\u00fasqueda, por fin da con la manera de ver lo que otros no ven. Entra en un \u00e1mbito en el que, como dice P\u00e9rez Rojas, \u00ablos seres humanos perviven como siluetas a medio hacer o a medio deshacer, como conjunto de trazos apresurados y nerviosos, como sombras y reflejos de una realidad de la que ya se empieza a dudar d\u00f3nde se halla\u00bb. Entonces, el espacio y el tiempo ya no tienen por qu\u00e9 corresponderse. Sorolla expresa el estar, m\u00e1s que el ser. \u00abEl estar en este preciso instante, bajo esta determinada luz, en esta particular circunstancia, vibrando al un\u00edsono de la vida\u00bb, seg\u00fan <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/dialnet.unirioja.es\/servlet\/extaut?codigo=154925\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">P\u00e9rez Rojas<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo que jam\u00e1s hace Sorolla es dar la espalda a la realidad, como Gauguin y los que vienen despu\u00e9s. Piensa que no hay m\u00e1s verdad que la que muestra la naturaleza, y que lo verdadero est\u00e1 ah\u00ed mismo, delante de nuestros ojos, sin necesidad de entrar en idealizaciones. \u00abTodas las equivocaciones que han padecido los grandes artistas obedecen a que se han separado de la verdad..., su imaginaci\u00f3n puede m\u00e1s que ella \u2014dice\u2014. Todo lo tendencioso es de momento. Lo eterno es lo humano [...]. El natural, el natural. Con el natural delante se hace todo, y todo bien\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para Sorolla, cuanto m\u00e1s fiel sea la reproducci\u00f3n de la realidad, tanto m\u00e1s puro ser\u00e1 el arte. \u00abLo primordial, en todo caso, es dar la sensaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s exacta, haciendo que el espectador sea el primer enga\u00f1ado \u00bb, dice. \u00c9l, que es un entusiasta de las im\u00e1genes en movimiento, est\u00e1 convencido de que \u00abel arte es una mentira que no puede decirse m\u00e1s que frente al natural\u00bb, y el cine, al que es tan aficionado, \u00abes la m\u00e1s exacta e inconmovible demostraci\u00f3n de ello\u00bb.<\/p><p>En una carta a Clotilde de febrero de 1917, le confiesa: \u00abYo solo s\u00e9 que para ser pintor con mi sistema hay que estar loco, o los otros lo son m\u00e1s al no vivir la naturaleza, dedicados a la fabricaci\u00f3n de viejos y est\u00fapidos convencionalismos. En fin, de eso no hablemos, pues no voy a enderezar ahora \u00e1rbol tan torcido\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bqodotn\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Sorolla. El ba\u00f1o del caballo (1909). 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Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qg6pl6f\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"yfgxwzk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Aunque el progreso de la t\u00e9cnica fotogr\u00e1fica es imparable, no todos est\u00e1n a gusto con su popularizaci\u00f3n, ni mucho menos con su irrupci\u00f3n en el terreno del arte. \u00abLa fotograf\u00eda no pertenece al \u00e1mbito del arte, pues su objeto es el enga\u00f1o \u2014dice el pintor John Constable, famoso por su carro de heno\u2014. El arte complace mediante el recuerdo, no mediante el enga\u00f1o\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/495-ramon-del-valle-inclan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Valle-Incl\u00e1n<\/a><\/span>, atento al quite con tal de meter una pulla, se refiere a uno de los cuadros m\u00e1s importantes de Sorolla, <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/El_regreso_de_la_pesca:_remolcando_el_barco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La vuelta de la pesca<\/a><\/span>, <\/em>en el que el pintor se\u00f1ala el camino de su personalidad art\u00edstica, como \u00abel famoso cuadro donde unos bueyes de barro cocido sacan del mar una barca de negro velacho\u00bb, y compara la obra con una fotograf\u00eda tomada al contraluz: \u00abMe inquieta una nueva duda: \u00bfser\u00e1 que la moderna pintura debe emular las glorias de esas fotograf\u00edas que llaman al trasluz?\u00bb. Lo que son las sensibilidades. Curiosamente,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Juan_Ram%C3%B3n_Jim%C3%A9nez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Ram\u00f3n Jim\u00e9nez<\/a><\/span> escribe refiri\u00e9ndose a los cuadros de escenas mar\u00edtimas de Sorolla: \u00abEs in\u00fatil ir a los cuadros de Sorolla con brumas y ensue\u00f1os en el alma\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1002-charles-baudelaire\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El m\u00e1s l\u00facido espectador de la modernidad, Baudelaire<\/a><\/span>, que ve en el avance de la t\u00e9cnica un retroceso de lo art\u00edstico, afirma que la fotograf\u00eda es \u00abel refugio de todos los pintores frustrados, muy poco dotados o demasiado holgazanes para terminar sus estudios \u00bb. Y sentencia que si se permite a la fotograf\u00eda suplir el arte, pronto lo reemplazar\u00e1 o corromper\u00e1 por completo, ya que existe una especie de relaci\u00f3n natural entre la tonter\u00eda y la multitud. Est\u00e1 bien, seg\u00fan Baudelaire, que se hagan fotos de viajes, de ruinas, de objetos preciosos, de animales y de maravillas de la naturaleza, pero \u00ab\u00a1ay de nosotros si se le permite usurpar el \u00e1mbito de lo impalpable y lo imaginario, de todo aquello que tiene valor porque el hombre pone all\u00ed parte de su alma!\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.museodelprado.es\/aprende\/enciclopedia\/voz\/haes-carlos-de\/f3d9d7a1-628f-4a77-8c13-3395a472c37a\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Carlos de Haes<\/a><\/span>, precursor del paisajismo en Espa\u00f1a y maestro de Aureliano de Beruete, dice en su discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando: \u00ab\u00a1Oh, qu\u00e9 ansiedad la del pintor ante los magn\u00edficos espect\u00e1culos de la naturaleza! \u00bfC\u00f3mo reproducir, c\u00f3mo fijar sus efectos fugaces? \u00bfQu\u00e9 valen nuestros pobres medios de imitaci\u00f3n para hacer la luz y la sombra?\u00bb. A Sorolla, sin ir m\u00e1s lejos, esa ansiedad se le viene encima cada vez que contempla \u00abel natural\u00bb.<\/p><p>El caso es que en la segunda mitad del XIX, es raro el pintor o escultor que no usa una c\u00e1mara o se vale de fotograf\u00edas para sus composiciones. Al fin y al cabo, la mayor\u00eda persiguen la exactitud en la reproducci\u00f3n de lo que ven, aunque esto vaya en contra de lo que De Haes llama el espiritualismo art\u00edstico. \u00abEn cuanto el invento de Daguerre consiga sacar los colores, ya se pueden ir los pintores a cardar cebollinos\u00bb, avisa Federico de Madrazo.<\/p><p>Algo parecido dice unos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s el fot\u00f3grafo Antonio C\u00e1novas del Castillo, que firma con el seud\u00f3nimo de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Kaulak\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Kaulak<\/a><\/span> (con las dos \u00abk\u00bb de Kodak) para que no le confundan con su t\u00edo, el jefe de Gobierno y l\u00edder del partido conservador a quien tirote\u00f3 el anarquista Michele Angiolillo en el balneario de Santa \u00c1gueda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2kfdbfa\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A los artistas es a los que nuestra afici\u00f3n predilecta [la fotograf\u00eda] ha prestado, presta y prestar\u00e1 mayores servicios. Lo que hay es que unos lo confiesan y otros se lo callan. Pero creedme: todos cogen [...] \u00a1Cu\u00e1ntos cuadros se ven por ah\u00ed que no son sino fotograf\u00edas iluminadas! [...] Mas det\u00e9nganse ah\u00ed, porque si no hacen m\u00e1s que calcar fotograf\u00edas y rellenar con color, el d\u00eda en que se descubra la fotograf\u00eda en colores tendr\u00e1n que liar los b\u00e1rtulos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"54b3k72\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Seg\u00fan <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tom%C3%A1s_Llorens_Serra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Tom\u00e1s Llorens<\/a><\/span>, el impacto de la fotograf\u00eda afecta profundamente a los pintores de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wqhfsqj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Ser\u00e1 la fotograf\u00eda la que les ense\u00f1ar\u00e1 a todos, desde Degas hasta Sorolla, a ver cosas que el pintor del pasado no est\u00e1 capacitado para ver: c\u00f3mo mueven sus patas los caballos cuando corren, c\u00f3mo nos movemos, c\u00f3mo cambiamos de expresi\u00f3n o c\u00f3mo se separan la luz y la sombra en nuestro rostro. La fotograf\u00eda ense\u00f1ar\u00e1 sobre todo a disolver el v\u00ednculo ancestral que en el mundo antiguo un\u00eda la imagen con lo sagrado. A profanar la imagen.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9ndvhmg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Cuenta Baudelaire en <em>La obra y la vida de Eug\u00e8ne Delacroix<\/em> que una vez le dijo el pintor a un conocido suyo: \u00abSi usted no es lo bastante h\u00e1bil para hacer un croquis de un hombre que se tira por la ventana en lo que tarda en caer del cuarto piso al suelo, nunca podr\u00e1 producir grandes temas\u00bb. Sorolla superar\u00eda la prueba de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.biografiasyvidas.com\/biografia\/d\/delacroix.htm\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Delacroix<\/a><\/span>. Su velocidad de ejecuci\u00f3n est\u00e1 ligada a la precisi\u00f3n de las formas y la luz que quiere captar. \u00abMis cuadros exigen rapidez. Deber\u00edan pintarse tan r\u00e1pido como un boceto \u2014le dice a Starkweather\u2014. Si tuviera que pintar despacio, no podr\u00eda pintar en absoluto. Solo con la velocidad se puede obtener una ilusi\u00f3n de fugacidad\u00bb. Asegura que la prisa es necesaria \u00abpara que no se evapore la acci\u00f3n de la idea\u00bb.<\/p><p>Su extraordinaria facilidad para pintar fue muchas veces usada en su contra. \u00abPinta demasiado f\u00e1cil\u00bb, le critican. Parece que pinte sin preocupaci\u00f3n alguna, mostrando una tremenda seguridad, y eso molesta. Starkweather, en una comparaci\u00f3n exagerada, dice que Sorolla pinta de manera tan instintiva que le recuerda a una vaca pastando.<\/p><p>El asunto no es tan simple. En realidad, Sorolla es un torbellino de dudas. No naci\u00f3 pintando: aprendi\u00f3 el oficio. Su arte \u00abera un saber, no un don; el \\\"prodigio\\\" respond\u00eda al trabajo acumulado\u00bb, dicen Felipe Gar\u00edn y Facundo Tom\u00e1s.<\/p><p>Precisamente su lucha constante es pintar con menos preocupaciones. Llegar a \u00abla verdad sin durezas\u00bb, como \u00e9l desea, le cuesta un esfuerzo tit\u00e1nico. La velocidad crea la ilusi\u00f3n del movimiento. Aunque quiera, le es imposible pintar despacio al aire libre.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zqfr349\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No hay nada inm\u00f3vil en lo que nos rodea \u2014dice\u2014. El mar se riza a cada instante; la nube se deforma al mudar de sitio; la cuerda que pende de ese barco oscila lentamente; ese muchacho salta; esos arbolillos doblan sus ramas y tornan a levantarlas... Pero aunque todo estuviera petrificado y fijo, bastar\u00eda que se moviera el sol, que lo hace de continuo, para dar diverso aspecto a las cosas... Hay que pintar deprisa, porque \u00a1cu\u00e1nto se pierde, fugaz, que no vuelve a encontrarse!<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1hnsz4k\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A Starkweather, que durante un viaje a J\u00e1vea no puede seguir el ritmo de trabajo de Sorolla al sol, le dice que el estudio para \u00e9l es simplemente un garaje, un lugar donde guardar los cuadros y repararlos, pero que los lienzos hay que ejecutarlos del natural.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yfrlsw9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00danicamente un par de veces en la vida, por pura casualidad, podr\u00e1s pintar una nariz de un solo brochazo \u2014dice Sorolla\u2014. Las cosas que se consiguen con esta facilidad resultan maravillosas. Pero intentar pasarte el resto de tu vida pintando narices de un brochazo ser\u00eda el mayor de los disparates, ya que resultar\u00eda del todo imposible mantenerte a una altura a la que solo se puede llegar de manera accidental. Cuando un artista comienza a contar las pinceladas que da en vez de contemplar la naturaleza, est\u00e1 abocado a la perdici\u00f3n. Esta preocupaci\u00f3n por la t\u00e9cnica, a expensas de la verdad y la sinceridad, es el fallo principal que encuentro en la mayor\u00eda de las obras de pintores 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que Sorolla no tiene una idea preconcebida en la cabeza al enfrentarse al lienzo, aunque haya premeditado su composici\u00f3n. \u00abNo deber\u00edas saber c\u00f3mo va a ser tu cuadro hasta que no lo hayas terminado\u00bb, suele decir a sus alumnos.<\/p><p>La gran aceptaci\u00f3n que tiene la pintura de Sorolla se explica en buena parte por su capacidad para representar la realidad de manera fotogr\u00e1fica. Supo intuir, sin abstracciones intelectuales, el esp\u00edritu que inund\u00f3 la cultura visual de su tiempo y crear unos referentes pict\u00f3ricos que pronto dejar\u00edan de tener sentido, con la irrupci\u00f3n de las vanguardias.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3y9a40m\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Incluso lleva a su pintura \u2014explica\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.tecnos.es\/autor.php?id=100062849&pageid=4\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Roberto D\u00edaz Pena<\/a><\/span> en su tesis <em>Sorolla y la fotograf\u00eda\u2014<\/em> encuadres y composiciones que superan a la propia fotograf\u00eda de su \u00e9poca, con acusadas fragmentaciones del espacio, encuadres casuales y la ruptura del plano pict\u00f3rico, con los cuerpos tomados en primeros planos, jugando en la composici\u00f3n con la profundidad de campo de una forma a\u00fan no desarrollada por la fotograf\u00eda a comienzos del siglo XX.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gvtz023\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Su manera de ver la realidad en un mundo que empieza a ser profundamente modificado por la tecnolog\u00eda conecta con el gusto de un p\u00fablico mayoritario. Sus exposiciones principales, en Par\u00eds (1906), Londres (1908) y Estados Unidos, en 1909 y 1911, alcanzan cifras de visitantes que superan los par\u00e1metros actuales. Por ejemplo, la que realiz\u00f3 en la Hispanic Society de Nueva York en 1909 fue vista por 159.831 visitantes durante un mes, mientras que a la celebrada en el Museo del Prado cien a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s acudieron 459.267 personas en tres meses. Es decir, la media de p\u00fablico por mes que acudi\u00f3 a ver a Sorolla en Nueva York hace m\u00e1s de un siglo ser\u00eda mayor que la del Prado hace unos a\u00f1os en una de las exposiciones m\u00e1s exitosas de su historia.\u00a0<\/p><p>Dicen que los grandes pintores hacen cuadros que son capaces de cambiar nuestro estado de \u00e1nimo, incluso de alterar el ritmo de nuestros pensamientos y virar el paso de nuestras ideas. Mirando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.copiamuseo.com\/cuadros\/sol-de-la-tarde\/#:~:text=Sol%20de%20la%20tarde%20de%20Sorolla&text=Es%20una%20t%C3%ADpica%20escena%20costumbrista,de%20299%20x%20441%20cm.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el cuadro <\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.copiamuseo.com\/cuadros\/sol-de-la-tarde\/#:~:text=Sol%20de%20la%20tarde%20de%20Sorolla&text=Es%20una%20t%C3%ADpica%20escena%20costumbrista,de%20299%20x%20441%20cm.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sol de la tarde<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> Juan Ram\u00f3n Jim\u00e9nez dijo que se sent\u00eda como en una ventana que se abre al mediod\u00eda: \u00abYo experimento ante la pintura de este levantino alegre esa emoci\u00f3n sin pensamiento, muda, sorda, plena, de una tarde de campo\u00bb.<\/p><p>Ese poder de los grandes pintores, escribe Alain de Botton, reside en su capacidad para \u00ababrirnos los ojos debido a la ins\u00f3lita receptividad de los suyos ante ciertos aspectos de la experiencia visual, como, por ejemplo, los efectos de la luz sobre la superficie de una cuchara, la fibrosa suavidad de un mantel, la piel aterciopelada de una pera o los tonos sonrosados de la tez de un anciano\u00bb.<\/p><p>De esta manera, no puede ser m\u00e1s apropiada al car\u00e1cter y la visi\u00f3n de Sorolla la leyenda grabada en la medalla de la Hispanic Society, que \u00e9l fue el primero en recibir por orden de Huntington: \u00abBenditos sean aquellos cuyo genio ha servido de inspiraci\u00f3n. Son como estrellas. Nacen y se apagan. El mundo entero los adora, pero no conocen el reposo\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yr83nzc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/ilu-ros-federico-garcia-lorca\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lorca por Ilu Ros: el a\u00f1o que hizo Federico<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/teresa-arijon-la-mujer-pintada-matilde-sanchez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Teresa Arij\u00f3n: el pudor de la nudista<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/ai-weiwei-memorias-el-barroquista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ai Weiwei: vivir en disidencia<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/raquel-tibol-frida-kahlo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Raquel Tibol, la mujer que nunca pudo hacer una biograf\u00eda de Frida 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20 minutos
Autorretrato de Joaquín Sorolla (1904). Crédito: Getty Images.

Autorretrato de Joaquín Sorolla (1904). Crédito: Getty Images.

—Usted aprieta el botón y nosotros hacemos el resto —dijo a Sorolla el empleado de la flamante sucursal de Kodak. 

—Eso es lo que dice su publicidad.

Efectivamente, señor Sorolla, y le puedo asegurar que en Kodak cumplimos a rajatabla lo que prometemos.

—No lo dudo, es una compañía de renombre, pero aun así prefiero fiarme de la palabra de usted antes que de las promesas de su propaganda. He probado su aparato en Estados Unidos, ¿el funcionamiento es igual aquí, en España?

—En todos los continentes. Usted solo tiene que sacar el cordón de la caja, girar la llave y apretar el botón. Cualquiera puede hacerlo, fíjese. Y luego...

—... ustedes hacen el resto.

—Eso es. Solo tiene que enviarnos el rollo fotográfico aquí mismo, Puerta del Sol, número 4, y en pocos días tiene sus fotografías.

—Hoy las ciencias adelantan que es una barbaridad —canturreó Sorolla.

—Y usted que lo diga. Permítame que le muestre nuestro último modelo de la cámara Brownie.

—Normalmente es mi hijo, o mi hija, quienes se encargan de tomar las fotografías, yo ando torpe para estas cosas... Verá, mañana mismo salgo para Ávila. Voy a pintar un estudio de la fuente del Pradillo y me gustaría fotografiarla. ¿Podría llevarme una de estas?

—Por supuesto, señor Sorolla, ahora mismo se la preparo. Le aseguro que va a cambiar su manera de mirar el mundo. 

—A estas alturas de mi vida, caballero, tengo la cámara fotográfica instalada en mi vista, y espero que Dios me la guarde por muchos años. Y, dígame, esta señorita tan insinuante de la publicidad ¿viene con el aparato?

¿La chica Kodak? Ah, la mujer moderna con su vestido de rayas azules que viaja sola, monta en bicicleta y quiere votar..., ¡dónde nos llevará, señor Sorolla!

Esta escena sucede en Madrid en 1913 gracias a que veinticinco años antes el inventor George Eastman patentó una película flexible de nitrocelulosa montada sobre un soporte de papel y enrollada en el interior de un aparato dentro de una cajita. Su invento transformó la memoria colectiva de la humanidad. Aunque por aquel entonces la primera cámara fotográfica Kodak solo podían permitírsela unos pocos (se vendía por veinticinco dólares, unos setecientos cincuenta a día de hoy), la promesa de que cualquiera podría capturar en instantáneas su vida cotidiana cautivó a miles de personas y comenzó a cambiar la percepción del arte.

Un aficionado sin ningún conocimiento técnico puede, con una Kodak, hacer lo que los profesionales de la fotografía han hecho durante años en sus estudios mediante manipulaciones de laboratorio e ingenios artísticos. ¿De qué sirve ya el esfuerzo de pintar la realidad si una máquina la atrapa de forma sencilla y precisa? «Usted aprieta el botón y nosotros hacemos el resto», decía el eslogan de Kodak.

Aquel verano de 1888 en el que Eastman presenta su invento, en la localidad bretona de Pont-Aven, que ya empieza a abarrotarse de artistas, el ex agente de bolsa Gauguin pasea por un bosque cerca del río con su joven amigo Sérusier, a quien ha conocido en la pensión Gloanec. El discípulo instala su tabla y se dispone a pintar el paisaje.

—¿Cómo ve usted esos árboles? —le pregunta Gauguin.

—Son amarillos —contesta Sérusier.

—Bien, ponga amarillo. Y aquella sombra ¿no es azul? Píntela con azul ultramar puro. ¿Y aquellas hojas rojas? Use el bermellón.

Gauguin se propone romper con las restricciones de la pintura que solo obedece a la realidad. No busca representaciones fidedignas, sino subir la intensidad de su paleta y exagerar sus composiciones hasta la desfiguración si es necesario. Cuando pinta Visión después del sermón o Jacob luchando con el ángel da el paso definitivo de «renunciar al realismo a favor de la alegoría dramatizada y el estilo», según Will Gompertz. Desde luego, a Gauguin no le interesa captar la escena tal cual es, como lo haría una cámara fotográfica, sino pintar su propia idea de lo que ve.

Degas, que anima las nuevas ideas expresivas de Gauguin y le inspira en sus escorzos dramáticos, está obsesionado con pintar el movimiento. Busca temas que realcen la belleza del dinamismo, como bailarinas y caballos. Meticuloso en la preparación de sus encuadres, estudia el trabajo de un pionero de la fotografía, Muybridge, que muestra en secuencias fotográficas, fotograma a fotograma, el proceso del movimiento en humanos y animales. «Me propongo captar el movimiento en su verdad exacta», dice Degas.

En Valencia, unos años antes del golpe de efecto de Eastman en Rochester (Nueva York), del paseo de Gauguin por la orilla del río Aven y poco después de los experimentos cinéticos de Degas, don Antonio García Peris publica en el Almanaque del diario Las Provincias un anuncio de la innovadora técnica que utiliza en su estudio de fotografía: «Retratos pintados al óleo sobre lienzo a base de fotografía, con la cooperación de distinguidos artistas, obteniéndose dichos retratos con exactitud y seguridad absoluta en el parecido, y una importantísima economía en su precio sobre los pintados directamente al óleo».

El Almanaque es de 1884, año en que Sorolla, con veintiún años, obtiene su primer reconocimiento en Madrid con el cuadro Dos de Mayo y consigue una plaza de pensionado en Roma gracias a la Diputación de Valencia por El grito del Palleter. Probablemente, don Antonio García Peris se refiere a su futuro yerno cuando mencionaba en su publicidad la «cooperación de distinguidos artistas».

El bueno de don Antonio fue un pionero de la fotografía artística en España y es considerado el primer reportero gráfico de Valencia. Captó la llegada de Alfonso XII del exilio al puerto de Valencia en 1875, la inaudita nevada de 1885 o la crecida del río desde el puente de San José en 1897. Fue el preferido por los famosos de la época, desde la actriz María Guerrero hasta el torero Frascuelo, y un precursor de la postal turística. Antes que fotógrafo, quiso ser químico, y luego pintor. Estudió en la Academia de San Carlos y trabajó como escenógrafo en el Teatro Principal, hasta que comenzó a interesarse por la confección de daguerrotipos y por la fotografía en placa húmeda. Cuando llegó la placa seca y sus colegas fotógrafos celebraron no tener que volver a sumergir las manos en colodión para el revelado, don Antonio murmuró: «Se acabó la profesión. En adelante, todo el mundo hará fotografías». Su estudio en Valencia fue el primero en tener luz eléctrica y teléfono. El logotipo de las cartas fotográficas de sus positivos estaba compuesto por la cámara del fotógrafo y la paleta del pintor, con la expresión «Arte fotográfico».

Un día su hijo, Tono, le lleva un cuadrito de un compañero de la Escuela de Bellas Artes, Joaquín, por ver si se lo puede comprar, ya que le parece muy bueno y su amigo está necesitado de dinero. A don Antonio le gusta tanto la pintura que no solo la compra, sino que le dice a su hijo que quiere conocer a aquel muchacho de apellido Sorolla, a quien está dispuesto a ayudar en lo que sea. Poco después, empieza a trabajar en el estudio con él como aprendiz.

Con don Antonio, Sorolla aprende a revelar placas y manipular sustancias químicas, a colorear fotografías y, sobre todo, aprende a mirar. Le fascina la posibilidad de dominar la luz mediante el guiño de un diafragma y poder congelar un instante con su mirada, tal y como se fija la escena en una imagen fotográfica.

Además de enseñarle la técnica fotográfica, que luego Sorolla traspasa a su pintura, don Antonio le transmite su afán innovador y sus ideas progresistas. En las tertulias políticas y culturales de Valencia le presenta como su protegido. Cuando se casa con su hija Clotilde, Sorolla empieza a llamarle cariñosamente «el abuelo». Se convierte en su padre espiritual a la vez que don Antonio siente un gran orgullo de tenerlo como yerno.

Don Antonio tiene una visión comercial que Sorolla empieza a poner en práctica en cuanto adquiere confianza con el ejercicio de su arte. El fotógrafo ha viajado, confía en su intuición y es respetado en el oficio. Estos son los principales consejos que le da para ganarse un buen lugar en el ambiente artístico. El pintor los sigue al pie de la letra.

Uno: no te envanezcas.

Dos: ten mucho orden en la marcha de los trabajos y mucha conciencia con ellos. Que las banalidades de la vida artística no te desvíen de tu camino.

Tres: mantén la pasión por tu trabajo a pesar de las contrariedades y desánimos.

Cuatro: presta mucha atención y formalidad a quien te favorezca y se interese por tu trabajo. No procedas como generalmente lo hacen los artistas, sin caer en la cuenta de que es en perjuicio suyo.

Y cinco: no olvides que la familia será siempre tu mayor soporte y, en los momentos de duda, tu única fuente de certeza.

Joaquín Sorolla. Corriendo por la playa (1908). Crédito: Getty Images.

Corriendo por la playa (1908). Crédito: Getty Images.

Don Antonio retrata a su yerno en numerosas ocasiones. La primera en 1884, cuando el pintor tiene veintiún años. Sus fotografías permiten conocer cuadros del pintor que se han perdido o han sido destruidos. También algunos que el propio Sorolla modificó. De igual manera, gracias a estos retratos podemos seguir la evolución física del artista y su vida familiar. Quedémonos con dos estampas de 1907, tomadas durante una reunión navideña en Valencia, donde está la familia al completo. Las fotografías muestran una escena de sobremesa. Cada una de las once figuras, situadas en torno a las tazas de café, posa en un logrado alarde de fingida espontaneidad. En una de las fotografías, Sorolla aparece en primer plano sentado en un sillón mecedora, pensativo, ajeno a los demás, prendiendo un puro, observado discretamente en diagonal por Clotilde. En otra instantánea de la misma escena, casi todos han cambiado de posición. Ahora es don Antonio quien aparece en primera línea, acodado en la mesa con un puro fino, dando el perfil a la cámara en la silla que antes ocupaba su nieta mayor, María. Al otro lado de la mesa, Sorolla está de pie, detrás de Clotilde, con un rostro más complaciente que antes, atento a la conversación de su suegro.

Sorolla también pintó a su mentor y suegro muchas veces. Son significativos sus retratos de madurez. En 1908 pinta a don Antonio sentado en un perfil de tres cuartos dirigiendo la mirada con naturalidad al espectador, una posición que era muy del gusto de Sorolla, con una armonía de grises que funden su traje con el fondo. En las manos tiene un sombrero canotier. Poco después le pinta en su estudio, entre cachivaches de fotografía, observando una placa que acaba de revelar con el rostro iluminado por una luz artificial.

En el verano de 1909 le pinta en la playa, sentado en el mismo sillón mecedora de mimbre de la foto familiar antes mencionada. Don Antonio observa con placidez el mar que está a pocos metros mientras sostiene distraídamente un pincel, un elemento que quizá Sorolla introduce como símbolo de todo lo que le debe. A su lado, en una banqueta, no falta su inseparable canotier. El encuadre de la composición es absolutamente fotográfico. La figura de don Antonio está enmarcada por una ventana que se abre al horizonte, como si el pintor lo viera desde el porche de una casa en la misma orilla.

Una prueba del interés de Sorolla por la fotografía es la colección de seis mil instantáneas que conservó, entre positivos antiguos, placas de vidrio y rollos de celuloide. En un mueble guardaba, entre otras, reproducciones fotográficas de cuadros de Velázquez. Algunas, como una del Menipo, presentan perforaciones que indican que fueron clavadas en distintos lugares. Además, muestran manchas de pintura que delatan que el pintor las tenía cerca cuando trabajaba. En su casa-museo puede verse, en un lugar principal de su estudio, una reproducción fotográfica del retrato de Inocencio X que encargó al estudio especializado en facsímiles de Domenico Anderson en Roma, con unas medidas solo ligeramente menores que las del cuadro original. Sorolla nunca se atrevió a copiar este cuadro de Velázquez, que para él simboliza lo que debe ser la pintura. «Troppo vero!» (demasiado veraz), se cuenta que exclamó el papa cuando contempló por primera vez su retrato.

Sorolla no tiene reparos en aplicar las técnicas de la fotografía a la pintura. Incluso su postura casi acechante con la paleta y los pinceles en la mano, la mirada fija en la escena que acostumbra a mantener cuando trabaja, se asemejan a la frialdad exacta del objetivo fotográfico. «Hay cuadro», afirma cuando su retina capta la luz deseada y encuentra la composición adecuada. «Mientras pinto, solo veo la obra que está realizándose —le dice a su discípulo estadounidense William E. B. Starkweather—, exactamente como un fotógrafo en el revelado de una placa, cuando emerge sobre la película la escena que él fotografió».

A su potente mirada se une un temperamento decisivo. Según Maeztu, Sorolla solo pinta «con calor de vida» cuando lo hace de un modo sintético. Si se pone a analizar, su pintura se vuelve convencional. Si pinta sin fe, no es Sorolla. Por eso necesita abordar el lienzo de forma impetuosa.

Este hombre debe de tener la avaricia de querer pintarlo todo —dice Maeztu—: la pasión de sorprender todos los aspectos de la naturaleza, aun los más fugitivos e inestables. No hay quien tenga preparada en la paleta una síntesis de la primera visión de las cosas. Con su arte rápido y sintético, puede llevar a los lienzos asuntos que una pintura más reposada y analítica no osaría siquiera abordar. Se nace periodista y Sorolla es el periodista del color.

Para producir esa fugaz «ilusión de vida», realiza de forma inconsciente el proceso de la fotografía. Solo después de «haber visto» bien, tras varios estudios y a veces decenas de bocetos, se lanza a sintetizar en el lienzo lo que ha percibido. Planta su caballete en la arena de la playa, monta un tenderete con telas y sombrillas para protegerse del sol y se pone manos a la obra. Siempre «al natural», al aire libre, sin perder de vista la realidad. Descarta representar de manera minuciosa lo que ve. No le importa eliminar los aspectos que pueden restar espontaneidad a la escena. Para él, la naturaleza produce efectos de color instantáneos, visiones evanescentes que trata desesperadamente de atrapar. Eso es lo único que le interesa. «En tales momentos —explica—, soy inconsciente de los materiales, del estilo, de las reglas, de todas las cosas que intervienen entre mi percepción y el objeto o idea percibido».

Al igual que Degas, Sorolla persigue plasmar la idea del movimiento en un instante. En París, en Florencia y en Nueva York, pinta el vaivén de los transeúntes y los cabriolés sin atender al entorno arquitectónico. Utiliza composiciones diagonales, como las de las fotografías realizadas desde un edificio en picado. Su mirada le permite, además, fijar la luz de los objetos de tal manera que añade vitalidad al lienzo. En París ha visto una de las cumbres impresionistas, el Boulevard des Capucines de Monet. En sus escenas de playa, se atreve a descomponer los rostros en fases y efectos lumínicos para conseguir esa sensación de movimiento. Él también conoce las cronofotografías de Muybridge. «Su ojo ha impresionado lo que una máquina fotográfica hubiera hecho con una cierta exposición», dice el historiador del arte Javier Pérez Rojas. En el archivo de Sorolla se conservan varias placas estereoscópicas con barcas realizando la tradicional pesca del bou, así como fotografías y postales con escenas de playa y niños corriendo por la arena.

Hacia 1900 deja de pintar temas sociales y, salvo los retratos, solo pinta al aire libre. Tras años de búsqueda, por fin da con la manera de ver lo que otros no ven. Entra en un ámbito en el que, como dice Pérez Rojas, «los seres humanos perviven como siluetas a medio hacer o a medio deshacer, como conjunto de trazos apresurados y nerviosos, como sombras y reflejos de una realidad de la que ya se empieza a dudar dónde se halla». Entonces, el espacio y el tiempo ya no tienen por qué corresponderse. Sorolla expresa el estar, más que el ser. «El estar en este preciso instante, bajo esta determinada luz, en esta particular circunstancia, vibrando al unísono de la vida», según Pérez Rojas

Lo que jamás hace Sorolla es dar la espalda a la realidad, como Gauguin y los que vienen después. Piensa que no hay más verdad que la que muestra la naturaleza, y que lo verdadero está ahí mismo, delante de nuestros ojos, sin necesidad de entrar en idealizaciones. «Todas las equivocaciones que han padecido los grandes artistas obedecen a que se han separado de la verdad..., su imaginación puede más que ella —dice—. Todo lo tendencioso es de momento. Lo eterno es lo humano [...]. El natural, el natural. Con el natural delante se hace todo, y todo bien». 

Para Sorolla, cuanto más fiel sea la reproducción de la realidad, tanto más puro será el arte. «Lo primordial, en todo caso, es dar la sensación más exacta, haciendo que el espectador sea el primer engañado », dice. Él, que es un entusiasta de las imágenes en movimiento, está convencido de que «el arte es una mentira que no puede decirse más que frente al natural», y el cine, al que es tan aficionado, «es la más exacta e inconmovible demostración de ello».

En una carta a Clotilde de febrero de 1917, le confiesa: «Yo solo sé que para ser pintor con mi sistema hay que estar loco, o los otros lo son más al no vivir la naturaleza, dedicados a la fabricación de viejos y estúpidos convencionalismos. En fin, de eso no hablemos, pues no voy a enderezar ahora árbol tan torcido».

Joaquín Sorolla. El baño del caballo (1909). Crédito: Getty Images.

El baño del caballo (1909). Crédito: Getty Images.

Aunque el progreso de la técnica fotográfica es imparable, no todos están a gusto con su popularización, ni mucho menos con su irrupción en el terreno del arte. «La fotografía no pertenece al ámbito del arte, pues su objeto es el engaño —dice el pintor John Constable, famoso por su carro de heno—. El arte complace mediante el recuerdo, no mediante el engaño».

Valle-Inclán, atento al quite con tal de meter una pulla, se refiere a uno de los cuadros más importantes de Sorolla, La vuelta de la pesca, en el que el pintor señala el camino de su personalidad artística, como «el famoso cuadro donde unos bueyes de barro cocido sacan del mar una barca de negro velacho», y compara la obra con una fotografía tomada al contraluz: «Me inquieta una nueva duda: ¿será que la moderna pintura debe emular las glorias de esas fotografías que llaman al trasluz?». Lo que son las sensibilidades. Curiosamente, Juan Ramón Jiménez escribe refiriéndose a los cuadros de escenas marítimas de Sorolla: «Es inútil ir a los cuadros de Sorolla con brumas y ensueños en el alma».

El más lúcido espectador de la modernidad, Baudelaire, que ve en el avance de la técnica un retroceso de lo artístico, afirma que la fotografía es «el refugio de todos los pintores frustrados, muy poco dotados o demasiado holgazanes para terminar sus estudios ». Y sentencia que si se permite a la fotografía suplir el arte, pronto lo reemplazará o corromperá por completo, ya que existe una especie de relación natural entre la tontería y la multitud. Está bien, según Baudelaire, que se hagan fotos de viajes, de ruinas, de objetos preciosos, de animales y de maravillas de la naturaleza, pero «¡ay de nosotros si se le permite usurpar el ámbito de lo impalpable y lo imaginario, de todo aquello que tiene valor porque el hombre pone allí parte de su alma!».

Carlos de Haes, precursor del paisajismo en España y maestro de Aureliano de Beruete, dice en su discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando: «¡Oh, qué ansiedad la del pintor ante los magníficos espectáculos de la naturaleza! ¿Cómo reproducir, cómo fijar sus efectos fugaces? ¿Qué valen nuestros pobres medios de imitación para hacer la luz y la sombra?». A Sorolla, sin ir más lejos, esa ansiedad se le viene encima cada vez que contempla «el natural».

El caso es que en la segunda mitad del XIX, es raro el pintor o escultor que no usa una cámara o se vale de fotografías para sus composiciones. Al fin y al cabo, la mayoría persiguen la exactitud en la reproducción de lo que ven, aunque esto vaya en contra de lo que De Haes llama el espiritualismo artístico. «En cuanto el invento de Daguerre consiga sacar los colores, ya se pueden ir los pintores a cardar cebollinos», avisa Federico de Madrazo.

Algo parecido dice unos años después el fotógrafo Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, que firma con el seudónimo de Kaulak (con las dos «k» de Kodak) para que no le confundan con su tío, el jefe de Gobierno y líder del partido conservador a quien tiroteó el anarquista Michele Angiolillo en el balneario de Santa Águeda.

A los artistas es a los que nuestra afición predilecta [la fotografía] ha prestado, presta y prestará mayores servicios. Lo que hay es que unos lo confiesan y otros se lo callan. Pero creedme: todos cogen [...] ¡Cuántos cuadros se ven por ahí que no son sino fotografías iluminadas! [...] Mas deténganse ahí, porque si no hacen más que calcar fotografías y rellenar con color, el día en que se descubra la fotografía en colores tendrán que liar los bártulos.

Según Tomás Llorens, el impacto de la fotografía afecta profundamente a los pintores de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.

Será la fotografía la que les enseñará a todos, desde Degas hasta Sorolla, a ver cosas que el pintor del pasado no está capacitado para ver: cómo mueven sus patas los caballos cuando corren, cómo nos movemos, cómo cambiamos de expresión o cómo se separan la luz y la sombra en nuestro rostro. La fotografía enseñará sobre todo a disolver el vínculo ancestral que en el mundo antiguo unía la imagen con lo sagrado. A profanar la imagen.

Cuenta Baudelaire en La obra y la vida de Eugène Delacroix que una vez le dijo el pintor a un conocido suyo: «Si usted no es lo bastante hábil para hacer un croquis de un hombre que se tira por la ventana en lo que tarda en caer del cuarto piso al suelo, nunca podrá producir grandes temas». Sorolla superaría la prueba de Delacroix. Su velocidad de ejecución está ligada a la precisión de las formas y la luz que quiere captar. «Mis cuadros exigen rapidez. Deberían pintarse tan rápido como un boceto —le dice a Starkweather—. Si tuviera que pintar despacio, no podría pintar en absoluto. Solo con la velocidad se puede obtener una ilusión de fugacidad». Asegura que la prisa es necesaria «para que no se evapore la acción de la idea».

Su extraordinaria facilidad para pintar fue muchas veces usada en su contra. «Pinta demasiado fácil», le critican. Parece que pinte sin preocupación alguna, mostrando una tremenda seguridad, y eso molesta. Starkweather, en una comparación exagerada, dice que Sorolla pinta de manera tan instintiva que le recuerda a una vaca pastando.

El asunto no es tan simple. En realidad, Sorolla es un torbellino de dudas. No nació pintando: aprendió el oficio. Su arte «era un saber, no un don; el "prodigio" respondía al trabajo acumulado», dicen Felipe Garín y Facundo Tomás.

Precisamente su lucha constante es pintar con menos preocupaciones. Llegar a «la verdad sin durezas», como él desea, le cuesta un esfuerzo titánico. La velocidad crea la ilusión del movimiento. Aunque quiera, le es imposible pintar despacio al aire libre.

No hay nada inmóvil en lo que nos rodea —dice—. El mar se riza a cada instante; la nube se deforma al mudar de sitio; la cuerda que pende de ese barco oscila lentamente; ese muchacho salta; esos arbolillos doblan sus ramas y tornan a levantarlas... Pero aunque todo estuviera petrificado y fijo, bastaría que se moviera el sol, que lo hace de continuo, para dar diverso aspecto a las cosas... Hay que pintar deprisa, porque ¡cuánto se pierde, fugaz, que no vuelve a encontrarse!

A Starkweather, que durante un viaje a Jávea no puede seguir el ritmo de trabajo de Sorolla al sol, le dice que el estudio para él es simplemente un garaje, un lugar donde guardar los cuadros y repararlos, pero que los lienzos hay que ejecutarlos del natural.

Únicamente un par de veces en la vida, por pura casualidad, podrás pintar una nariz de un solo brochazo —dice Sorolla—. Las cosas que se consiguen con esta facilidad resultan maravillosas. Pero intentar pasarte el resto de tu vida pintando narices de un brochazo sería el mayor de los disparates, ya que resultaría del todo imposible mantenerte a una altura a la que solo se puede llegar de manera accidental. Cuando un artista comienza a contar las pinceladas que da en vez de contemplar la naturaleza, está abocado a la perdición. Esta preocupación por la técnica, a expensas de la verdad y la sinceridad, es el fallo principal que encuentro en la mayoría de las obras de pintores modernos.

Según James Gibbons, Sorolla no es una persona contemplativa:

En sus retratos no aguarda pacientemente a que se presente esa revelación confiada que únicamente el tiempo puede hacer aparecer. En el arte de Sorolla, resulta innecesario buscar lo profundo, lo abstracto o lo analítico. Lo que transmite cada uno de sus cuadros es un apasionado apego a las cosas externas. Vive en un constante estado de exteriorización luminosa e impulsiva. Es un observador cuyo único instinto es plasmar con un automatismo casi irreprimible aquello que en ese momento decide pintar.

Joaquín Sorolla. Paseo a orillas del mar (1909). Crédito: Getty Images.

Paseo a orillas del mar (1909). Crédito: Getty Images.

Parece que Sorolla no tiene una idea preconcebida en la cabeza al enfrentarse al lienzo, aunque haya premeditado su composición. «No deberías saber cómo va a ser tu cuadro hasta que no lo hayas terminado», suele decir a sus alumnos.

La gran aceptación que tiene la pintura de Sorolla se explica en buena parte por su capacidad para representar la realidad de manera fotográfica. Supo intuir, sin abstracciones intelectuales, el espíritu que inundó la cultura visual de su tiempo y crear unos referentes pictóricos que pronto dejarían de tener sentido, con la irrupción de las vanguardias.

Incluso lleva a su pintura —explica Roberto Díaz Pena en su tesis Sorolla y la fotografía— encuadres y composiciones que superan a la propia fotografía de su época, con acusadas fragmentaciones del espacio, encuadres casuales y la ruptura del plano pictórico, con los cuerpos tomados en primeros planos, jugando en la composición con la profundidad de campo de una forma aún no desarrollada por la fotografía a comienzos del siglo XX.

Su manera de ver la realidad en un mundo que empieza a ser profundamente modificado por la tecnología conecta con el gusto de un público mayoritario. Sus exposiciones principales, en París (1906), Londres (1908) y Estados Unidos, en 1909 y 1911, alcanzan cifras de visitantes que superan los parámetros actuales. Por ejemplo, la que realizó en la Hispanic Society de Nueva York en 1909 fue vista por 159.831 visitantes durante un mes, mientras que a la celebrada en el Museo del Prado cien años después acudieron 459.267 personas en tres meses. Es decir, la media de público por mes que acudió a ver a Sorolla en Nueva York hace más de un siglo sería mayor que la del Prado hace unos años en una de las exposiciones más exitosas de su historia. 

Dicen que los grandes pintores hacen cuadros que son capaces de cambiar nuestro estado de ánimo, incluso de alterar el ritmo de nuestros pensamientos y virar el paso de nuestras ideas. Mirando el cuadro Sol de la tarde, Juan Ramón Jiménez dijo que se sentía como en una ventana que se abre al mediodía: «Yo experimento ante la pintura de este levantino alegre esa emoción sin pensamiento, muda, sorda, plena, de una tarde de campo».

Ese poder de los grandes pintores, escribe Alain de Botton, reside en su capacidad para «abrirnos los ojos debido a la insólita receptividad de los suyos ante ciertos aspectos de la experiencia visual, como, por ejemplo, los efectos de la luz sobre la superficie de una cuchara, la fibrosa suavidad de un mantel, la piel aterciopelada de una pera o los tonos sonrosados de la tez de un anciano».

De esta manera, no puede ser más apropiada al carácter y la visión de Sorolla la leyenda grabada en la medalla de la Hispanic Society, que él fue el primero en recibir por orden de Huntington: «Benditos sean aquellos cuyo genio ha servido de inspiración. Son como estrellas. Nacen y se apagan. El mundo entero los adora, pero no conocen el reposo».