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La última defensa de Jesús Polanco

Cuando en 1996, por un entramado de intereses políticos y económicos, se lanzó una brutal embestida judicial y mediática contra el Grupo Prisa y Jesús Polanco, que llegaba por igual a la opinión pública y a los tribunales, el entonces presidente de Prisa decidió emprender su defensa a través de una memoria personal. Pero al cabo de una serie de entrevistas grabadas para darle forma, Polanco desistió: «No sirve para nada defenderse, el ataque ya está lanzado y no parará nunca». A instancias de los hijos de Polanco, Juan Cruz Ruiz desempolvó las cintas de aquellas entrevistas que realizó entonces para convertirlas en la base de «Ciudadano Polanco», una ineludible biografía sobre uno de los hombres más ricos y poderosos de España, y de la confrontación ideológica y económica detrás de aquella embestida.

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Hoy, a instancias de los hijos del empresario, Juan Cruz Ruiz ha desempolvado aquellas cintas.","meta_keywords":"","short_content":"<p>Cuando en 1996, por un entramado de intereses pol\u00edticos y econ\u00f3micos, se lanz\u00f3 una brutal embestida judicial y medi\u00e1tica contra el Grupo Prisa y Jes\u00fas Polanco, que llegaba por igual a la opini\u00f3n p\u00fablica y a los tribunales, el entonces presidente de Prisa decidi\u00f3 emprender su defensa a trav\u00e9s de una memoria personal. Pero al cabo de una serie de entrevistas grabadas para darle forma, Polanco desisti\u00f3: \u00abNo sirve para nada defenderse, el ataque ya est\u00e1 lanzado y no parar\u00e1 nunca\u00bb. A instancias de los hijos de Polanco, Juan Cruz Ruiz desempolv\u00f3 las cintas de aquellas entrevistas que realiz\u00f3 entonces para convertirlas en la base de \u00abCiudadano Polanco\u00bb, una ineludible biograf\u00eda sobre uno de los hombres m\u00e1s ricos y poderosos de Espa\u00f1a, y de la confrontaci\u00f3n ideol\u00f3gica y econ\u00f3mica detr\u00e1s de aquella 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Pronto conoci\u00f3 a much\u00edsima gente, gracias a un car\u00e1cter que, aparte de algunas actitudes arriscadas que nunca abandon\u00f3, cultivaba la conversaci\u00f3n sosegada pero tambi\u00e9n festiva. Se emancip\u00f3 pronto y trabaj\u00f3 desde que termin\u00f3 su carrera de Derecho, a los veintitr\u00e9s a\u00f1os, hasta que muri\u00f3. Exactamente, hasta dos d\u00edas antes de su muerte, en junio de 2007, a los setenta y siete a\u00f1os. La \u00faltima vez que lo vi, dos semanas antes de ese hecho que lo borr\u00f3 del mapa f\u00edsico para convertirlo en un personaje que deber\u00eda ser inolvidable en el periodismo en lengua espa\u00f1ola, fue en un agasajo a trabajadores de <em>El Pa\u00eds<\/em> que ya llevaban veinticinco a\u00f1os en la empresa. 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Tales fundamentos ten\u00edan que ver con el contraste de las fuentes, con el cuidado de todos los extremos de una informaci\u00f3n seg\u00fan un libro de estilo que era el vadem\u00e9cum de sus exigencias en sus encuentros (o desencuentros) con los directivos de su organizaci\u00f3n. \u00c9l\u00a0conoc\u00eda bien el pa\u00eds en el que viv\u00eda, y no le result\u00f3 extra\u00f1o que, en cuanto el peri\u00f3dico tuvo influencia, <strong>los distintos afluentes del poder pol\u00edtico emanado del acuerdo en el que se bas\u00f3 la Transici\u00f3n\u00a0cayeran, de un modo u otro, sobre la identidad del diario.<\/strong> Hubo varias etapas en que ese acoso iba a hacerse presente, desde el mismo d\u00eda en que el peri\u00f3dico empez\u00f3 a ser influyente y, adem\u00e1s, rentable. La\u00a0relevancia\u00a0de <em>El Pa\u00eds<\/em>, que era un peri\u00f3dico independiente perteneciente a miles de accionistas, alarm\u00f3 a los que prefer\u00edan un diario mediocre expuesto a la ruina y a ser manipulado. La derecha de entonces, as\u00ed como la izquierda de aquel tiempo, persiguieron su control, y esa historia no ha cesado hasta este mismo momento, mientras escribo estas l\u00edneas y cuando se acaba de publicar el libro<em> <\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/235695-ciudadano-polanco-9788418006098\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ciudadano Polanco<\/a><\/em><\/span>, que motiva estas mil 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Mediante una alianza de felones, e instado por un competidor, Pedro J. Ram\u00edrez, <strong>el que ya era finalmente presidente del Gobierno de la naci\u00f3n dispuso que toda la artiller\u00eda, judicial, medi\u00e1tica, sobre la que ten\u00eda influencia, disparara contra el presidente de Prisa.<\/strong> Pedro J. Ram\u00edrez public\u00f3, en cuanto tom\u00f3 posesi\u00f3n Aznar, una serie de requerimientos para que el nuevo presidente tuviera una determinada una hoja de ruta. Entre los puntos de su manifiesto incluy\u00f3 el entonces director de <em>El Mundo<\/em> una recomendaci\u00f3n para acabar con el poder de Polanco. En esa \u00e9poca, Luis Mar\u00eda Anson atacaba a <em>El Pa\u00eds<\/em> desde el <em>Abc<\/em> por parecerle progubernamental (af\u00edn al PSOE) el diario que dirig\u00eda Juan Luis Cebri\u00e1n. Al tiempo que ese progubernamentalismo era denunciado en el diario mon\u00e1rquico, Cebri\u00e1n se sentaba en el banquillo, acusado\u2026 por el Gobierno de Felipe Gonz\u00e1lez. Lo cierto es que semanas despu\u00e9s de la toma de posesi\u00f3n del sucesor de Gonz\u00e1lez esa alianza de felones inici\u00f3 su campa\u00f1a contra Polanco. <strong>Estuvo a punto de costarle la c\u00e1rcel a los m\u00e1s altos directivos del Grupo Prisa,<\/strong> una intenci\u00f3n que fue abortada por los tribunales que acusaron de prevaricaci\u00f3n al juez utilizado para desposeer a Polanco de su pasaporte y de su libertad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ng2936m\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab\u00c9l se sab\u00eda bien el pa\u00eds en el que viv\u00eda, y no le result\u00f3 extra\u00f1o que, en cuanto el peri\u00f3dico tuvo influencia, los distintos afluentes del poder pol\u00edtico emanado del acuerdo en el que se bas\u00f3 la Transici\u00f3n, iban a caer, de un modo u otro, sobre la identidad del diario.\u00bb\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"knjm7b1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Las implicaciones econ\u00f3micas que tuvo ese proceso, y las siguientes batallas por los derechos del f\u00fatbol y otros emprendimientos televisivos, terminaron empobreciendo al grupo Prisa, obligado a pactar con otros operadores y, finalmente, expuesto a alianzas de las que no sali\u00f3 beneficiado. Lo peor no fue el aspecto econ\u00f3mico de esa operaci\u00f3n de derribo. <strong>Esa gesti\u00f3n de la destrucci\u00f3n de Polanco se inici\u00f3 para denigrar al empresario, sobre el que se establecieron difamaciones que llenaron almacenes de los tribunales.<\/strong> En una de esas numerosas ocasiones en que el empresario fue a declarar al juzgado, el juez que lo recibi\u00f3 le mostr\u00f3 la monta\u00f1a de insultos que albergaban los archivos en los que estaban su historial y su persona. Jes\u00fas Polanco pens\u00f3 en ese momento que era tiempo de actuar en su favor, escribiendo \u00e9l mismo o dictando una memoria personal de esta impresionante cacer\u00eda. Su mujer de entonces, Mariluz Barreiros, le compr\u00f3 material para que grabara esas confesiones, y <strong>\u00e9l estuvo de acuerdo en que fuera yo mismo el que grabara mis preguntas y sus respuestas.<\/strong> Cuando ya llev\u00e1bamos varias semanas haciendo esta pesquisa, tarea a la que \u00e9l se prest\u00f3 de buen \u00e1nimo, \u00e9l comprob\u00f3 que segu\u00edan sum\u00e1ndose insultos y malentendidos que lo desfiguraban hasta tacharlo. 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nunca\u00bb.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"45\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yuixxgi\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Polanco pens\u00f3 en ese momento que era tiempo de actuar en su favor, escribiendo \u00e9l mismo o dictando una memoria personal de esta impresionante cacer\u00eda. Su mujer de entonces, Mariluz Barreiros, le compr\u00f3 material para que grabara esas confesiones, y \u00e9l estuvo de acuerdo en que fuera yo mismo el que grabara mis preguntas y sus respuestas.\u00bb\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o3772rt\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Ese material fue guardado por \u00e9l y luego por su familia. Tiempo despu\u00e9s sus tres hijos, Ignacio, Manuel y Mar\u00eda, que sobrevivieron a su hermana Isabel, figura muy importante en la historia de esta familia, acordaron pedirme que completara el libro. Ah\u00ed estaba la conversaci\u00f3n con Polanco. Los tres hijos me pidieron que hablara con otros personajes que pudieran completar la figura y el recuerdo de este buen hombre vilipendiado, este ciudadano que nunca fue el que pintaron sus adversarios. <strong>El resultado es este libro, <em>Ciudadano Polanco,<\/em> del que me siento orgulloso como periodista y tambi\u00e9n, naturalmente, como ciudadano.<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. Sandel: estos son los fantasmas que recorren nuestro mundo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-ben-rhodes-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Barack Obama por Ben Rhodes: el legado de un presidente en palabras de un testigo excepcional<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/no-ficcion\/andrea-marcolongo-etimologias-para-sobrevivir-al-caos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Leer: cu\u00e1ntos significados en una sola 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8 minutos

Jesús Polanco, el hombre tras las pantallas... y la grabadora. Crédito: Getty Images.

Fue el vendedor de los libros que editaba. Los llevaba en maletas pesadas a cualquier país de América, el destino que más amó. Como editor de material educativo se familiarizó con un mundo que incluía la inteligencia y las preguntas, y así se fue convirtiendo en un ciudadano preocupado por el bienestar intelectual de su país y de los países que visitaba. Pronto conoció a muchísima gente, gracias a un carácter que, aparte de algunas actitudes arriscadas que nunca abandonó, cultivaba la conversación sosegada pero también festiva. Se emancipó pronto y trabajó desde que terminó su carrera de Derecho, a los veintitrés años, hasta que murió. Exactamente, hasta dos días antes de su muerte, en junio de 2007, a los setenta y siete años. La última vez que lo vi, dos semanas antes de ese hecho que lo borró del mapa físico para convertirlo en un personaje que debería ser inolvidable en el periodismo en lengua española, fue en un agasajo a trabajadores de El País que ya llevaban veinticinco años en la empresa. En ese momento Jesús Polanco tenía el aspecto de un hombre que sufría indeciblemente. Que estuviera allí, a pesar de esos síntomas, decía mucho de su modo de ser, expuesto siempre a lo que le mandaran su oficio y sus calendarios. Era muy difícil que Polanco faltara a sus citas, hasta el punto de disculparse ante quienes lo esperaban en la última discusión del Consejo de Administración del Grupo Prisa. «Creo que mañana no voy a poder estar en el consejo.» Murió dos días después.

Su energía se apagó. Él desapareció, pero siguió su obra, símbolo de una manera de ser marcada por el respeto a los otros. En periodismo eso se tradujo, en El País y en los restantes medios que puso en marcha o controló como empresario, en la vigilancia extrema de los fundamentos en que se asentó ese periódico que él contribuyó a sacar a la calle. Tales fundamentos tenían que ver con el contraste de las fuentes, con el cuidado de todos los extremos de una información según un libro de estilo que era el vademécum de sus exigencias en sus encuentros (o desencuentros) con los directivos de su organización. Él conocía bien el país en el que vivía, y no le resultó extraño que, en cuanto el periódico tuvo influencia, los distintos afluentes del poder político emanado del acuerdo en el que se basó la Transición cayeran, de un modo u otro, sobre la identidad del diario. Hubo varias etapas en que ese acoso iba a hacerse presente, desde el mismo día en que el periódico empezó a ser influyente y, además, rentable. La relevancia de El País, que era un periódico independiente perteneciente a miles de accionistas, alarmó a los que preferían un diario mediocre expuesto a la ruina y a ser manipulado. La derecha de entonces, así como la izquierda de aquel tiempo, persiguieron su control, y esa historia no ha cesado hasta este mismo momento, mientras escribo estas líneas y cuando se acaba de publicar el libro Ciudadano Polanco, que motiva estas mil palabras.

De todas esas persecuciones la más llamativa, por simbólica y porque incluye una saña que define tanto al perseguido como a los perseguidores, es la que inició José María Aznar en 1996 contra Polanco y su grupo, incluido el entramado creado por Jesús y sus socios en torno a Canal +. Mediante una alianza de felones, e instado por un competidor, Pedro J. Ramírez, el que ya era finalmente presidente del Gobierno de la nación dispuso que toda la artillería, judicial, mediática, sobre la que tenía influencia, disparara contra el presidente de Prisa. Pedro J. Ramírez publicó, en cuanto tomó posesión Aznar, una serie de requerimientos para que el nuevo presidente tuviera una determinada una hoja de ruta. Entre los puntos de su manifiesto incluyó el entonces director de El Mundo una recomendación para acabar con el poder de Polanco. En esa época, Luis María Anson atacaba a El País desde el Abc por parecerle progubernamental (afín al PSOE) el diario que dirigía Juan Luis Cebrián. Al tiempo que ese progubernamentalismo era denunciado en el diario monárquico, Cebrián se sentaba en el banquillo, acusado… por el Gobierno de Felipe González. Lo cierto es que semanas después de la toma de posesión del sucesor de González esa alianza de felones inició su campaña contra Polanco. Estuvo a punto de costarle la cárcel a los más altos directivos del Grupo Prisa, una intención que fue abortada por los tribunales que acusaron de prevaricación al juez utilizado para desposeer a Polanco de su pasaporte y de su libertad.

«Él se sabía bien el país en el que vivía, y no le resultó extraño que, en cuanto el periódico tuvo influencia, los distintos afluentes del poder político emanado del acuerdo en el que se basó la Transición, iban a caer, de un modo u otro, sobre la identidad del diario.» 

Las implicaciones económicas que tuvo ese proceso, y las siguientes batallas por los derechos del fútbol y otros emprendimientos televisivos, terminaron empobreciendo al grupo Prisa, obligado a pactar con otros operadores y, finalmente, expuesto a alianzas de las que no salió beneficiado. Lo peor no fue el aspecto económico de esa operación de derribo. Esa gestión de la destrucción de Polanco se inició para denigrar al empresario, sobre el que se establecieron difamaciones que llenaron almacenes de los tribunales. En una de esas numerosas ocasiones en que el empresario fue a declarar al juzgado, el juez que lo recibió le mostró la montaña de insultos que albergaban los archivos en los que estaban su historial y su persona. Jesús Polanco pensó en ese momento que era tiempo de actuar en su favor, escribiendo él mismo o dictando una memoria personal de esta impresionante cacería. Su mujer de entonces, Mariluz Barreiros, le compró material para que grabara esas confesiones, y él estuvo de acuerdo en que fuera yo mismo el que grabara mis preguntas y sus respuestas. Cuando ya llevábamos varias semanas haciendo esta pesquisa, tarea a la que él se prestó de buen ánimo, él comprobó que seguían sumándose insultos y malentendidos que lo desfiguraban hasta tacharlo. Entonces tomó la determinación de acabar con esas conversaciones. «No sirve para nada defenderse, el ataque ya está lanzado y no parará nunca». 

«Jesús Polanco pensó en ese momento que era tiempo de actuar en su favor, escribiendo él mismo o dictando una memoria personal de esta impresionante cacería. Su mujer de entonces, Mariluz Barreiros, le compró material para que grabara esas confesiones, y él estuvo de acuerdo en que fuera yo mismo el que grabara mis preguntas y sus respuestas.» 

Ese material fue guardado por él y luego por su familia. Tiempo después sus tres hijos, Ignacio, Manuel y María, que sobrevivieron a su hermana Isabel, figura muy importante en la historia de esta familia, acordaron pedirme que completara el libro. Ahí estaba la conversación con Polanco. Los tres hijos me pidieron que hablara con otros personajes que pudieran completar la figura y el recuerdo de este buen hombre vilipendiado, este ciudadano que nunca fue el que pintaron sus adversarios. El resultado es este libro, Ciudadano Polanco, del que me siento orgulloso como periodista y también, naturalmente, como ciudadano.



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