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El hombre que se enamoró del napalm

Cincuenta años pasaron desde que la foto de una niña vietnamita huyendo desnuda de aviones cargados con napalm dio la vuelta al mundo, pero Vietnam no fue el comienzo de aquella forma de hacer la guerra. Publicamos a continuación un adelanto de «El clan de los bombarderos» (Taurus), en el que Malcolm Gladwell regresa al origen y reconstruye las increíbles historias paralelas de los científicos pirómanos de Harvard que inventaron el napalm, del grupo de pilotos renegados que desde una base en Alabama forjaron la idea —entonces descabellada— de librar guerras y arrasar con ciudades desde el aire, y del impasible general estadounidense Curtis LeMay, que unió ambas invenciones en el ataque más salvaje de la Segunda Guerra Mundial una noche de marzo de 1945: la noche más larga de la guerra.

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Publicamos a continuaci\u00f3n un adelanto de \u00abEl clan de los bombarderos\u00bb (Taurus), en el que Malcolm Gladwell regresa al origen y reconstruye las incre\u00edbles historias paralelas de los cient\u00edficos pir\u00f3manos de Harvard que inventaron el napalm, del grupo de pilotos renegados que desde una base en Alabama forjaron la idea \u2014entonces descabellada\u2014 de librar guerras\u00a0y arrasar con ciudades\u00a0desde el aire, y del impasible general estadounidense Curtis LeMay, que uni\u00f3 ambas invenciones en el ataque m\u00e1s\u00a0salvaje\u00a0de la Segunda Guerra Mundial una noche de marzo de 1945:\u00a0la noche m\u00e1s larga de la 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encuentro secreto en Cambridge, Massachusetts, al principio de la guerra. El presidente del MIT estaba all\u00ed, junto a, entre otros, un premio Nobel, el presidente de la Standard Oil Development Company y dos profesores: Louis Fieser, de Harvard, y Hoyt Hottel, del MIT, un gigante en su campo que tiempo despu\u00e9s se convertir\u00eda en presidente y l\u00edder espiritual del grupo.<\/p><p>El encuentro se celebr\u00f3 a instancias de lo que acabar\u00eda siendo el Comit\u00e9 de Investigaci\u00f3n para la Defensa Nacional. El CIDN era el grupo del Gobierno encargado de desarrollar nuevas armas para el Ej\u00e9rcito estadounidense. Su m\u00e1s famosa creaci\u00f3n fue, obviamente, el Proyecto Manhattan, la multimillonaria operaci\u00f3n para crear una bomba at\u00f3mica en Los \u00c1lamos. Pero el esfuerzo b\u00e9lico era de tal magnitud que el CIDN ten\u00eda muchos otros proyectos en marcha. Manten\u00eda a una serie de estadounidenses, medio escondidos, trabajando en proyectos protegidos por la oscuridad. Emprend\u00eda misiones de las que nadie supo nunca nada. Desarrollaba unas ideas por un lado y las contrarias por el otro. Durante los a\u00f1os de la guerra, para servirme de un clich\u00e9, la mano derecha del Gobierno de Estados Unidos no sab\u00eda qu\u00e9 estaba haciendo la mano izquierda. Y uno de los sombr\u00edos proyectos de la mano izquierda era el subcomit\u00e9 de Hoyt Hottel.<\/p><p>Al contrario que los genios reunidos en Los \u00c1lamos, esos hombres no estaban especializados en f\u00edsica. Su trabajo no consist\u00eda en encontrar mejores sistemas para hacer volar cosas por los aires. Eran qu\u00edmicos. Especialistas en las consecuencias que entra\u00f1a mezclar ox\u00edgeno, combustible y calor. Su cometido era hallar mejores sistemas para quemar 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28 de mayo de 1941, en un encuentro en Chicago, hicieron su primer adelanto importante. 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Revolv\u00edan el gel con palos. Le prend\u00edan fuego, y se fijaron en que \u2014y a partir de aqu\u00ed cito el libro de Fieser porque esta era la idea fundamental\u2014 \u00abcuando un gel viscoso arde no se lic\u00faa, sino que mantiene su viscosidad, su pegajosa consistencia. El experimento nos dio la idea de una bomba que pudiese esparcir grandes pegotes de gel pegajoso ardiendo\u00bb.<\/p><p>Lanzas la bomba y el gel se dispersa. No es solo que la bomba estalle. En todas direcciones vuelan grandes pegotes de gel, que se enganchan a cualquier superficie con la que topen y siguen ardiendo y ardiendo y ardiendo.<\/p><p>Construyeron una peque\u00f1a estructura de madera de 60 cent\u00edmetros de alto en el laboratorio y compararon varias formulaciones de gel para ver cu\u00e1l de ellas la hac\u00eda arder. El difenilacetileno era bueno, pero un gel de caucho y benceno era mejor. Y la gasolina funcionaba todav\u00eda mejor que el benceno. 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Gasolina mezclada con naftenato de aluminio m\u00e1s palmitato de aluminio. 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Se usar\u00eda contra Jap\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pocos meses despu\u00e9s de Pearl Harbor, dos investigadores estadounidenses publicaron un art\u00edculo en <em>Harper\u2019s Magazine<\/em>. Cuando llegase el momento de tomar represalias contra Jap\u00f3n, afirmaban los autores, hab\u00eda una forma muy sencilla de hacerlo. Fuego. Tomaron Osaka como caso de estudio. Las calles de Osaka eran muy estrechas. En las calles estrechas el fuego pod\u00eda saltar con facilidad de un lado al otro. Y la ciudad no ten\u00eda muchos parques que pudiesen ejercer de cortafuegos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s, al contrario que las ciudades occidentales, las ciudades japonesas no estaban construidas con ladrillos y cemento. Las columnas, las vigas y los suelos de las casas eran de madera. Los techos eran de papel grueso impregnado en aceite de pescado. Las paredes eran de madera o de fino estuco. En el interior hab\u00eda tatamis: esteras de paja. Las casas japonesas eran un polvor\u00edn.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tal como indicaban los investigadores: \u00abTras muchos c\u00e1lculos, hemos concluido que la cobertura combustible en la zona de 40 kil\u00f3metros cuadrados de la secci\u00f3n central de Osaka supone un 80 por ciento, frente al 15 por ciento en el caso de Londres\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Un 80 por ciento; eso era casi toda la ciudad.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los autores del art\u00edculo eran oficiales militares o pol\u00edticos de la Casa Blanca. La idea de que se pod\u00eda destruir \u2014quem\u00e1ndolo hasta los cimientos\u2014 el 80 por ciento de una ciudad enemiga era una herej\u00eda. Era muy sabido que William Sherman, el general que lider\u00f3 el Ej\u00e9rcito de la Uni\u00f3n en su \u00faltimo y devastador desplazamiento hacia el Sur tras la guerra de Secesi\u00f3n, quem\u00f3 la ciudad de Atlanta. Pero no toda Atlanta. Las zonas industriales y de negocios. No a los civiles en sus casas. Tras el ataque a Pearl Harbor, esa idea her\u00e9tica empez\u00f3 a no parecerlo tanto. \u00bfNo pod\u00eda decirse que mucha de la producci\u00f3n industrial japonesa se hac\u00eda en las viviendas particulares? \u00bfNo era cierto que gran parte del esfuerzo b\u00e9lico se realizaba tanto en los salones de las casas como en las f\u00e1bricas? Empez\u00f3 a tomar forma un proceso gradual de racionalizaci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tami Biddle, historiadora de la Escuela de Guerra del Ej\u00e9rcito, lo explica de este modo:\u00a0<\/p><p><em>En lo que respectaba a Jap\u00f3n, segu\u00edamos dici\u00e9ndonos: \u00abBueno, hay muchas f\u00e1bricas en las ciudades\u00bb, que era lo que los brit\u00e1nicos se hab\u00edan dicho cuando empezaron a llevar a cabo bombardeos de \u00e1rea. 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todos los relatos que conforman la leyenda de Curtis LeMay hablan de su sangre f\u00eda, su brutalidad, su inalterable calma.<\/p><p>En Europa, LeMay hab\u00eda insistido en que los pilotos no realizasen maniobras evasivas y volasen directamente hacia sus objetivos. A todos sus pilotos les aterraba esa estrategia porque pensaban que el fuego antia\u00e9reo los derribar\u00eda.\u00a0<\/p><p>Uno de los pilotos de LeMay dijo que, cuando le confes\u00f3 sus temores a LeMay, este replic\u00f3: \u00abRalph, probablemente vas a morir, as\u00ed que lo mejor ser\u00e1 que lo aceptes. Lo sobrellevar\u00e1s mucho mejor\u00bb. Ese es el LeMay que conocemos.<\/p><p>Pero \u00bfc\u00f3mo habr\u00eda justificado LeMay los bombardeos incendiarios que pretend\u00eda infligir a Jap\u00f3n? Pues habr\u00eda dicho que formaba parte de la responsabilidad de un l\u00edder militar acortar la guerra todo lo posible. La duraci\u00f3n de la guerra, y no sus t\u00e9cnicas, era lo que causaba el sufrimiento. Preocuparse por las vidas de los hombres \u2014y el da\u00f1o infligido al enemigo\u2014 significaba gestionar la guerra del modo m\u00e1s implacable, concluyente y devastador posible. Porque si, actuando de la forma m\u00e1s implacable, concluyente y devastadora, acortabas dos a\u00f1os de guerra en uno solo, \u00bfno consegu\u00edas acaso el resultado m\u00e1s deseable?<\/p><p>Sat\u00e1n tienta a Jes\u00fas ofreci\u00e9ndole el dominio de las cosas que ve \u2014la oportunidad de vencer al Imperio romano\u2014, siempre y cuando acepte, como dijo un te\u00f3logo, \u00abla tentaci\u00f3n de hacer el mal para obtener el bien; justificar la legitimidad de los medios por la grandeza del resultado\u00bb. LeMay pens\u00f3 largo y tendido en la propuesta de Sat\u00e1n. Habr\u00eda aceptado los medios ileg\u00edtimos si estos lo conduc\u00edan a un bien m\u00e1s ventajoso.<\/p><p>A\u00f1os despu\u00e9s explic\u00f3: \u00abLa guerra es un medio, un asunto desagradable, y vas a matar a mucha gente. No hay modo de evitarlo. Creo que cualquier comandante con sentido de la moral intenta minimizar los efectos lo m\u00e1ximo posible y, para m\u00ed, el mejor modo de minimizar es hacer que la guerra acabe lo antes posible\u00bb.<\/p><p>Esto fue lo que les dijo a sus hombres cuando les plante\u00f3 la nueva misi\u00f3n: \u00abLo que voy a proponeros parece una locura, lo s\u00e9. Pero es nuestra \u00fanica oportunidad de acabar con esta guerra. Si no, \u00bfqu\u00e9 opciones tenemos?\u00bb.<\/p><p>En Alemania, los nazis estaban a punto de rendirse. En Estados Unidos, la gente se hab\u00eda pasado cuatro a\u00f1os sacrific\u00e1ndose para apoyar la guerra y estaba agotada. Curtis LeMay pensaba que no hab\u00eda tiempo que perder. Ten\u00eda que actuar.<\/p><p>Y as\u00ed lleg\u00f3 la Operaci\u00f3n Encuentro. La noche del 9 de marzo de 1945. El primer ataque a gran escala de Curtis LeMay sobre la ciudad de Tokio.<\/p><p>Los aviones empezaron a despegar, uno a uno, desde los aer\u00f3dromos de Guam, Tini\u00e1n y Saip\u00e1n; m\u00e1s de trescientos B-29 en total, un escuadr\u00f3n. Cargaban con todo el napalm posible. LeMay se qued\u00f3 junto a la pista, contando los aviones.<\/p><p>Los bombarderos no empezar\u00edan a llegar a Tokio hasta primera hora de la ma\u00f1ana siguiente. As\u00ed que, para hacer balance, no quedaba otra que esperar. Por la tarde, LeMay fue a la sala de operaciones, se sent\u00f3 en un banco y se fum\u00f3 un puro.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4d9x118\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Uno de los pilotos dijo que, cuando le confes\u00f3 sus temores a LeMay, este replic\u00f3: \u00abRalph, probablemente vas a morir, as\u00ed que lo mejor ser\u00e1 que lo aceptes. Lo sobrellevar\u00e1s mucho mejor\u00bb. Ese es el LeMay que conocemos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jf25j9a\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>St. Clair McKelway, el oficial de la base al cargo de las relaciones p\u00fablicas, lo encontr\u00f3 all\u00ed, solo, a las dos de la madrugada. LeMay hab\u00eda enviado a todo el mundo a dormir.<\/p><p>McKelway escribir\u00eda tiempo despu\u00e9s una larga serie de art\u00edculos para The New Yorker sobre el tiempo que pas\u00f3 con LeMay en Guam. Su relato sobre la interminable noche de espera merece ser citado extensamente:<\/p><p><em>Al decidir enviar sus B-29 a sobrevolar Tokio a entre 1.500 y 1.800 metros de altitud, LeMay incrementaba el riesgo de que fuesen alcanzados, y ten\u00eda un profundo sentimiento de responsabilidad personal respecto a sus hombres; estaba poniendo en peligro el \u00e9xito del programa B-29 en su conjunto, lo cual [\u2026] le afectaba tanto en lo emocional como en lo relativo al servicio; tambi\u00e9n estaba arriesgando su propio futuro, no solo, me da la impresi\u00f3n, como oficial del Ej\u00e9rcito sino como ser humano. Si perd\u00eda el 70 por ciento de sus aviones debido a esa decisi\u00f3n, o el 50 por ciento, o el 25 por ciento, estar\u00eda acabado, e imagino que un hombre como \u00e9l estar\u00eda acabado en todos los sentidos posibles de la palabra, porque habr\u00eda perdido la confianza en s\u00ed mismo.<\/em><\/p><p>McKelway se sent\u00f3 al lado de LeMay en el banco. \u00abSi este ataque sale tan bien como creo que saldr\u00e1, acortaremos la guerra\u00bb, le dijo LeMay a McKelway. Lo mismo que dec\u00eda siempre. Mir\u00f3 la hora. Los primeros informes desde Jap\u00f3n todav\u00eda tardar\u00edan media hora.<\/p><p>\u00ab\u00bfTe apetece una Coca-Cola?\u00bb, pregunt\u00f3 LeMay. \u00abPuedo entrar en mi barrac\u00f3n sin despertar a los muchachos y sacar dos Coca-Colas; podr\u00edamos beb\u00e9rnoslas en mi coche. Con eso pasar\u00edamos buena parte de la media hora\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Aquellos dos hombres siguieron esperando durante la que acab\u00f3 convirti\u00e9ndose en la noche m\u00e1s larga de la guerra.<\/p><p>Tras el ataque a Tokio con bombas incendiarias de marzo de 1945, Curtis LeMay y el 21.\u00ba Escuadr\u00f3n de Bombarderos asolaron el resto de Jap\u00f3n como animales salvajes. Osaka. Kure. Kobe. Nishinomiya. LeMay arras\u00f3 el 68,9 por ciento de Okayama, el 85 por ciento de Tokushima, el 99 por ciento de Toyama; en total, 67 ciudades japonesas en medio a\u00f1o. En el caos de la guerra, result\u00f3 imposible determinar cu\u00e1ntos japoneses murieron. Tal vez medio mill\u00f3n. Tal vez un mill\u00f3n. El 6 de agosto, el Enola Gay, un B-29 especialmente preparado, vol\u00f3 desde las Marianas hasta Hiroshima y lanz\u00f3 la primera bomba at\u00f3mica de la historia. Aun as\u00ed, LeMay sigui\u00f3 a lo suyo. En sus memorias, los ataques nucleares no ocupan m\u00e1s que un par de p\u00e1ginas. Fueron cosa de otras personas.<\/p><p>LeMay siempre mantuvo que las bombas at\u00f3micas fueron superfluas. El verdadero trabajo ya se hab\u00eda hecho.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7s2gb69\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En sus memorias, los ataques nucleares no ocupan m\u00e1s que un par de p\u00e1ginas. LeMay siempre mantuvo que las bombas at\u00f3micas fueron superfluas. El verdadero trabajo ya se hab\u00eda hecho.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tt0dc3k\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>4<\/strong><\/p><p>Hay una historia que a LeMay le encantaba contar sobre su campa\u00f1a de bombardeos incendiarios. Aparece en sus memorias y en las entrevistas que le hicieron despu\u00e9s de jubilarse. Cada vez que la contaba, la narraci\u00f3n \u2014las frases, el orden de los detalles\u2014 era id\u00e9ntica, como si formase parte de su repertorio. Ten\u00eda que ver con un general llamado Joseph Stilwell.<\/p><p>Stilwell era el jefe de operaciones estadounidense en la zona de China, Birmania y la India. Pertenec\u00eda a la generaci\u00f3n anterior a la de LeMay. Era un militar tradicional, salido de West Point. Lo llamaban Joe Vinagre. Era inteligente e irascible. Obviamente, LeMay quiso conocer a Stilwell.<\/p><p><\/p><p>LeMay intentaba explicarle a su colega lo que estaba haciendo, lo que quer\u00eda hacer, lo que pensaba que pod\u00eda lograr con ese maravilloso avi\u00f3n nuevo llamado B-29. Intentaba transmitir la idea de que la Fuerza A\u00e9rea no ten\u00eda por qu\u00e9 utilizarse de manera espec\u00edfica para apoyar a las tropas terrestres; que exist\u00edan otras opciones. Pod\u00eda pasar por encima del frente de batalla y atacar en territorio enemigo. Pod\u00eda ocuparse de f\u00e1bricas, centrales el\u00e9ctricas y ciudades enteras si se quer\u00eda.<\/p><p>\u00bfLe hablar\u00eda del napalm? Seguramente. Estaban documentadas pruebas con las r\u00e9plicas de edificios japoneses en el desierto de Utah. Y LeMay ya hab\u00eda utilizado napalm al menos una vez, en uno de sus bombardeos en Jap\u00f3n. As\u00ed que es posible que fuera un poco m\u00e1s all\u00e1 y le dijese a Stilwell: \u00abVer\u00e1, podr\u00edamos quemar el pa\u00eds entero\u00bb.<\/p><p>Pero Stilwell \u2014una de las mentes m\u00e1s brillantes, experimentadas y respetables de la Segunda Guerra Mundial\u2014 no ten\u00eda ni idea de lo que LeMay le estaba contando. \u00bfQu\u00e9 quer\u00eda decir eso? \u00bfPod\u00eda librarse una guerra solo desde el aire?\u00a0<\/p><p>Pas\u00f3 un a\u00f1o. Jap\u00f3n se rindi\u00f3 y los dos hombres volvieron a encontrarse.<\/p><p>\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 Stilwell no comprendi\u00f3 durante su primera conversaci\u00f3n lo que LeMay quer\u00eda decirle? Stilwell no era precisamente un tipo remilgado. Cuando recorri\u00f3 Yokohama lo hizo encantado. Esto fue lo que escribi\u00f3 en su diario: \u00abQu\u00e9 gran momento ver a aquellos bastardos arrogantes, desagradables, con cara de pan, dientes separados y piernas arqueadas y comprobar lo que hab\u00edamos hecho con ellos. Nos regodeamos en aquella destrucci\u00f3n y llegamos a las 3.00 sinti\u00e9ndonos bien\u00bb.<\/p><p>As\u00ed era Stilwell. Aunque tuvo que ver con sus propios ojos lo que la Fuerza A\u00e9rea hizo en Yokohama para entender a LeMay, pues la idea iba m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de lo que el viejo general pod\u00eda imaginar. En West Point le hab\u00edan ense\u00f1ado que los soldados combat\u00edan contra soldados y los ej\u00e9rcitos se enfrentaban a ej\u00e9rcitos. Un guerrero de la generaci\u00f3n de Stilwell tardaba en entender que pod\u00edas hacer algo as\u00ed, en tanto que oficial del Ej\u00e9rcito de Estados Unidos, si quer\u00edas: pod\u00edas destruir ciudades enteras. Y seguir. Una tras otra.<\/p><p>Lo que LeMay hizo aquel verano simplemente quedaba fuera del alcance de su imaginaci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>No hab\u00eda un plan formal detr\u00e1s de aquel verano de devastaci\u00f3n, ninguna indicaci\u00f3n precisa por parte de sus superiores. Quienes planificaban la guerra en Washington concibieron una campa\u00f1a con bombas incendiarias que afectaba a seis ciudades japonesas, no a 67. En julio, LeMay se dedic\u00f3 a bombardear ciudades japonesas menores que no ten\u00edan ninguna industria de importancia estrat\u00e9gica, solo personas que viv\u00edan en un polvor\u00edn.\u00a0<\/p><p>En las instancias superiores no quer\u00edan \u2014o no pod\u00edan\u2014 verse involucrados con lo que LeMay estaba haciendo. No solo tuvieron que enfrentarse a la magnitud de la destrucci\u00f3n que LeMay hab\u00eda planeado e infligido a Jap\u00f3n ese verano, sino tambi\u00e9n a la osad\u00eda de la misma. Un hombre se enamora del napalm y se le ocurre una soluci\u00f3n improvisada para los problemas. Y luego sigue adelante sin detenerse por nada.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hr9ebr4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/manual-para-asesinar-una-ciudad\\\">De Varsovia a Kyiv: manual para asesinar una ciudad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-el-ocaso-de-la-democracia\\\">Anne Applebaum y la crisis de Occidente: \u00abHemos tratado a la democracia como si fuera agua del grifo\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\">\u00bfPuede volver el fascismo?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ejf27e3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Copias históricas de Mein Kampf (Mi lucha), el primer libro de Adolf Hitler.

El general Curtis Lemay en su oficina en las Isla Marianas, en el Pacífico. Crédito: Getty Images.

1

Un encuentro secreto en Cambridge, Massachusetts, al principio de la guerra. El presidente del MIT estaba allí, junto a, entre otros, un premio Nobel, el presidente de la Standard Oil Development Company y dos profesores: Louis Fieser, de Harvard, y Hoyt Hottel, del MIT, un gigante en su campo que tiempo después se convertiría en presidente y líder espiritual del grupo.

El encuentro se celebró a instancias de lo que acabaría siendo el Comité de Investigación para la Defensa Nacional. El CIDN era el grupo del Gobierno encargado de desarrollar nuevas armas para el Ejército estadounidense. Su más famosa creación fue, obviamente, el Proyecto Manhattan, la multimillonaria operación para crear una bomba atómica en Los Álamos. Pero el esfuerzo bélico era de tal magnitud que el CIDN tenía muchos otros proyectos en marcha. Mantenía a una serie de estadounidenses, medio escondidos, trabajando en proyectos protegidos por la oscuridad. Emprendía misiones de las que nadie supo nunca nada. Desarrollaba unas ideas por un lado y las contrarias por el otro. Durante los años de la guerra, para servirme de un cliché, la mano derecha del Gobierno de Estados Unidos no sabía qué estaba haciendo la mano izquierda. Y uno de los sombríos proyectos de la mano izquierda era el subcomité de Hoyt Hottel.

Al contrario que los genios reunidos en Los Álamos, esos hombres no estaban especializados en física. Su trabajo no consistía en encontrar mejores sistemas para hacer volar cosas por los aires. Eran químicos. Especialistas en las consecuencias que entraña mezclar oxígeno, combustible y calor. Su cometido era hallar mejores sistemas para quemar cosas.

El 28 de mayo de 1941, en un encuentro en Chicago, hicieron su primer adelanto importante. Hottel le comunicó a su comité que había ocurrido un extraño incidente en la fábrica de productos químicos DuPont de Delaware. Había allí un grupo que estaba trabajando con algo llamado «difenilacetileno». Es un hidrocarburo —un subproducto del petróleo— que, mezclado con pigmento, crea una pintura que se seca formando una dura y gruesa capa adhesiva. Pero esa película estallaba en llamas, lo que suponía un problema para una empresa de pintura como DuPont. Para los obsesos del fuego del comité químico de la CIDN, sin embargo, resultaba fascinante.

En la mesa de la reunión, uno de los hombres alzó la mano. «Le echaré un vistazo a eso». Se trataba de Louis Fieser, profesor de química de Harvard. En el laboratorio del sótano de Fieser comprobaron que la sustancia, poco a poco, pasaba del estado líquido a convertirse en un gel espeso. Revolvían el gel con palos. Le prendían fuego, y se fijaron en que —y a partir de aquí cito el libro de Fieser porque esta era la idea fundamental— «cuando un gel viscoso arde no se licúa, sino que mantiene su viscosidad, su pegajosa consistencia. El experimento nos dio la idea de una bomba que pudiese esparcir grandes pegotes de gel pegajoso ardiendo».

Lanzas la bomba y el gel se dispersa. No es solo que la bomba estalle. En todas direcciones vuelan grandes pegotes de gel, que se enganchan a cualquier superficie con la que topen y siguen ardiendo y ardiendo y ardiendo.

Construyeron una pequeña estructura de madera de 60 centímetros de alto en el laboratorio y compararon varias formulaciones de gel para ver cuál de ellas la hacía arder. El difenilacetileno era bueno, pero un gel de caucho y benceno era mejor. Y la gasolina funcionaba todavía mejor que el benceno. Probaron con láminas de caucho ahumado de color ámbar. Caucho crepé pálido. Látex de caucho. Caucho vulcanizado. Crearon un prototipo y se lo llevaron, metido en una maleta, en tren a Maryland. Cuando entregaron la maleta al mozo, este dijo: «Pesa lo suficiente para ser una bomba».

El siguiente intento fue con naftenato de aluminio, un alquitrán negro y pegajoso fabricado por una empresa química de las afueras de Elizabeth, New Jersey. El alquitrán no se mezclaba bien con la gasolina, pero solucionaron el problema añadiendo algo llamado palmitato de aluminio. Gasolina mezclada con naftenato de aluminio más palmitato de aluminio.

Napalm.

El alquitrán no se mezclaba bien con la gasolina, pero solucionaron el problema añadiendo algo llamado palmitato de aluminio. Gasolina mezclada con naftenato de aluminio más palmitato de aluminio. Napalm.

2

Nadie preguntó jamás para qué serviría el napalm. Se usaría contra Japón. 

Pocos meses después de Pearl Harbor, dos investigadores estadounidenses publicaron un artículo en Harper’s Magazine. Cuando llegase el momento de tomar represalias contra Japón, afirmaban los autores, había una forma muy sencilla de hacerlo. Fuego. Tomaron Osaka como caso de estudio. Las calles de Osaka eran muy estrechas. En las calles estrechas el fuego podía saltar con facilidad de un lado al otro. Y la ciudad no tenía muchos parques que pudiesen ejercer de cortafuegos. 

Además, al contrario que las ciudades occidentales, las ciudades japonesas no estaban construidas con ladrillos y cemento. Las columnas, las vigas y los suelos de las casas eran de madera. Los techos eran de papel grueso impregnado en aceite de pescado. Las paredes eran de madera o de fino estuco. En el interior había tatamis: esteras de paja. Las casas japonesas eran un polvorín. 

Tal como indicaban los investigadores: «Tras muchos cálculos, hemos concluido que la cobertura combustible en la zona de 40 kilómetros cuadrados de la sección central de Osaka supone un 80 por ciento, frente al 15 por ciento en el caso de Londres». 

Un 80 por ciento; eso era casi toda la ciudad. 

Los autores del artículo eran oficiales militares o políticos de la Casa Blanca. La idea de que se podía destruir —quemándolo hasta los cimientos— el 80 por ciento de una ciudad enemiga era una herejía. Era muy sabido que William Sherman, el general que lideró el Ejército de la Unión en su último y devastador desplazamiento hacia el Sur tras la guerra de Secesión, quemó la ciudad de Atlanta. Pero no toda Atlanta. Las zonas industriales y de negocios. No a los civiles en sus casas. Tras el ataque a Pearl Harbor, esa idea herética empezó a no parecerlo tanto. ¿No podía decirse que mucha de la producción industrial japonesa se hacía en las viviendas particulares? ¿No era cierto que gran parte del esfuerzo bélico se realizaba tanto en los salones de las casas como en las fábricas? Empezó a tomar forma un proceso gradual de racionalización. 

Tami Biddle, historiadora de la Escuela de Guerra del Ejército, lo explica de este modo: 

En lo que respectaba a Japón, seguíamos diciéndonos: «Bueno, hay muchas fábricas en las ciudades», que era lo que los británicos se habían dicho cuando empezaron a llevar a cabo bombardeos de área. Si eres una persona con principios morales y quieres poder dormir por las noches y reconciliar lo que has hecho con tus principios, tienes que encontrar el lenguaje y los conceptos adecuados para poder decirte que lo que has hecho está bien… La decisión que se tomó en ese momento fue: «De acuerdo, vayamos en serio. Tenemos que hacer todo lo que esté en nuestras manos para acabar con ese país». 

Portada de The New English Weekly del 21 de marzo de 1940, ejemplar en el que Orwell publicó este texto sobre Mein Kampf.

 LeMay, a la izquierda, junto con otros militares delante de un bombardero B-15. Crédito: Getty Images.

3

Prácticamente todos los relatos que conforman la leyenda de Curtis LeMay hablan de su sangre fía, su brutalidad, su inalterable calma.

En Europa, LeMay había insistido en que los pilotos no realizasen maniobras evasivas y volasen directamente hacia sus objetivos. A todos sus pilotos les aterraba esa estrategia porque pensaban que el fuego antiaéreo los derribaría. 

Uno de los pilotos de LeMay dijo que, cuando le confesó sus temores a LeMay, este replicó: «Ralph, probablemente vas a morir, así que lo mejor será que lo aceptes. Lo sobrellevarás mucho mejor». Ese es el LeMay que conocemos.

Pero ¿cómo habría justificado LeMay los bombardeos incendiarios que pretendía infligir a Japón? Pues habría dicho que formaba parte de la responsabilidad de un líder militar acortar la guerra todo lo posible. La duración de la guerra, y no sus técnicas, era lo que causaba el sufrimiento. Preocuparse por las vidas de los hombres —y el daño infligido al enemigo— significaba gestionar la guerra del modo más implacable, concluyente y devastador posible. Porque si, actuando de la forma más implacable, concluyente y devastadora, acortabas dos años de guerra en uno solo, ¿no conseguías acaso el resultado más deseable?

Satán tienta a Jesús ofreciéndole el dominio de las cosas que ve —la oportunidad de vencer al Imperio romano—, siempre y cuando acepte, como dijo un teólogo, «la tentación de hacer el mal para obtener el bien; justificar la legitimidad de los medios por la grandeza del resultado». LeMay pensó largo y tendido en la propuesta de Satán. Habría aceptado los medios ilegítimos si estos lo conducían a un bien más ventajoso.

Años después explicó: «La guerra es un medio, un asunto desagradable, y vas a matar a mucha gente. No hay modo de evitarlo. Creo que cualquier comandante con sentido de la moral intenta minimizar los efectos lo máximo posible y, para mí, el mejor modo de minimizar es hacer que la guerra acabe lo antes posible».

Esto fue lo que les dijo a sus hombres cuando les planteó la nueva misión: «Lo que voy a proponeros parece una locura, lo sé. Pero es nuestra única oportunidad de acabar con esta guerra. Si no, ¿qué opciones tenemos?».

En Alemania, los nazis estaban a punto de rendirse. En Estados Unidos, la gente se había pasado cuatro años sacrificándose para apoyar la guerra y estaba agotada. Curtis LeMay pensaba que no había tiempo que perder. Tenía que actuar.

Y así llegó la Operación Encuentro. La noche del 9 de marzo de 1945. El primer ataque a gran escala de Curtis LeMay sobre la ciudad de Tokio.

Los aviones empezaron a despegar, uno a uno, desde los aeródromos de Guam, Tinián y Saipán; más de trescientos B-29 en total, un escuadrón. Cargaban con todo el napalm posible. LeMay se quedó junto a la pista, contando los aviones.

Los bombarderos no empezarían a llegar a Tokio hasta primera hora de la mañana siguiente. Así que, para hacer balance, no quedaba otra que esperar. Por la tarde, LeMay fue a la sala de operaciones, se sentó en un banco y se fumó un puro.

Uno de los pilotos dijo que, cuando le confesó sus temores a LeMay, este replicó: «Ralph, probablemente vas a morir, así que lo mejor será que lo aceptes. Lo sobrellevarás mucho mejor». Ese es el LeMay que conocemos.

St. Clair McKelway, el oficial de la base al cargo de las relaciones públicas, lo encontró allí, solo, a las dos de la madrugada. LeMay había enviado a todo el mundo a dormir.

McKelway escribiría tiempo después una larga serie de artículos para The New Yorker sobre el tiempo que pasó con LeMay en Guam. Su relato sobre la interminable noche de espera merece ser citado extensamente:

Al decidir enviar sus B-29 a sobrevolar Tokio a entre 1.500 y 1.800 metros de altitud, LeMay incrementaba el riesgo de que fuesen alcanzados, y tenía un profundo sentimiento de responsabilidad personal respecto a sus hombres; estaba poniendo en peligro el éxito del programa B-29 en su conjunto, lo cual […] le afectaba tanto en lo emocional como en lo relativo al servicio; también estaba arriesgando su propio futuro, no solo, me da la impresión, como oficial del Ejército sino como ser humano. Si perdía el 70 por ciento de sus aviones debido a esa decisión, o el 50 por ciento, o el 25 por ciento, estaría acabado, e imagino que un hombre como él estaría acabado en todos los sentidos posibles de la palabra, porque habría perdido la confianza en sí mismo.

McKelway se sentó al lado de LeMay en el banco. «Si este ataque sale tan bien como creo que saldrá, acortaremos la guerra», le dijo LeMay a McKelway. Lo mismo que decía siempre. Miró la hora. Los primeros informes desde Japón todavía tardarían media hora.

«¿Te apetece una Coca-Cola?», preguntó LeMay. «Puedo entrar en mi barracón sin despertar a los muchachos y sacar dos Coca-Colas; podríamos bebérnoslas en mi coche. Con eso pasaríamos buena parte de la media hora». 

Aquellos dos hombres siguieron esperando durante la que acabó convirtiéndose en la noche más larga de la guerra.

Tras el ataque a Tokio con bombas incendiarias de marzo de 1945, Curtis LeMay y el 21.º Escuadrón de Bombarderos asolaron el resto de Japón como animales salvajes. Osaka. Kure. Kobe. Nishinomiya. LeMay arrasó el 68,9 por ciento de Okayama, el 85 por ciento de Tokushima, el 99 por ciento de Toyama; en total, 67 ciudades japonesas en medio año. En el caos de la guerra, resultó imposible determinar cuántos japoneses murieron. Tal vez medio millón. Tal vez un millón. El 6 de agosto, el Enola Gay, un B-29 especialmente preparado, voló desde las Marianas hasta Hiroshima y lanzó la primera bomba atómica de la historia. Aun así, LeMay siguió a lo suyo. En sus memorias, los ataques nucleares no ocupan más que un par de páginas. Fueron cosa de otras personas.

LeMay siempre mantuvo que las bombas atómicas fueron superfluas. El verdadero trabajo ya se había hecho.

En sus memorias, los ataques nucleares no ocupan más que un par de páginas. LeMay siempre mantuvo que las bombas atómicas fueron superfluas. El verdadero trabajo ya se había hecho.

4

Hay una historia que a LeMay le encantaba contar sobre su campaña de bombardeos incendiarios. Aparece en sus memorias y en las entrevistas que le hicieron después de jubilarse. Cada vez que la contaba, la narración —las frases, el orden de los detalles— era idéntica, como si formase parte de su repertorio. Tenía que ver con un general llamado Joseph Stilwell.

Stilwell era el jefe de operaciones estadounidense en la zona de China, Birmania y la India. Pertenecía a la generación anterior a la de LeMay. Era un militar tradicional, salido de West Point. Lo llamaban Joe Vinagre. Era inteligente e irascible. Obviamente, LeMay quiso conocer a Stilwell.

LeMay intentaba explicarle a su colega lo que estaba haciendo, lo que quería hacer, lo que pensaba que podía lograr con ese maravilloso avión nuevo llamado B-29. Intentaba transmitir la idea de que la Fuerza Aérea no tenía por qué utilizarse de manera específica para apoyar a las tropas terrestres; que existían otras opciones. Podía pasar por encima del frente de batalla y atacar en territorio enemigo. Podía ocuparse de fábricas, centrales eléctricas y ciudades enteras si se quería.

¿Le hablaría del napalm? Seguramente. Estaban documentadas pruebas con las réplicas de edificios japoneses en el desierto de Utah. Y LeMay ya había utilizado napalm al menos una vez, en uno de sus bombardeos en Japón. Así que es posible que fuera un poco más allá y le dijese a Stilwell: «Verá, podríamos quemar el país entero».

Pero Stilwell —una de las mentes más brillantes, experimentadas y respetables de la Segunda Guerra Mundial— no tenía ni idea de lo que LeMay le estaba contando. ¿Qué quería decir eso? ¿Podía librarse una guerra solo desde el aire? 

Pasó un año. Japón se rindió y los dos hombres volvieron a encontrarse.

¿Por qué Stilwell no comprendió durante su primera conversación lo que LeMay quería decirle? Stilwell no era precisamente un tipo remilgado. Cuando recorrió Yokohama lo hizo encantado. Esto fue lo que escribió en su diario: «Qué gran momento ver a aquellos bastardos arrogantes, desagradables, con cara de pan, dientes separados y piernas arqueadas y comprobar lo que habíamos hecho con ellos. Nos regodeamos en aquella destrucción y llegamos a las 3.00 sintiéndonos bien».

Así era Stilwell. Aunque tuvo que ver con sus propios ojos lo que la Fuerza Aérea hizo en Yokohama para entender a LeMay, pues la idea iba más allá de lo que el viejo general podía imaginar. En West Point le habían enseñado que los soldados combatían contra soldados y los ejércitos se enfrentaban a ejércitos. Un guerrero de la generación de Stilwell tardaba en entender que podías hacer algo así, en tanto que oficial del Ejército de Estados Unidos, si querías: podías destruir ciudades enteras. Y seguir. Una tras otra.

Lo que LeMay hizo aquel verano simplemente quedaba fuera del alcance de su imaginación.

No había un plan formal detrás de aquel verano de devastación, ninguna indicación precisa por parte de sus superiores. Quienes planificaban la guerra en Washington concibieron una campaña con bombas incendiarias que afectaba a seis ciudades japonesas, no a 67. En julio, LeMay se dedicó a bombardear ciudades japonesas menores que no tenían ninguna industria de importancia estratégica, solo personas que vivían en un polvorín. 

En las instancias superiores no querían —o no podían— verse involucrados con lo que LeMay estaba haciendo. No solo tuvieron que enfrentarse a la magnitud de la destrucción que LeMay había planeado e infligido a Japón ese verano, sino también a la osadía de la misma. Un hombre se enamora del napalm y se le ocurre una solución improvisada para los problemas. Y luego sigue adelante sin detenerse por nada.

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