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Oppenheimer y su banda de «hijos de puta»: el día en que la ciencia devino muerte

Científico, verdugo y víctima; según cuándo, según para quién. Julius Robert Oppenheimer tenía solo 22 años cuando obtuvo su doctorado en la Universidad de Gotinga (epicentro de la física teórica del momento), 41 cuando la prueba de la primera bomba atómica de la humanidad descuartizó sus creencias. Desde aquella detonación, la culpa se convertiría en una costra inmune a cualquier remedio. Aunque se opuso a la proliferación de armas nucleares y defendió la necesidad de frenar la carrera armamentística, no hay forma de arrancarse la conciencia. Premiada en 2006 con el Premio Pulitzer, la biografía definitiva del «Prometeo americano» (Debate) —un trabajo de tres décadas llevado a cabo por Kai Bird y Martin J. Sherwin— es también una radiografía del mundo de la Guerra Fría y una auscultación de los dilemas morales que nos atraviesan. Las siguientes líneas, extraídas del capítulo «Ahora somos todos unos hijos de puta», relatan el día en el que la ciencia permitió fabricar aniquilaciones e inventar la masacre, el día en el que Oppenheimer devino muerte. 

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Tras haber creado la bomba at\u00f3mica, se opuso a la proliferaci\u00f3n de armas y su vida se hundi\u00f3 bajo el peso de la culpa. \u00abPrometeo Americano\u00bb, premiada con un Pulitzer, es su biograf\u00eda definitiva.","meta_keywords":"Penguin Libros Lengua Prometeo Americano Oppenheimer Bomba At\u00f3mica ","short_content":"<p>Cient\u00edfico, verdugo y v\u00edctima; seg\u00fan cu\u00e1ndo, seg\u00fan para qui\u00e9n. Julius Robert Oppenheimer ten\u00eda solo 22 a\u00f1os cuando obtuvo su doctorado en la Universidad de Gotinga (epicentro de la f\u00edsica te\u00f3rica del momento), 41 cuando la prueba de la primera bomba at\u00f3mica de la humanidad descuartiz\u00f3 sus creencias. Desde aquella detonaci\u00f3n, la culpa se convertir\u00eda en una costra inmune a cualquier remedio. Aunque se opuso a la proliferaci\u00f3n de armas nucleares y defendi\u00f3 la necesidad de frenar la carrera armament\u00edstica, no hay forma de arrancarse la conciencia. Premiada en 2006 con el Premio Pulitzer, la biograf\u00eda definitiva del \u00abPrometeo americano\u00bb (Debate) \u2014un trabajo de tres d\u00e9cadas llevado a cabo por Kai Bird y Martin J. Sherwin\u2014 es tambi\u00e9n una radiograf\u00eda del mundo de la Guerra Fr\u00eda y una auscultaci\u00f3n de los dilemas morales que nos atraviesan. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">La noche del 11 de julio de 1945,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Robert_Oppenheimer\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Robert Oppenheimer<\/a><\/span> fue a su casa y se despidi\u00f3 de Kitty. Le dijo que si la prueba sal\u00eda bien, le enviar\u00eda un mensaje con las palabras: \u00abPuedes cambiar las s\u00e1banas\u00bb. Ella, para atraerle la suerte, le dio un tr\u00e9bol de cuatro hojas del jard\u00edn. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Dos d\u00edas antes de la prueba, Oppenheimer se registr\u00f3 en el hotel Hilton de Albuquerque. Con \u00e9l estaban Vannevar Bush, James Conant y otros oficiales del S-1 que hab\u00edan llegado en avi\u00f3n desde Washington para presenciar la exhibici\u00f3n. \u00abEstaba hist\u00e9rico\u00bb, record\u00f3 el qu\u00edmico Joseph O. Hirschfelder. Como si no estuvieran todos ya bastante nerviosos, una prueba de \u00faltima hora de los explosivos de implosi\u00f3n (sin el n\u00facleo de plutonio) acababa de indicar que la bomba ten\u00eda todos los n\u00fameros de no estallar. Todos empezaron a preguntar a Kistiakowsky. \u00abOppenheimer estaba tan angustiado \u2014dijo este\u2014 que le apost\u00e9 el sueldo de un mes por diez d\u00f3lares a que la implosi\u00f3n funcionar\u00eda\u00bb. Aquella noche, con \u00e1nimo de suavizar la tensi\u00f3n, Oppie recit\u00f3 a Bush una estrofa del Guit\u00e1 que hab\u00eda traducido del s\u00e1nscrito: <o:p><\/o:p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k7xct84\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>En la batalla, en el bosque, en el precipicio de las monta\u00f1as, en el oscuro y vasto mar, en medio de jabalinas y flechas, en el sue\u00f1o, en la confusi\u00f3n, en las profundidades de la verg\u00fcenza, las buenas acciones que ha hecho un hombre lo amparan.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"00\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3q4sj2c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Aquella noche, Robert durmi\u00f3 solo cuatro horas; el general <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Thomas_Farrell_(United_States_Army_officer)\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Thomas Farrell<\/a><\/span>, el segundo de Groves, que intentaba dormir en un catre en la habitaci\u00f3n contigua, estuvo media noche oyendo su desagradable tos. Oppie se levant\u00f3 aquel domingo, 15 de julio, exhausto y agobiado por las noticias del d\u00eda anterior. Pero, mientras desayunaba en el comedor del campamento base, recibi\u00f3 una llamada de Bethe, quien le dijo que la simulaci\u00f3n de la implosi\u00f3n hab\u00eda fallado solo porque se hab\u00edan fundido unos circuitos del cableado. No hab\u00eda motivo, le asegur\u00f3, por el que el modelo de Kistiakowsky del artefacto real no tuviera que funcionar. Aliviado, Oppenheimer volvi\u00f3 la atenci\u00f3n al tiempo. El cielo matutino estaba despejado, pero el meteor\u00f3logo, Jack Hubbard, le dijo que se estaba levantando viento en la zona. Groves habl\u00f3 por tel\u00e9fono desde California con Oppenheimer antes de tomar el avi\u00f3n para asistir a la prueba, y este le advirti\u00f3: \u00abEl tiempo est\u00e1 caprichoso\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d2ks9u1\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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caer la tarde, mientras se acumulaban nubes de tormenta, Oppie fue hasta la torre para echar un \u00faltimo vistazo al artefacto. Subi\u00f3 solo e inspeccion\u00f3 su criatura, un feo globo de metal tachonado con detonadores. Todo parec\u00eda en orden, as\u00ed que, despu\u00e9s de contemplar el paisaje, baj\u00f3, se meti\u00f3 en el coche y volvi\u00f3 al rancho McDonald, donde los \u00faltimos hombres que hab\u00edan montado el artefacto estaban recogiendo el equipo. Estaba fragu\u00e1ndose una buena tormenta. Tras llegar al campamento base, Oppie se encontr\u00f3 con Cyril Smith, un jefe metal\u00fargico, y se pusieron a hablar. Casi todo el tiempo fue Robert quien charl\u00f3 distra\u00eddamente sobre la familia y la vida en El Monte, pero, en cierto punto, la conversaci\u00f3n se volvi\u00f3 filos\u00f3fica; escudri\u00f1\u00f3 el oscuro horizonte y murmur\u00f3: \u00abEs curioso c\u00f3mo las monta\u00f1as siempre inspiran nuestro trabajo\u00bb. Smith lo tom\u00f3 como un momento de calma, literalmente, antes de la tempestad.<\/p><p>Para aligerar la tensi\u00f3n, unos cuantos cient\u00edficos organizaron una timba en la que apostaban un d\u00f3lar al tama\u00f1o de la explosi\u00f3n. Propio de \u00e9l, Teller apost\u00f3 fuerte, y puso su d\u00f3lar en cuarenta y cinco mil toneladas de TNT. Oppenheimer fue cauto y apost\u00f3 por tres mil modestas toneladas. Rabi jug\u00f3 a veinte mil toneladas. Fermi, por su parte, asust\u00f3 a algunos guardias del ej\u00e9rcito al montar otra apuesta a si la bomba incendiar\u00eda la atm\u00f3sfera o no.\u00a0<\/p><p>Aquella noche, los pocos cient\u00edficos que lograron conciliar el sue\u00f1o se despertaron por un ruido extraordinario. Como recordaba Frank Oppenheimer: \u00abTodas las ranas de la zona se hab\u00edan juntado en una charca cerca del campamento, y copularon y croaron toda la noche\u00bb. Oppenheimer estuvo en el comedor del campamento base bebiendo caf\u00e9, li\u00e1ndose un cigarrillo tras otro y fum\u00e1ndolos muy nervioso hasta la colilla. En cierto momento sac\u00f3\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1002-charles-baudelaire\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un libro de Baudelaire<\/a><\/span> y estuvo leyendo poes\u00eda en silencio. La tormenta ya apedreaba el tejado de hojalata con un fuerte chaparr\u00f3n. Los rel\u00e1mpagos atravesaban el negro del cielo, y Fermi, temeroso de que el viento de la tormenta los empapara con lluvia radiactiva, sugiri\u00f3 que se pospusiera la prueba. \u00abPodr\u00eda ser catastr\u00f3fico\u00bb, advirti\u00f3 a Oppenheimer.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7gm6na6\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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su parte, el meteor\u00f3logo jefe de Oppie, Hubbard, le asegur\u00f3 que la tormenta habr\u00eda pasado antes del amanecer, pero recomend\u00f3 retrasar la hora de la detonaci\u00f3n, de las cuatro a las cinco de la ma\u00f1ana. Un inquieto Groves paseaba por el comedor. Le disgustaba Hubbard, pensaba de \u00e9l que estaba \u00abobviamente confundido y muy nervioso\u00bb, hasta el punto de haberse llevado su propio meteor\u00f3logo, uno de las Fuerzas Armadas. No se fiaba de las previsiones de Hubbard y se opon\u00eda a toda posposici\u00f3n. Hubo un momento en que se llev\u00f3 aparte a Oppenheimer y le recit\u00f3 una lista de todos los motivos por los que la prueba deb\u00eda realizarse. Ambos sab\u00edan que todos estaban tan cansados que, en caso de demora, la prueba se retrasar\u00eda dos o tres d\u00edas. Preocupado por si cient\u00edficos m\u00e1s cautos convenc\u00edan a Oppie de aplazarla, Groves se lo llev\u00f3 al centro de control de South Shelter, a diez mil yardas, es decir, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Prueba_Trinity\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a unos nueve kil\u00f3metros de la Trinity<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"evf4vk0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-islamica-iran-1979-el-jardin-del-fin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De la Revoluci\u00f3n Isl\u00e1mica al asesinato de Mahsa Amini: los primeros d\u00edas de un pa\u00eds secuestrado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La invasi\u00f3n rusa: entrevistas, perfiles y art\u00edculos para entender la guerra en Ucrania<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-bruce-springsteen-renegados\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Obama y Springsteen: las venas abiertas de Estados Unidos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/joan-didion-california\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">California seg\u00fan Joan Didion: el lado oscuro del sue\u00f1o americano<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cm185mr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A las dos y media de la madrugada, vientos de cincuenta kil\u00f3metros por hora y un temporal de a\u00fapa barr\u00edan por entero el lugar. De todos modos, Jack Hubbard y su peque\u00f1o equipo de meteor\u00f3logos predec\u00edan que despejar\u00eda al amanecer. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.atomicarchive.com\/history\/manhattan-project\/p4s26.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Oppenheimer y Groves<\/a><\/span>, a nueve kil\u00f3metros de all\u00ed, caminaban por fuera del b\u00fanker, mirando al cielo cada pocos minutos y tratando de adivinar cambios en el tiempo. Sobre las tres de la madrugada, se metieron en el b\u00fanker y hablaron. Ninguno de los dos era capaz de asumir un retraso. \u00abSi lo aplazamos \u2014dijo Oppenheimer\u2014, no podr\u00e9 volver a poner en marcha a la gente\u00bb. Groves estaba a\u00fan m\u00e1s emperrado en que la prueba se realizase seg\u00fan lo planeado. Al fin, anunciaron su decisi\u00f3n: programar\u00edan el estallido para las cinco y media de la ma\u00f1ana con la esperanza de que todo saliera bien. Una hora m\u00e1s tarde, el cielo empez\u00f3 a aclararse y el viento amain\u00f3. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Richard_Feynman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Richard Feynman<\/a><\/span>\u00a0estaba a treinta y dos kil\u00f3metros de la Trinity. Le dieron unas gafas de sol, pero pens\u00f3 que no ver\u00eda nada si se las pon\u00eda, as\u00ed que se mont\u00f3 en la cabina de un cami\u00f3n orientado hacia Alamogordo. La luna del veh\u00edculo le proteger\u00eda los ojos de los da\u00f1inos rayos ultravioleta y podr\u00eda ver el resplandor. Aun as\u00ed, se agach\u00f3 en un movimiento reflejo cuando el horizonte se ilumin\u00f3 con un fulgor intens\u00edsimo. Cuando volvi\u00f3 a mirar, vio una lucecita blanca que se volv\u00eda amarilla y luego naranja: \u00abUna gran bola naranja, con el centro muy brillante, se convierte en una bola naranja que empieza a ascender y se hincha un poco y se pone negra por el borde, y entonces ves que es una bola grande de humo con rel\u00e1mpagos dentro del fuego que desprende, el calor\u00bb. Un minuto y medio despu\u00e9s de la explosi\u00f3n, Feynman oy\u00f3 un violento estallido seguido del retumbar de un trueno creado por el hombre.\u00a0<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/James_Bryant_Conant\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">James Conant<\/a><\/span>\u00a0esperaba un rel\u00e1mpago relativamente r\u00e1pido, pero la luz blanca llen\u00f3 el cielo de tal manera que pens\u00f3 que \u00abalgo hab\u00eda salido mal\u00bb y que \u00abel mundo entero estaba ardiendo\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Robert_Serber\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Bob Serber<\/a><\/span>\u00a0se encontraba tambi\u00e9n a treinta y dos kil\u00f3metros, tirado boca abajo con un trozo de cristal de soldador en los ojos. \u00abClaro \u2014escribir\u00eda despu\u00e9s\u2014, justo en aquel momento se me cans\u00f3 el brazo y baj\u00e9 el cristal, y la bomba explot\u00f3. Me qued\u00e9 totalmente ciego por la luz\u00bb. Cuando recuper\u00f3 la vista, medio minuto despu\u00e9s, vio una columna violeta y brillante que se alzaba entre seis mil y nueve mil metros. \u00abEstaba a treinta y dos kil\u00f3metros y sent\u00ed el calor en la cara\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Joseph_O._Hirschfelder\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joe Hirschfelder<\/a><\/span>, el qu\u00edmico que deb\u00eda medir la lluvia radiactiva generada por la explosi\u00f3n, describi\u00f3 despu\u00e9s aquel momento: \u00abDe repente, la noche se volvi\u00f3 d\u00eda y todo estaba muy brillante, el fr\u00edo se volvi\u00f3 calor, la bola de fuego poco a poco pas\u00f3 del blanco al amarillo y luego al rojo mientras aumentaba de tama\u00f1o y ascend\u00eda en el cielo. Despu\u00e9s de cinco segundos volvi\u00f3 la oscuridad, pero el cielo y el aire estaban saturados de un brillo violeta, como si estuvi\u00e9ramos rodeados de una aurora boreal. [\u2026] All\u00ed est\u00e1bamos, asombrados, mientras la onda expansiva levantaba trozos de tierra del suelo del desierto y nos dejaba atr\u00e1s r\u00e1pidamente\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Franz_Oppenheimer\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Frank Oppenheimer<\/a><\/span>\u00a0estaba al lado de su hermano en el momento del estallido. Aun tumbado en el suelo, \u00abla luz del primer resplandor sali\u00f3 del suelo y nos atraves\u00f3 los p\u00e1rpados. Al mirar hacia arriba, se ve\u00eda la bola de fuego y, casi de inmediato, la fantasmal nube en el aire. Brillaba mucho y era violeta\u00bb. Frank pens\u00f3: \u00abIgual viene flotando hacia aqu\u00ed y nos traga a todos\u00bb. No hab\u00eda esperado que el calor generado fuera tan intenso. Momentos despu\u00e9s, el estruendo de la explosi\u00f3n fue rebotando entre las monta\u00f1as lejanas. \u00abPero creo que lo que daba m\u00e1s miedo \u2014contaba Frank\u2014 era la resplandeciente nube violeta, negra por el polvo radiactivo, suspendida all\u00ed, y que no sab\u00edas si se escapar\u00eda hacia arriba o se dirigir\u00eda hacia donde estabas\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cgphxwc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Frank Oppenheimer estaba al lado de su hermano en el momento del estallido. 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Brillaba mucho y era violeta\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"l15qmgj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Robert estaba echado boca abajo justo en el exterior del b\u00fanker de control, situado a nueve kil\u00f3metros al sur de la zona cero. Cuando cuenta atr\u00e1s anunci\u00f3 que faltaban dos minutos, murmur\u00f3: \u00abSe\u00f1or, estas cosas son muy duras para el alma\u00bb. Un general del ej\u00e9rcito lo observ\u00f3 de cerca mientras sonaba la cuenta atr\u00e1s: \u00abEl doctor Oppenheimer [\u2026] fue poni\u00e9ndose m\u00e1s tenso a medida que corr\u00edan los segundos. Apenas respiraba. [\u2026] Los \u00faltimos segundos mir\u00f3 directamente hacia delante y, cuando se oy\u00f3 el \\\"\u00a1Ya!\\\" y apareci\u00f3 aquel estallido incre\u00edble de luz, seguido enseguida por el profundo rugido del estampido, la cara se le distendi\u00f3 en una expresi\u00f3n de alivio inmenso\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>No sabemos, obviamente, qu\u00e9 le pasar\u00eda por la cabeza en aquel momento crucial. 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Algo en su manera de andar, el porte despreocupado de quien est\u00e1 al mando de su destino, le puso la piel de gallina: \u00abNunca olvidar\u00e9 c\u00f3mo caminaba, nunca olvidar\u00e9 el modo en que sali\u00f3 del coche. [\u2026] Estaba en su apogeo, [\u2026] caminaba como d\u00e1ndose aires. Lo hab\u00eda conseguido\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Aquella misma ma\u00f1ana, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/William_L._Laurence\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">William L. Laurence, el periodista de <em>The New York Times<\/em> escogido por Groves para cubrir el acontecimiento<\/a><\/span>, se acerc\u00f3 a Oppenheimer para recoger sus comentarios. Seg\u00fan consta, este describi\u00f3 sus emociones en t\u00e9rminos muy normales. El efecto del estallido, dijo a Laurence, fue \u00abespantoso\u00bb y \u00abno del todo optimista\u00bb. 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el periodista de <em>The New York Times<\/em>, dir\u00eda m\u00e1s tarde que nunca olvidar\u00eda el \u00abdemoledor impacto\u00bb de las palabras de Oppenheimer. Curiosamente, sin embargo, en los art\u00edculos del Times de 1945 no figura ninguna cita del Guit\u00e1, ni tampoco en su libro de 1947, <em>Dawn over Zero: The Story of the Atomic Bomb<\/em>. (Hijiya, \u00abThe Gita of J. Robert Oppenheimer\u00bb, <em>Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society<\/em>, vol. 144, n.\u00ba 2, junio de 2000, pp. 123-124). S\u00ed aparece en un art\u00edculo de <em>Time<\/em> de 1948, y la us\u00f3 en el libro <em>Men and Atoms<\/em>, de 1959. No obstante, Laurence pudo haberla sacado de la historia de Robert Jungk, <em>Brighter Than a Thousand Suns<\/em>, de 1958.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mibivjq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/arturo-perez-reverte-y-la-guerra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Arturo P\u00e9rez-Reverte y la guerra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/las-mil-y-una-vidas-de-josephine-baker\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Criada, esp\u00eda, activista y leyenda: las mil y una vidas de Josephine Baker<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/vanessa-springora-el-consentimiento\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEl consentimiento\u00bb, de Vanessa Springora: el ogro en la jaula de papel<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/musica\/bono-u2-surrender-sunday-bloody-sunday\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Bono sobre \u00abSunday Bloody Sunday\u00bb: esta no es una canci\u00f3n protesta<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j5nums1\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Crédito: Getty Images.

Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Crédito: Getty Images.

La noche del 11 de julio de 1945, Robert Oppenheimer fue a su casa y se despidió de Kitty. Le dijo que si la prueba salía bien, le enviaría un mensaje con las palabras: «Puedes cambiar las sábanas». Ella, para atraerle la suerte, le dio un trébol de cuatro hojas del jardín.

Dos días antes de la prueba, Oppenheimer se registró en el hotel Hilton de Albuquerque. Con él estaban Vannevar Bush, James Conant y otros oficiales del S-1 que habían llegado en avión desde Washington para presenciar la exhibición. «Estaba histérico», recordó el químico Joseph O. Hirschfelder. Como si no estuvieran todos ya bastante nerviosos, una prueba de última hora de los explosivos de implosión (sin el núcleo de plutonio) acababa de indicar que la bomba tenía todos los números de no estallar. Todos empezaron a preguntar a Kistiakowsky. «Oppenheimer estaba tan angustiado —dijo este— que le aposté el sueldo de un mes por diez dólares a que la implosión funcionaría». Aquella noche, con ánimo de suavizar la tensión, Oppie recitó a Bush una estrofa del Guitá que había traducido del sánscrito:

En la batalla, en el bosque, en el precipicio de las montañas, en el oscuro y vasto mar, en medio de jabalinas y flechas, en el sueño, en la confusión, en las profundidades de la vergüenza, las buenas acciones que ha hecho un hombre lo amparan.

Aquella noche, Robert durmió solo cuatro horas; el general Thomas Farrell, el segundo de Groves, que intentaba dormir en un catre en la habitación contigua, estuvo media noche oyendo su desagradable tos. Oppie se levantó aquel domingo, 15 de julio, exhausto y agobiado por las noticias del día anterior. Pero, mientras desayunaba en el comedor del campamento base, recibió una llamada de Bethe, quien le dijo que la simulación de la implosión había fallado solo porque se habían fundido unos circuitos del cableado. No había motivo, le aseguró, por el que el modelo de Kistiakowsky del artefacto real no tuviera que funcionar. Aliviado, Oppenheimer volvió la atención al tiempo. El cielo matutino estaba despejado, pero el meteorólogo, Jack Hubbard, le dijo que se estaba levantando viento en la zona. Groves habló por teléfono desde California con Oppenheimer antes de tomar el avión para asistir a la prueba, y este le advirtió: «El tiempo está caprichoso».

Al caer la tarde, mientras se acumulaban nubes de tormenta, Oppie fue hasta la torre para echar un último vistazo al artefacto. Subió solo e inspeccionó su criatura, un feo globo de metal tachonado con detonadores. Todo parecía en orden, así que, después de contemplar el paisaje, bajó, se metió en el coche y volvió al rancho McDonald, donde los últimos hombres que habían montado el artefacto estaban recogiendo el equipo. Estaba fraguándose una buena tormenta. Tras llegar al campamento base, Oppie se encontró con Cyril Smith, un jefe metalúrgico, y se pusieron a hablar. Casi todo el tiempo fue Robert quien charló distraídamente sobre la familia y la vida en El Monte, pero, en cierto punto, la conversación se volvió filosófica; escudriñó el oscuro horizonte y murmuró: «Es curioso cómo las montañas siempre inspiran nuestro trabajo». Smith lo tomó como un momento de calma, literalmente, antes de la tempestad.

Para aligerar la tensión, unos cuantos científicos organizaron una timba en la que apostaban un dólar al tamaño de la explosión. Propio de él, Teller apostó fuerte, y puso su dólar en cuarenta y cinco mil toneladas de TNT. Oppenheimer fue cauto y apostó por tres mil modestas toneladas. Rabi jugó a veinte mil toneladas. Fermi, por su parte, asustó a algunos guardias del ejército al montar otra apuesta a si la bomba incendiaría la atmósfera o no. 

Aquella noche, los pocos científicos que lograron conciliar el sueño se despertaron por un ruido extraordinario. Como recordaba Frank Oppenheimer: «Todas las ranas de la zona se habían juntado en una charca cerca del campamento, y copularon y croaron toda la noche». Oppenheimer estuvo en el comedor del campamento base bebiendo café, liándose un cigarrillo tras otro y fumándolos muy nervioso hasta la colilla. En cierto momento sacó un libro de Baudelaire y estuvo leyendo poesía en silencio. La tormenta ya apedreaba el tejado de hojalata con un fuerte chaparrón. Los relámpagos atravesaban el negro del cielo, y Fermi, temeroso de que el viento de la tormenta los empapara con lluvia radiactiva, sugirió que se pospusiera la prueba. «Podría ser catastrófico», advirtió a Oppenheimer.

Por su parte, el meteorólogo jefe de Oppie, Hubbard, le aseguró que la tormenta habría pasado antes del amanecer, pero recomendó retrasar la hora de la detonación, de las cuatro a las cinco de la mañana. Un inquieto Groves paseaba por el comedor. Le disgustaba Hubbard, pensaba de él que estaba «obviamente confundido y muy nervioso», hasta el punto de haberse llevado su propio meteorólogo, uno de las Fuerzas Armadas. No se fiaba de las previsiones de Hubbard y se oponía a toda posposición. Hubo un momento en que se llevó aparte a Oppenheimer y le recitó una lista de todos los motivos por los que la prueba debía realizarse. Ambos sabían que todos estaban tan cansados que, en caso de demora, la prueba se retrasaría dos o tres días. Preocupado por si científicos más cautos convencían a Oppie de aplazarla, Groves se lo llevó al centro de control de South Shelter, a diez mil yardas, es decir, a unos nueve kilómetros de la Trinity.

A las dos y media de la madrugada, vientos de cincuenta kilómetros por hora y un temporal de aúpa barrían por entero el lugar. De todos modos, Jack Hubbard y su pequeño equipo de meteorólogos predecían que despejaría al amanecer. Oppenheimer y Groves, a nueve kilómetros de allí, caminaban por fuera del búnker, mirando al cielo cada pocos minutos y tratando de adivinar cambios en el tiempo. Sobre las tres de la madrugada, se metieron en el búnker y hablaron. Ninguno de los dos era capaz de asumir un retraso. «Si lo aplazamos —dijo Oppenheimer—, no podré volver a poner en marcha a la gente». Groves estaba aún más emperrado en que la prueba se realizase según lo planeado. Al fin, anunciaron su decisión: programarían el estallido para las cinco y media de la mañana con la esperanza de que todo saliera bien. Una hora más tarde, el cielo empezó a aclararse y el viento amainó. A las cinco y diez minutos, la voz de Sam Allison, un físico de Chicago, tronó por un altavoz situado fuera del centro de control: «Faltan veinte minutos para la hora cero».

Albert Einsten y Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Crédito: Getty Images.

Albert Einstein y Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Crédito: Getty Images.

Richard Feynman estaba a treinta y dos kilómetros de la Trinity. Le dieron unas gafas de sol, pero pensó que no vería nada si se las ponía, así que se montó en la cabina de un camión orientado hacia Alamogordo. La luna del vehículo le protegería los ojos de los dañinos rayos ultravioleta y podría ver el resplandor. Aun así, se agachó en un movimiento reflejo cuando el horizonte se iluminó con un fulgor intensísimo. Cuando volvió a mirar, vio una lucecita blanca que se volvía amarilla y luego naranja: «Una gran bola naranja, con el centro muy brillante, se convierte en una bola naranja que empieza a ascender y se hincha un poco y se pone negra por el borde, y entonces ves que es una bola grande de humo con relámpagos dentro del fuego que desprende, el calor». Un minuto y medio después de la explosión, Feynman oyó un violento estallido seguido del retumbar de un trueno creado por el hombre. 

James Conant esperaba un relámpago relativamente rápido, pero la luz blanca llenó el cielo de tal manera que pensó que «algo había salido mal» y que «el mundo entero estaba ardiendo».

Bob Serber se encontraba también a treinta y dos kilómetros, tirado boca abajo con un trozo de cristal de soldador en los ojos. «Claro —escribiría después—, justo en aquel momento se me cansó el brazo y bajé el cristal, y la bomba explotó. Me quedé totalmente ciego por la luz». Cuando recuperó la vista, medio minuto después, vio una columna violeta y brillante que se alzaba entre seis mil y nueve mil metros. «Estaba a treinta y dos kilómetros y sentí el calor en la cara».

Joe Hirschfelder, el químico que debía medir la lluvia radiactiva generada por la explosión, describió después aquel momento: «De repente, la noche se volvió día y todo estaba muy brillante, el frío se volvió calor, la bola de fuego poco a poco pasó del blanco al amarillo y luego al rojo mientras aumentaba de tamaño y ascendía en el cielo. Después de cinco segundos volvió la oscuridad, pero el cielo y el aire estaban saturados de un brillo violeta, como si estuviéramos rodeados de una aurora boreal. […] Allí estábamos, asombrados, mientras la onda expansiva levantaba trozos de tierra del suelo del desierto y nos dejaba atrás rápidamente».

Frank Oppenheimer estaba al lado de su hermano en el momento del estallido. Aun tumbado en el suelo, «la luz del primer resplandor salió del suelo y nos atravesó los párpados. Al mirar hacia arriba, se veía la bola de fuego y, casi de inmediato, la fantasmal nube en el aire. Brillaba mucho y era violeta». Frank pensó: «Igual viene flotando hacia aquí y nos traga a todos». No había esperado que el calor generado fuera tan intenso. Momentos después, el estruendo de la explosión fue rebotando entre las montañas lejanas. «Pero creo que lo que daba más miedo —contaba Frank— era la resplandeciente nube violeta, negra por el polvo radiactivo, suspendida allí, y que no sabías si se escaparía hacia arriba o se dirigiría hacia donde estabas».

Frank Oppenheimer estaba al lado de su hermano en el momento del estallido. Aun tumbado en el suelo, «la luz del primer resplandor salió del suelo y nos atravesó los párpados. Al mirar hacia arriba, se veía la bola de fuego y, casi de inmediato, la fantasmal nube en el aire. Brillaba mucho y era violeta».

Robert estaba echado boca abajo justo en el exterior del búnker de control, situado a nueve kilómetros al sur de la zona cero. Cuando cuenta atrás anunció que faltaban dos minutos, murmuró: «Señor, estas cosas son muy duras para el alma». Un general del ejército lo observó de cerca mientras sonaba la cuenta atrás: «El doctor Oppenheimer […] fue poniéndose más tenso a medida que corrían los segundos. Apenas respiraba. […] Los últimos segundos miró directamente hacia delante y, cuando se oyó el "¡Ya!" y apareció aquel estallido increíble de luz, seguido enseguida por el profundo rugido del estampido, la cara se le distendió en una expresión de alivio inmenso». 

No sabemos, obviamente, qué le pasaría por la cabeza en aquel momento crucial. Su hermano recordaba: «Creo que solo dijimos: "Ha explotado"».

Oppenheimer señalando una foto de la explosión de la bomba atómica sobre la ciudad japonesa de Nagasaki, junto al científico Henry D. Smyth (segundo por la izquierda), el general Kenneth D. Nichols (segundo por la derecha) y el científico Glenn Seaborg. Crédito: Getty Images

Oppenheimer señalando una fotografía de la explosión de la bomba atómica sobre la ciudad japonesa de Nagasaki, junto al científico Henry D. Smyth (segundo por la izquierda), el general Kenneth D. Nichols (segundo por la derecha) y el científico Glenn Seaborg. Crédito: Getty Images.

Después, Rabi vio a Robert desde lejos. Algo en su manera de andar, el porte despreocupado de quien está al mando de su destino, le puso la piel de gallina: «Nunca olvidaré cómo caminaba, nunca olvidaré el modo en que salió del coche. […] Estaba en su apogeo, […] caminaba como dándose aires. Lo había conseguido». 

Aquella misma mañana, William L. Laurence, el periodista de The New York Times escogido por Groves para cubrir el acontecimiento, se acercó a Oppenheimer para recoger sus comentarios. Según consta, este describió sus emociones en términos muy normales. El efecto del estallido, dijo a Laurence, fue «espantoso» y «no del todo optimista». Hizo una pausa y luego añadió: «Muchos chicos que aún no han crecido le deberán la vida a esto». 

Al cabo del tiempo, Oppenheimer diría que, al contemplar la nube fantasmal en forma de hongo que se elevaba hacia el cielo sobre la zona cero, recordó unos versos del Guitá. En un documental de la NBC para televisión de 1965, rememoró: «Sabíamos que el mundo dejaría de ser el mismo. Había quien reía y había quien lloraba. La mayoría guardaban silencio. Recordé un verso de las escrituras hindúes, el Bhagavad Guitá. Vishnu trata de convencer al príncipe de que debería cumplir con su obligación y, para impresionarlo, toma la forma de un ser de muchos brazos y dice: "Ahora he devenido muerte, el destructor de mundos". Supongo que todos, cada uno a su manera, pensamos algo así». Abraham Pais, amigo de Robert, comentó una vez que la cita sonó como una de sus «exageraciones sacerdotales».* (nota al pie)

Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Crédito: Getty Images.

Julius Robert Oppenheimer. Crédito: Getty Images.

Al margen de lo que le pasara a Oppenheimer por la cabeza, lo que sí es cierto es que quienes lo rodeaban estaban obviamente eufóricos. Laurence los describió en un mensaje: «El gran estallido llegó unos cien segundos después del gran relámpago, el primer llanto de un mundo recién nacido. Revivió a las figuras silenciosas e inmóviles, les dio voz. Un fuerte grito llenó el aire. Los grupitos que hasta entonces habían estado enraizados en el suelo como plantas del desierto rompieron a bailar». El baile duró apenas unos segundos y luego todos empezaron a estrecharse la mano, relató Laurence, «se palmeaban la espalda unos a otros y reían como niños felices». Kistiakowsky, al que la onda había tirado al suelo, abrazó a Oppenheimer y le reclamó los diez dólares con alegría. Oppie sacó la cartera, que estaba vacía, y le dijo que tendría que esperar. (Después, de regreso en Los Álamos, celebró una ceremonia en la que hizo entrega a Kistiakowsky de un billete de diez dólares con su autógrafo). 

«El gran estallido llegó unos cien segundos después del gran relámpago, el primer llanto de un mundo recién nacido. Revivió a las figuras silenciosas e inmóviles, les dio voz. Un fuerte grito llenó el aire. Los grupitos que hasta entonces habían estado enraizados en el suelo como plantas del desierto rompieron a bailar».

Cuando Oppenheimer salía del centro de control, se volvió para darle la mano a Ken Bainbridge, quien lo miró a los ojos y murmuró: «Ahora somos todos unos hijos de puta». En el campamento base se tomó un coñac con su hermano y el general Farrell. Entonces, según un historiador, llamó por teléfono a Los Álamos y pidió a su secretaria que le diera un recado a Kitty: «Dile que puede cambiar las sábanas».

*Laurence, el periodista de The New York Times, diría más tarde que nunca olvidaría el «demoledor impacto» de las palabras de Oppenheimer. Curiosamente, sin embargo, en los artículos del Times de 1945 no figura ninguna cita del Guitá, ni tampoco en su libro de 1947, Dawn over Zero: The Story of the Atomic Bomb. (Hijiya, «The Gita of J. Robert Oppenheimer», Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 144, n.º 2, junio de 2000, pp. 123-124). Sí aparece en un artículo de Time de 1948, y la usó en el libro Men and Atoms, de 1959. No obstante, Laurence pudo haberla sacado de la historia de Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns, de 1958.