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Federer por David Foster Wallace: como silbar Mozart en un concierto de Metallica

«Tengo 41 años. He jugado más de 1.500 partidos durante 24 años. El tenis me ha tratado más generosamente de lo que hubiera podido soñar y ahora debo reconocer que es el momento de acabar mi carrera competitiva». El reciente anuncio de la retirada de Roger Federer trae a nuestra memoria «El tenis como experiencia religiosa» (Random House), colección de ensayos en los que David Foster Wallace reflexiona sobre la belleza, complejidad y exigencia de su deporte favorito y -además- pone de manifiesto su amor al tenista suizo, a quien le dedica casi la mitad del libro. En los siguientes párrafos, extraídos todos del capítulo «Federer, en cuerpo y en lo otro», Foster Wallace explica las causas -casi místicas- del ascenso y consagración de Federer desde sus inicios hasta el inolvidable torneo de Wimbledon de 2006.

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He jugado m\u00e1s de 1.500 partidos durante 24 a\u00f1os. El tenis me ha tratado m\u00e1s generosamente de lo que hubiera podido so\u00f1ar y ahora debo reconocer que es el momento de acabar mi carrera competitiva\u00bb. El reciente anuncio de la retirada de Roger Federer trae a nuestra memoria \u00abEl tenis como experiencia religiosa\u00bb (Random House), colecci\u00f3n de ensayos en los que David Foster Wallace reflexiona sobre la belleza, complejidad y exigencia de su deporte favorito y -adem\u00e1s- pone de manifiesto su amor al tenista suizo, a quien le dedica casi la mitad del libro. En los siguientes p\u00e1rrafos, extra\u00eddos todos del cap\u00edtulo \u00abFederer, en cuerpo y en lo otro\u00bb, Foster Wallace explica las causas -casi m\u00edsticas- del ascenso y consagraci\u00f3n de Federer desde sus inicios hasta el inolvidable torneo de Wimbledon de 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Roger Federer, en enero de 2018, durante un partido del Abierto de Australia. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/154930-ebook-cuentos-de-tenis-9789870426929\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Wimbledon es un sitio extra\u00f1o<\/a><\/span>. Es verdad que se trata de la meca del deporte, de la catedral del tenis, pero cuando est\u00e1s all\u00ed te resultar\u00eda m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil mantener el nivel apropiado de veneraci\u00f3n si el torneo no se obcecara tanto en recordarte una y otra vez que es la catedral del tenis. En Wimbledon reina una mezcla peculiar de tediosa petulancia, autobombo y autopromoci\u00f3n incansables. Es un poco como esas figuras de autoridad que tienen en la pared de su despacho hasta la \u00faltima placa, diploma y premio que han conseguido en su carrera, y cada vez que entras en su despacho est\u00e1s obligado a mirar a la pared y decir algo para indicar que est\u00e1s impresionado. Las paredes de Wimbledon, junto con todos sus pasillos y accesos importantes, est\u00e1n cubiertos de p\u00f3sters y carteles con im\u00e1genes de campeones del pasado, listas de datos relacionados con Wimbledon, curiosidades, apuntes hist\u00f3ricos, etc\u00e9tera. Algunas de estas cosas resultan interesantes y otras simplemente extra\u00f1as. El Museo del Tenis sobre Hierba de Wimbledon, por ejemplo, tiene una colecci\u00f3n de todas las distintas clases de raquetas que se han usado aqu\u00ed a lo largo de las d\u00e9cadas, y uno de los muchos carteles que hay en el pasillo del Nivel 2 del Edificio del Milenio promociona esta exposici\u00f3n tanto por medio de fotos como de textos did\u00e1cticos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26318-ebook-el-tenis-como-experiencia-religiosa-9788439731900\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una especie de Historia de la Raqueta<\/a><\/span>. Aqu\u00ed est\u00e1, sic, el final apote\u00f3sico de dicho texto:<\/p><p><em>Los armazones actuales fabricados con materiales de la era espacial como son el grafito, el boro, el titanio y la cer\u00e1mica, y provistos de cabezas m\u00e1s grandes \u2013tanto de tama\u00f1o medio (580-610 cm2) como extra grande (710 cm2)\u2013, han transformado por completo la naturaleza del juego. Hoy d\u00eda son los tiradores m\u00e1s fuertes quienes dominan gracias a un potente efecto liftado. Los jugadores de saque y volea y aquellos que se basaban en la sutileza y el toque pr\u00e1cticamente han 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extra\u00f1o, en el mejor de los casos, que dicho diagn\u00f3stico contin\u00fae siendo tan predominante aqu\u00ed durante el cuarto a\u00f1o del\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/us\/tematicas\/20058-ebook-en-cuerpo-y-en-lo-otro-9788439728023\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">reinado de Federer<\/a><\/span> en Wimbledon, puesto que el suizo ha aportado al tenis masculino grados de toque y sutileza in\u00e9ditos desde (por lo menos) la \u00e9poca de apogeo de McEnroe. En realidad, sin embargo, el cartel se limita a dar testimonio del poder del dogma. Desde hace casi dos d\u00e9cadas, la versi\u00f3n oficial es que ciertos adelantos introducidos en la tecnolog\u00eda, la preparaci\u00f3n y las pruebas de peso de las raquetas han hecho que el tenis deje de ser un deporte de rapidez y finura para convertirse en un deporte de atletismo y fuerza bruta. Y en tanto que etiolog\u00eda del estilo moderno de juego de fondo, esta versi\u00f3n oficial es cierta en l\u00edneas generales. Los profesionales de hoy d\u00eda son perceptiblemente m\u00e1s grandes y fuertes y est\u00e1n mejor preparados f\u00edsicamente, y es verdad que las raquetas compuestas de alta tecnolog\u00eda han aumentado su capacidad para tirar a alta velocidad y darle efecto a la pelota. Es por eso por lo que el hecho de que alguien con la finura consumada de Roger Federer haya llegado a dominar el circuito masculino es motivo de gran confusi\u00f3n entre los dogm\u00e1ticos.<\/p><p>Hay tres posibles explicaciones v\u00e1lidas del ascenso de Federer. Una explicaci\u00f3n se basa en el misterio y la metaf\u00edsica, y creo que es la que m\u00e1s se acerca a la verdad. Las otras dos son m\u00e1s t\u00e9cnicas y mejores desde el punto de vista period\u00edstico.<\/p><p>La explicaci\u00f3n metaf\u00edsica es que Roger Federer es uno de esos escasos atletas sobrenaturales que parecen estar exentos, por lo menos en parte, de ciertas leyes de la f\u00edsica. Otros seres comparables ser\u00edan <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/11871-libro-pick-and-roll-el-baloncesto-es-solo-el-principio-9788417247683\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Michael Jordan<\/a><\/span>, que no solo pod\u00eda dar saltos inhumanamente altos, sino tambi\u00e9n quedarse suspendido en el aire un momento o dos m\u00e1s de los que permit\u00eda la gravedad, y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/24944-ebook-rey-del-mundo-9788466338554\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Muhammad Ali<\/a><\/span>, que realmente pod\u00eda cruzar \u00abflotando\u00bb la lona y asestar dos o tres golpes cortos en el tiempo necesario para dar uno. Probablemente haya otra media docena de ejemplos desde 1960. Y Roger Federer pertenece a esa categor\u00eda: una categor\u00eda que se puede denominar genio, mutante o avatar. Nunca ver\u00e1s que le falte tiempo ni equilibrio. La pelota que se acerca a \u00e9l se queda suspendida en el aire una fracci\u00f3n de segundo m\u00e1s de lo que deber\u00eda. Sus movimientos son m\u00e1s \u00e1giles que atl\u00e9ticos. Igual que Ali, Jordan,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/2272-diego-armando-maradona\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Maradona<\/a><\/span> y Gretzky, parece al mismo tiempo menos y m\u00e1s s\u00f3lido que los hombres a los que se enfrenta. Especialmente ataviado con la ropa toda blanca que a Wimbledon le gusta mantener como requisito, parece exactamente lo que (creo) que es: una criatura cuyo cuerpo es al mismo tiempo carne y, de alguna manera, 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Y tambi\u00e9n lo es la siguiente an\u00e9cdota. Despu\u00e9s de una semifinal celebrada el 7 de julio en que Federer destruy\u00f3 a Jonas Bjorkman \u2013no solo lo derrot\u00f3: lo destruy\u00f3\u2013, y justo antes de la conferencia de prensa de rigor posterior al partido en la que Bjorkman, que es amigo de Federer, dijo que estaba encantado de haber \u00abtenido el mejor asiento de la pista\u00bb para ver c\u00f3mo el suizo \u00abjugaba lo m\u00e1s cerca de la perfecci\u00f3n que se puede jugar al tenis\u00bb, Federer y Bjorkman estaban al parecer charlando y bromeando y Bjorkman le pregunt\u00f3 c\u00f3mo de antinaturalmente grande le hab\u00eda parecido la pelota all\u00ed en la pista, y Federer le confirm\u00f3 que la hab\u00eda visto \u00abcomo una pelota de baloncesto o una bola de bolera\u00bb. Lo dec\u00eda \u00fanicamente como forma modesta y jocosa de hacer que Bjorkman se sintiera mejor, de confirmar que lo hab\u00eda sorprendido lo desacostumbradamente bien que hab\u00eda jugado aquel d\u00eda; pero tambi\u00e9n estaba revelando algo de c\u00f3mo es el tenis para \u00e9l. Imagine usted que es una persona dotada de unos reflejos, una coordinaci\u00f3n y una velocidad sobrenaturales, y que est\u00e1 jugando al tenis de alto nivel. Mientras juega, no experimentar\u00e1 usted el hecho de poseer unos reflejos y una velocidad excepcionales; m\u00e1s bien le parecer\u00e1 que la pelota de tenis es muy grande y se mueve muy despacio, y que siempre le da a usted tiempo de sobra para pegarle. Es decir, no experimentar\u00e1 usted nada parecido a la rapidez y la habilidad (emp\u00edricamente reales) que le atribuir\u00e1 el p\u00fablico que presencie en directo c\u00f3mo las pelotas se mueven tan deprisa que zumban y se hacen invisibles.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8b6dl6q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Roger Federer es uno de esos escasos atletas sobrenaturales que parecen estar exentos, por lo menos en parte, de ciertas leyes de la f\u00edsica. Otros seres comparables ser\u00edan Michael Jordan, que no solo pod\u00eda dar saltos inhumanamente altos, sino tambi\u00e9n quedarse suspendido en el aire un momento o dos m\u00e1s de los que permit\u00eda la gravedad, y Muhammad Ali, que realmente pod\u00eda cruzar \u00abflotando\u00bb la lona y asestar dos o tres golpes cortos en el tiempo necesario para dar uno.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"onrhjhk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pero la velocidad no lo explica todo. Ahora vamos a ponernos t\u00e9cnicos. A menudo se dice que el tenis es un deporte de cent\u00edmetros, pero el t\u00f3pico se refiere principalmente al \u00e1rea donde aterriza la pelota. En t\u00e9rminos de d\u00f3nde golpea el jugador la pelota que le viene, el tenis es m\u00e1s bien un deporte de micras: en el momento del impacto, una serie de variaciones tan min\u00fasculas que tienden a lo inexistente producen efectos enormes en la forma de volar de la pelota y en el punto donde aterriza. Es el mismo principio que explica por qu\u00e9 cuando uno apunta con un rifle, hasta la imprecisi\u00f3n m\u00e1s peque\u00f1a provocar\u00e1 que uno yerre el tiro si el objetivo est\u00e1 lo bastante lejos.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">A modo de ilustraci\u00f3n, ralenticemos un poco las cosas. Imagine que usted, un jugador de tenis, est\u00e1 plantado justo detr\u00e1s de su l\u00ednea de dobles. Le sirven una pelota a su lado de drive: usted entonces gira (o rota) para ponerse de costado a la trayectoria de la pelota que se acerca y empieza a echar la raqueta hacia atr\u00e1s para darle impulso a su drive de respuesta. Contin\u00fae visualizando la jugada hasta el punto en que est\u00e1 usted en mitad del movimiento hacia delante para ejecutar la devoluci\u00f3n: ahora tiene usted la pelota al lado mismo de su cadera m\u00e1s adelantada, a unos quince cent\u00edmetros del punto de impacto. Plant\u00e9ese usted algunas de las variables que entran en juego. En el plano vertical, inclinar la faceta de su raqueta un par de grados adelante o atr\u00e1s provocar\u00e1 respectivamente efecto <em>liftado<\/em> o efecto cortado; mantenerla perpendicular producir\u00e1 un drive recto y sin efecto. En el plano horizontal, ajustar la faceta de la raqueta muy ligeramente hacia la izquierda o la derecha, y darle a la pelota quiz\u00e1s un milisegundo antes o despu\u00e9s, producir\u00e1 una devoluci\u00f3n hacia delante o bien cruzada. Otros cambios min\u00fasculos en las curvas seg\u00fan las cuales oriente usted el tiro de fondo y lo prolongue contribuir\u00e1n a determinar c\u00f3mo de alta pasar\u00e1 su devoluci\u00f3n por encima de la red, lo cual, junto con la velocidad a la que usted mueva el brazo (junto con ciertas caracter\u00edsticas del efecto que le proporcione a la pelota) afectar\u00e1 al hecho de que su devoluci\u00f3n aterrice adentr\u00e1ndose menos o m\u00e1s en la pista de su oponente, a la altura del bote, etc\u00e9tera. Y no estoy trazando sino las distinciones m\u00e1s generales, por supuesto: tambi\u00e9n hay que distinguir entre efecto fuerte y efecto suave, tiro muy cruzado y tiro cruzado a secas, etc\u00e9tera. Tambi\u00e9n hay que tener en cuenta cuestiones como cu\u00e1nto va a dejar usted que se le acerque la pelota al cuerpo, qu\u00e9 clase de empu\u00f1adura usa, en qu\u00e9 medida tiene usted las rodillas dobladas y\/o est\u00e1 desplazando su peso hacia delante, y si es usted capaz simult\u00e1neamente de contemplar la pelota y de ver qu\u00e9 est\u00e1 haciendo su oponente despu\u00e9s de servir. Todas estas cosas tambi\u00e9n importan. Adem\u00e1s, piense que no estar\u00e1 usted poniendo en movimiento un objeto est\u00e1tico, sino m\u00e1s bien invirtiendo la trayectoria a\u00e9rea y (de forma variable) el efecto de un proyectil que viene hacia usted, y que viene, en el caso del tenis profesional, a unas velocidades que imposibilitan el pensamiento consciente. El primer saque de Mario Ancic, por ejemplo, suele ir a 210 km\/h. Como entre la l\u00ednea de fondo de Ancic y la de usted hay veinticuatro metros, su saque tardar\u00e1 0,41 segundos en llegar a usted. Es menos tiempo del que se tarda en parpadear r\u00e1pidamente dos 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a09 de julio de 2006. Roger Federer gana la final de Wimbledon ante Rafa Nadal. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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conclusi\u00f3n es que los intervalos de tiempo que da el tenis profesional son demasiado breves para emprender acciones deliberadas. En t\u00e9rminos temporales estamos m\u00e1s bien en la gama operativa de los reflejos, las reacciones puramente f\u00edsicas que pasan por encima del pensamiento consciente. Y, sin embargo, la devoluci\u00f3n eficaz de un servicio depende de un amplio conjunto de decisiones y ajustes f\u00edsicos que son mucho m\u00e1s complejos e intencionados que el acto de parpadear, de dar un brinco cuando te sobresaltan, etc\u00e9tera.<\/p><p>Devolver con \u00e9xito una pelota de tenis que te han servido con fuerza requiere eso que a veces se ha denominado \u00absentido cinest\u00e9sico\u00bb, que no es otra cosa que controlar el cuerpo y sus extensiones artificiales por medio de sistemas complejos y muy r\u00e1pidos de tareas. El idioma cuenta con toda una nube de t\u00e9rminos para designar las diversas partes de esta capacidad: sensaci\u00f3n, tacto, forma, propriocepci\u00f3n, coordinaci\u00f3n, coordinaci\u00f3n mano-ojo, cinestesia, gracia, control, reflejos y otros por el estilo. Para los jugadores juveniles prometedores, refinar el sentido cinest\u00e9sico es la meta principal de esos reg\u00edmenes extremos de entrenamiento diario de los que o\u00edmos hablar a menudo. Se trata de un entrenamiento tanto muscular como neurol\u00f3gico. Golpear miles de veces la pelota, d\u00eda tras d\u00eda, desarrolla la capacidad de hacer \u00abcon el tacto\u00bb lo que no se puede hacer con el pensamiento consciente normal. A menudo al espectador esta clase de pr\u00e1ctica repetitiva le parece tediosa o incluso cruel, pero es que el espectador no puede sentir lo que est\u00e1 pasando dentro del jugador: ajustes min\u00fasculos, uno sobre otro, y una sensaci\u00f3n de los efectos que producen esos cambios que se va volviendo m\u00e1s aguda a medida que se aleja de la conciencia normal.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ynpcril\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Fue solo semanas despu\u00e9s de dejar los estudios cuando Federer gan\u00f3 el juvenil de Wimbledon. Obviamente, esto no lo puede hacer cualquier jugador juvenil que se entregue al tenis. Y resulta igual de obvio que no todo es una simple cuesti\u00f3n de tiempo y entrenamiento: tambi\u00e9n est\u00e1 el talento en s\u00ed, del que hay distintos grados.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"c42r68t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El tiempo y la disciplina que se necesitan para un adiestramiento cinest\u00e9sico serio son una de las razones de que los profesionales de \u00e9lite hayan dedicado la mayor parte de su vida consciente a jugar al tenis, empezando (como muy tarde) al principio de su segunda d\u00e9cada de vida. Por ejemplo, fue a los trece a\u00f1os cuando Roger Federer\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/134-libros-de-futbol\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">dej\u00f3 por fin el f\u00fatbol<\/a><\/span> y algo parecido a una infancia para entrar en el centro nacional suizo de entrenamiento de tenis de Ecublens. A los diecis\u00e9is a\u00f1os dej\u00f3 los estudios y se meti\u00f3 en serio en la competici\u00f3n internacional.<\/p><p>Fue solo semanas despu\u00e9s de dejar los estudios cuando Federer gan\u00f3 el juvenil de Wimbledon. Obviamente, esto no lo puede hacer cualquier jugador juvenil que se entregue al tenis. Y resulta igual de obvio que no todo es una simple cuesti\u00f3n de tiempo y entrenamiento: tambi\u00e9n est\u00e1 el talento en s\u00ed, del que hay distintos grados. Solo para hacer que valgan la pena los a\u00f1os de pr\u00e1ctica y entrenamiento ya tiene que existir (y poder medirse) un talento cinest\u00e9sico extraordinario\u2026 pero a partir de ah\u00ed, con el tiempo, la crema empieza a subir y a separarse. De manera que una de las explicaciones t\u00e9cnicas del dominio de Federer es que simplemente tiene un poco m\u00e1s de talento cinest\u00e9sico que los dem\u00e1s profesionales masculinos. Solo un poco m\u00e1s, dado que todos los integrantes del Top 100 tiene el don de la cinestesia. Lo que pasa es que el tenis es un juego que se decide en cuesti\u00f3n de cent\u00edmetros.<\/p><p>Esta explicaci\u00f3n resulta veros\u00edmil pero incompleta. En 1986 seguramente no habr\u00eda sido incompleta. En 2006, sin embargo, es pertinente preguntar por qu\u00e9 sigue importando tanto esta clase de talento. Recuerden lo que tienen de cierto el dogma y el letrero de Wimbledon. Con o sin virtuosismo cinest\u00e9sico, ahora Roger Federer est\u00e1 dominando la escena de profesionales masculinos m\u00e1s grande, fuerte, mejor preparada, mejor entrenada y en mejor forma f\u00edsica que ha existido jam\u00e1s, donde todo el mundo usa una especie de raqueta nuclear que se dice que ha hecho irrelevantes las calibraciones m\u00e1s finas del sentido cinest\u00e9sico, como intentar silbar\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra\/34298-libro-las-dos-muertes-de-mozart-9788466346993\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mozart<\/a><\/span> en un concierto de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/aprendizaje-y-emociones-a-partir-de-7-anos\/136214-libro-metallica-9788417125059\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Metallica<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/gonzalo-bonadeo-juegos-olimpicos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El fervor de los anillos: las historias y figuras m\u00e1s incre\u00edbles de los Juegos Ol\u00edmpicos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/el-estadio-vacio\/juan-villoro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Una tragedia griega: \u00bfd\u00f3nde est\u00e1 el coro?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/messi-psg-clubes-estado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ciudadano Messi al PSG: la oscura trama detr\u00e1s de los clubes-Estado<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wp2879d\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Roger Federer, en enero de 2018, durante un partido del Abierto de Australia. Crédito: Getty Images

Wimbledon es un sitio extraño. Es verdad que se trata de la meca del deporte, de la catedral del tenis, pero cuando estás allí te resultaría más fácil mantener el nivel apropiado de veneración si el torneo no se obcecara tanto en recordarte una y otra vez que es la catedral del tenis. En Wimbledon reina una mezcla peculiar de tediosa petulancia, autobombo y autopromoción incansables. Es un poco como esas figuras de autoridad que tienen en la pared de su despacho hasta la última placa, diploma y premio que han conseguido en su carrera, y cada vez que entras en su despacho estás obligado a mirar a la pared y decir algo para indicar que estás impresionado. Las paredes de Wimbledon, junto con todos sus pasillos y accesos importantes, están cubiertos de pósters y carteles con imágenes de campeones del pasado, listas de datos relacionados con Wimbledon, curiosidades, apuntes históricos, etcétera. Algunas de estas cosas resultan interesantes y otras simplemente extrañas. El Museo del Tenis sobre Hierba de Wimbledon, por ejemplo, tiene una colección de todas las distintas clases de raquetas que se han usado aquí a lo largo de las décadas, y uno de los muchos carteles que hay en el pasillo del Nivel 2 del Edificio del Milenio promociona esta exposición tanto por medio de fotos como de textos didácticos, una especie de Historia de la Raqueta. Aquí está, sic, el final apoteósico de dicho texto:

Los armazones actuales fabricados con materiales de la era espacial como son el grafito, el boro, el titanio y la cerámica, y provistos de cabezas más grandes –tanto de tamaño medio (580-610 cm2) como extra grande (710 cm2)–, han transformado por completo la naturaleza del juego. Hoy día son los tiradores más fuertes quienes dominan gracias a un potente efecto liftado. Los jugadores de saque y volea y aquellos que se basaban en la sutileza y el toque prácticamente han desaparecido.

Resulta extraño, en el mejor de los casos, que dicho diagnóstico continúe siendo tan predominante aquí durante el cuarto año del reinado de Federer en Wimbledon, puesto que el suizo ha aportado al tenis masculino grados de toque y sutileza inéditos desde (por lo menos) la época de apogeo de McEnroe. En realidad, sin embargo, el cartel se limita a dar testimonio del poder del dogma. Desde hace casi dos décadas, la versión oficial es que ciertos adelantos introducidos en la tecnología, la preparación y las pruebas de peso de las raquetas han hecho que el tenis deje de ser un deporte de rapidez y finura para convertirse en un deporte de atletismo y fuerza bruta. Y en tanto que etiología del estilo moderno de juego de fondo, esta versión oficial es cierta en líneas generales. Los profesionales de hoy día son perceptiblemente más grandes y fuertes y están mejor preparados físicamente, y es verdad que las raquetas compuestas de alta tecnología han aumentado su capacidad para tirar a alta velocidad y darle efecto a la pelota. Es por eso por lo que el hecho de que alguien con la finura consumada de Roger Federer haya llegado a dominar el circuito masculino es motivo de gran confusión entre los dogmáticos.

Hay tres posibles explicaciones válidas del ascenso de Federer. Una explicación se basa en el misterio y la metafísica, y creo que es la que más se acerca a la verdad. Las otras dos son más técnicas y mejores desde el punto de vista periodístico.

La explicación metafísica es que Roger Federer es uno de esos escasos atletas sobrenaturales que parecen estar exentos, por lo menos en parte, de ciertas leyes de la física. Otros seres comparables serían Michael Jordan, que no solo podía dar saltos inhumanamente altos, sino también quedarse suspendido en el aire un momento o dos más de los que permitía la gravedad, y Muhammad Ali, que realmente podía cruzar «flotando» la lona y asestar dos o tres golpes cortos en el tiempo necesario para dar uno. Probablemente haya otra media docena de ejemplos desde 1960. Y Roger Federer pertenece a esa categoría: una categoría que se puede denominar genio, mutante o avatar. Nunca verás que le falte tiempo ni equilibrio. La pelota que se acerca a él se queda suspendida en el aire una fracción de segundo más de lo que debería. Sus movimientos son más ágiles que atléticos. Igual que Ali, Jordan, Maradona y Gretzky, parece al mismo tiempo menos y más sólido que los hombres a los que se enfrenta. Especialmente ataviado con la ropa toda blanca que a Wimbledon le gusta mantener como requisito, parece exactamente lo que (creo) que es: una criatura cuyo cuerpo es al mismo tiempo carne y, de alguna manera, luz.

Eso de que la bola coopere quedándose suspendida, aminorando la velocidad, como si fuera susceptible a la voluntad del suizo, es toda una verdad metafísica. Y también lo es la siguiente anécdota. Después de una semifinal celebrada el 7 de julio en que Federer destruyó a Jonas Bjorkman –no solo lo derrotó: lo destruyó–, y justo antes de la conferencia de prensa de rigor posterior al partido en la que Bjorkman, que es amigo de Federer, dijo que estaba encantado de haber «tenido el mejor asiento de la pista» para ver cómo el suizo «jugaba lo más cerca de la perfección que se puede jugar al tenis», Federer y Bjorkman estaban al parecer charlando y bromeando y Bjorkman le preguntó cómo de antinaturalmente grande le había parecido la pelota allí en la pista, y Federer le confirmó que la había visto «como una pelota de baloncesto o una bola de bolera». Lo decía únicamente como forma modesta y jocosa de hacer que Bjorkman se sintiera mejor, de confirmar que lo había sorprendido lo desacostumbradamente bien que había jugado aquel día; pero también estaba revelando algo de cómo es el tenis para él. Imagine usted que es una persona dotada de unos reflejos, una coordinación y una velocidad sobrenaturales, y que está jugando al tenis de alto nivel. Mientras juega, no experimentará usted el hecho de poseer unos reflejos y una velocidad excepcionales; más bien le parecerá que la pelota de tenis es muy grande y se mueve muy despacio, y que siempre le da a usted tiempo de sobra para pegarle. Es decir, no experimentará usted nada parecido a la rapidez y la habilidad (empíricamente reales) que le atribuirá el público que presencie en directo cómo las pelotas se mueven tan deprisa que zumban y se hacen invisibles.

Roger Federer es uno de esos escasos atletas sobrenaturales que parecen estar exentos, por lo menos en parte, de ciertas leyes de la física. Otros seres comparables serían Michael Jordan, que no solo podía dar saltos inhumanamente altos, sino también quedarse suspendido en el aire un momento o dos más de los que permitía la gravedad, y Muhammad Ali, que realmente podía cruzar «flotando» la lona y asestar dos o tres golpes cortos en el tiempo necesario para dar uno.

Pero la velocidad no lo explica todo. Ahora vamos a ponernos técnicos. A menudo se dice que el tenis es un deporte de centímetros, pero el tópico se refiere principalmente al área donde aterriza la pelota. En términos de dónde golpea el jugador la pelota que le viene, el tenis es más bien un deporte de micras: en el momento del impacto, una serie de variaciones tan minúsculas que tienden a lo inexistente producen efectos enormes en la forma de volar de la pelota y en el punto donde aterriza. Es el mismo principio que explica por qué cuando uno apunta con un rifle, hasta la imprecisión más pequeña provocará que uno yerre el tiro si el objetivo está lo bastante lejos.

A modo de ilustración, ralenticemos un poco las cosas. Imagine que usted, un jugador de tenis, está plantado justo detrás de su línea de dobles. Le sirven una pelota a su lado de drive: usted entonces gira (o rota) para ponerse de costado a la trayectoria de la pelota que se acerca y empieza a echar la raqueta hacia atrás para darle impulso a su drive de respuesta. Continúe visualizando la jugada hasta el punto en que está usted en mitad del movimiento hacia delante para ejecutar la devolución: ahora tiene usted la pelota al lado mismo de su cadera más adelantada, a unos quince centímetros del punto de impacto. Plantéese usted algunas de las variables que entran en juego. En el plano vertical, inclinar la faceta de su raqueta un par de grados adelante o atrás provocará respectivamente efecto liftado o efecto cortado; mantenerla perpendicular producirá un drive recto y sin efecto. En el plano horizontal, ajustar la faceta de la raqueta muy ligeramente hacia la izquierda o la derecha, y darle a la pelota quizás un milisegundo antes o después, producirá una devolución hacia delante o bien cruzada. Otros cambios minúsculos en las curvas según las cuales oriente usted el tiro de fondo y lo prolongue contribuirán a determinar cómo de alta pasará su devolución por encima de la red, lo cual, junto con la velocidad a la que usted mueva el brazo (junto con ciertas características del efecto que le proporcione a la pelota) afectará al hecho de que su devolución aterrice adentrándose menos o más en la pista de su oponente, a la altura del bote, etcétera. Y no estoy trazando sino las distinciones más generales, por supuesto: también hay que distinguir entre efecto fuerte y efecto suave, tiro muy cruzado y tiro cruzado a secas, etcétera. También hay que tener en cuenta cuestiones como cuánto va a dejar usted que se le acerque la pelota al cuerpo, qué clase de empuñadura usa, en qué medida tiene usted las rodillas dobladas y/o está desplazando su peso hacia delante, y si es usted capaz simultáneamente de contemplar la pelota y de ver qué está haciendo su oponente después de servir. Todas estas cosas también importan. Además, piense que no estará usted poniendo en movimiento un objeto estático, sino más bien invirtiendo la trayectoria aérea y (de forma variable) el efecto de un proyectil que viene hacia usted, y que viene, en el caso del tenis profesional, a unas velocidades que imposibilitan el pensamiento consciente. El primer saque de Mario Ancic, por ejemplo, suele ir a 210 km/h. Como entre la línea de fondo de Ancic y la de usted hay veinticuatro metros, su saque tardará 0,41 segundos en llegar a usted. Es menos tiempo del que se tarda en parpadear rápidamente dos veces.

 9 de julio de 2006. Roger Federer gana la final de Wimbledon ante Rafa Nadal. Crédito: Getty Images.

La conclusión es que los intervalos de tiempo que da el tenis profesional son demasiado breves para emprender acciones deliberadas. En términos temporales estamos más bien en la gama operativa de los reflejos, las reacciones puramente físicas que pasan por encima del pensamiento consciente. Y, sin embargo, la devolución eficaz de un servicio depende de un amplio conjunto de decisiones y ajustes físicos que son mucho más complejos e intencionados que el acto de parpadear, de dar un brinco cuando te sobresaltan, etcétera.

Devolver con éxito una pelota de tenis que te han servido con fuerza requiere eso que a veces se ha denominado «sentido cinestésico», que no es otra cosa que controlar el cuerpo y sus extensiones artificiales por medio de sistemas complejos y muy rápidos de tareas. El idioma cuenta con toda una nube de términos para designar las diversas partes de esta capacidad: sensación, tacto, forma, propriocepción, coordinación, coordinación mano-ojo, cinestesia, gracia, control, reflejos y otros por el estilo. Para los jugadores juveniles prometedores, refinar el sentido cinestésico es la meta principal de esos regímenes extremos de entrenamiento diario de los que oímos hablar a menudo. Se trata de un entrenamiento tanto muscular como neurológico. Golpear miles de veces la pelota, día tras día, desarrolla la capacidad de hacer «con el tacto» lo que no se puede hacer con el pensamiento consciente normal. A menudo al espectador esta clase de práctica repetitiva le parece tediosa o incluso cruel, pero es que el espectador no puede sentir lo que está pasando dentro del jugador: ajustes minúsculos, uno sobre otro, y una sensación de los efectos que producen esos cambios que se va volviendo más aguda a medida que se aleja de la conciencia normal.

Fue solo semanas después de dejar los estudios cuando Federer ganó el juvenil de Wimbledon. Obviamente, esto no lo puede hacer cualquier jugador juvenil que se entregue al tenis. Y resulta igual de obvio que no todo es una simple cuestión de tiempo y entrenamiento: también está el talento en sí, del que hay distintos grados.

El tiempo y la disciplina que se necesitan para un adiestramiento cinestésico serio son una de las razones de que los profesionales de élite hayan dedicado la mayor parte de su vida consciente a jugar al tenis, empezando (como muy tarde) al principio de su segunda década de vida. Por ejemplo, fue a los trece años cuando Roger Federer dejó por fin el fútbol y algo parecido a una infancia para entrar en el centro nacional suizo de entrenamiento de tenis de Ecublens. A los dieciséis años dejó los estudios y se metió en serio en la competición internacional.

Fue solo semanas después de dejar los estudios cuando Federer ganó el juvenil de Wimbledon. Obviamente, esto no lo puede hacer cualquier jugador juvenil que se entregue al tenis. Y resulta igual de obvio que no todo es una simple cuestión de tiempo y entrenamiento: también está el talento en sí, del que hay distintos grados. Solo para hacer que valgan la pena los años de práctica y entrenamiento ya tiene que existir (y poder medirse) un talento cinestésico extraordinario… pero a partir de ahí, con el tiempo, la crema empieza a subir y a separarse. De manera que una de las explicaciones técnicas del dominio de Federer es que simplemente tiene un poco más de talento cinestésico que los demás profesionales masculinos. Solo un poco más, dado que todos los integrantes del Top 100 tiene el don de la cinestesia. Lo que pasa es que el tenis es un juego que se decide en cuestión de centímetros.

Esta explicación resulta verosímil pero incompleta. En 1986 seguramente no habría sido incompleta. En 2006, sin embargo, es pertinente preguntar por qué sigue importando tanto esta clase de talento. Recuerden lo que tienen de cierto el dogma y el letrero de Wimbledon. Con o sin virtuosismo cinestésico, ahora Roger Federer está dominando la escena de profesionales masculinos más grande, fuerte, mejor preparada, mejor entrenada y en mejor forma física que ha existido jamás, donde todo el mundo usa una especie de raqueta nuclear que se dice que ha hecho irrelevantes las calibraciones más finas del sentido cinestésico, como intentar silbar Mozart en un concierto de Metallica.



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