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Sobre la mentira fascista: hacer de las metáforas una realidad

Al igual que los fascistas del pasado, los actuales líderes populistas de extrema derecha acumulan poder político retorciendo la realidad, promoviendo el odio y fomentando mitos infundados (sólo hay que ver lo que acaba de ocurrir con Giorgia Meloni, quien gobernará en Italia a pesar de -¿o gracias a?- haber loado al dictador Benito Mussolini). La estrategia es sencilla: llevar sus mensajes al límite para crear una verdad individual que deje poso en parte del electorado, grupos de personas cada vez más numerosos que no cuestionan la veracidad de estos postulados. De larga tradición política, como bien analiza Federico Finchelstein en «Breve historia de la mentira fascista» (Taurus), esta práctica explica cómo los líderes del fascismo capitalizaron la falsedad como base de su poder. Extraídas de la obra de Finchelstein, las siguientes líneas evidencian un modelo de actuación del ayer -hacer política a partir de «fake news»- al que no cuesta encontrar reflejo en la sociedad de hoy.

{"id":800,"id_simpleblog_post":"800","id_simpleblog_category":"66","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Federico Finchelstein","author_url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1740-federico-finchelstein","likes":"0","views":"1742","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:5:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;i:4;b:0;i:5;b:0;}","cover":"png","featured":"png","id_product":"233405,304806","id_category_tematica":"116108,60,116110,116103","id_category_autor":"9122","id_category_editorial":"11335","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Sobre la mentira fascista: hacer de las met\u00e1foras una realidad","meta_title":"Sobre la mentira fascista: hacer de las met\u00e1foras una realidad","meta_description":"Los actuales l\u00edderes populistas de extrema derecha acumulan poder pol\u00edtico retorciendo la realidad y promoviendo el odio, una pr\u00e1ctica de larga tradici\u00f3n, tal y como analiza Federico Finchelstein en \u00abBreve historia de la mentira fascista\u00bb.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA Breve historia de la mentira fascista Federico Finchelstein Taurus","short_content":"<p>Al igual que los fascistas del pasado, los actuales l\u00edderes populistas de extrema derecha acumulan poder pol\u00edtico retorciendo la realidad, promoviendo el odio y fomentando mitos infundados (s\u00f3lo hay que ver lo que acaba de ocurrir con Giorgia Meloni, quien gobernar\u00e1 en Italia a pesar de -\u00bfo gracias a?- haber loado al dictador Benito Mussolini). La estrategia es sencilla: llevar sus mensajes al l\u00edmite para crear una verdad individual que deje poso en parte del electorado, grupos de personas cada vez m\u00e1s numerosos que no cuestionan la veracidad de estos postulados. De larga tradici\u00f3n pol\u00edtica, como bien analiza Federico Finchelstein en \u00abBreve historia de la mentira fascista\u00bb (Taurus), esta pr\u00e1ctica explica c\u00f3mo los l\u00edderes del fascismo capitalizaron la falsedad como base de su poder. Extra\u00eddas de la obra de Finchelstein, las siguientes l\u00edneas evidencian un modelo de actuaci\u00f3n del ayer -hacer pol\u00edtica a partir de \u00abfake news\u00bb- al que no cuesta encontrar reflejo en la sociedad de hoy.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"90bmw2p\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">P\u00f3ster de propaganda estadounidense de la II Guerra Mundial (fechado en 1942). En el cartel se puede leer \u00abNo seas el t\u00edtere de Hitler. \u00a1C\u00e1llate!\u00bb en alusi\u00f3n al espionaje nazi en territorio aliado. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">A alguno de esos mentirosos precisos le di con el pu\u00f1o en<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">la cara. Los testigos aprobaron mi desahogo, y fabricaron<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">otras mentiras. No las cre\u00ed, pero no me atrev\u00ed a deso\u00edrlas.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/borges-en-estados-unidos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5i3tfdm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El m\u00e1s famoso propagandista fascista, el l\u00edder nazi Joseph Goebbels, suele ser mal citado cuando se le atribuye el dicho de que repetir mentiras fue algo capital para el nazismo. La cita err\u00f3nea da la imagen de un fascismo plenamente consciente del alcance de sus falsedades deliberadas (1). \u00bfEst\u00e1 el enga\u00f1o en el centro del fascismo? \u00bfCreen los mentirosos en sus propias mentiras? \u00bfSon conscientes de su falsedad? Cuando Goebbels dec\u00eda que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Hitler lo conoc\u00eda todo<\/a><\/span> y que era \u00abel instrumento creativo natural del destino divino\u00bb, \u00bfmanejaba un concepto de conocimiento fundado en la realidad?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vbij161\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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asunto es complicado. En realidad, Goebbels, que alguna vez hab\u00eda inventado y luego publicado noticias sobre un intento de asesinato contra su persona, m\u00e1s tarde las \u00abpublic\u00f3\u00bb en sus diarios como si fueran hechos. En esos diarios, no escritos para consumo del p\u00fablico sino publicados muchos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de su muerte, tambi\u00e9n advert\u00eda el \u00ab\u00e9xito\u00bb que ten\u00edan sus discursos una vez que eran celebrados por los medios que controlaba. \u00bfSe ment\u00eda Goebbels a s\u00ed mismo o cre\u00eda en una forma de verdad que trascend\u00eda la demostraci\u00f3n emp\u00edrica? \u00bfQuer\u00eda fabricar una nueva realidad? Desde una perspectiva fundada en la realidad, por supuesto, no hay diferencia entre fabricar una mentira y creer en una idea m\u00e1gica de la verdad, en huir de la veracidad. Al inventar una realidad alternativa, Goebbels se ment\u00eda a s\u00ed mismo, pero eso no es lo que \u00e9l y la mayor\u00eda de los fascistas transnacionales cre\u00edan.<\/p><p>Para fascistas como Goebbels, el conocimiento era una cuesti\u00f3n de fe, de fe profunda en el mito del l\u00edder fascista. La manipulaci\u00f3n o invenci\u00f3n de los hechos fue una dimensi\u00f3n clave del fascismo, pero tambi\u00e9n lo fue la creencia en una verdad que trascend\u00eda los hechos Para los fascistas no hab\u00eda contradicci\u00f3n entre verdad y propaganda.<\/p><p>Goebbels defin\u00eda la propaganda como \u00abel arte no de mentir o distorsionar sino de escuchar \u201cel alma del pueblo\u201d y \u201chablarle a una persona en el lenguaje que esa persona entiende\u201d\u00bb. Como se\u00f1ala el historiador Richard Evans, \u00ablos nazis actuaban a partir de la premisa de que ellos y s\u00f3lo ellos, a trav\u00e9s de Hitler, ten\u00edan un conocimiento y una comprensi\u00f3n \u00edntimos del alma alemana\u00bb. La idea de una verdad que emanaba del alma era el resultado de un acto de fe en una certeza absoluta, que no pod\u00eda ser 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Lo que consideraba como mentiras eran hechos que contradec\u00edan su teor\u00eda racista del universo. Su concepci\u00f3n del mundo descansaba en una noci\u00f3n de verdad que no necesitaba verificaci\u00f3n emp\u00edrica. En otras palabras, lo que es verdad para la mayor\u00eda de nosotros (el resultado de causas y efectos demostrables), para \u00e9l era potencialmente falso. Lo que para la mayor\u00eda de nosotros ser\u00edan mentiras o hechos inventados era para \u00e9l una forma superior de verdad. Como sostienen hoy muchos medios populistas, Hitler invert\u00eda la realidad proyectando en sus enemigos su propia deshonestidad para con la verdad, alegando de manera falaz que los que ment\u00edan eran los jud\u00edos, no \u00e9l El mentiroso fascista actuaba como si representara la verdad Acusaba a los jud\u00edos de participar de una \u00abdistorsi\u00f3n colosal de la Verdad\u00bb. Pero Hitler asociaba esa verdad real con los mitos antisemitas en los que cre\u00eda y propagaba (2).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yqc2v50\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Los m\u00e1s importantes <em>connoisseurs<\/em> de esta verdad acerca de las posibilidades del uso de la falsedad y la calumnia han sido siempre los jud\u00edos; despu\u00e9s de todo, toda su existencia se basa en la gran mentira, esto es, la idea de que son una comunidad religiosa, cuando en realidad son una raza \u2014\u00a1y qu\u00e9 raza! Una de las grandes mentes de la humanidad los desenmascar\u00f3 para siempre como tales con una frase eternamente correcta, de una verdad fundamental: los llam\u00f3 \u00ablos grandes maestros de la mentira\u00bb. 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Los fascistas fantasearon una nueva realidad y luego cambiaron la verdadera. As\u00ed, reformularon las fronteras entre mito y realidad. El mito reemplazaba la realidad con pol\u00edticas destinadas a reconfigurar el mundo en funci\u00f3n de las mentiras en las que cre\u00edan los racistas. Si, seg\u00fan las mentiras antisemitas, los jud\u00edos eran intr\u00ednsecamente sucios y contagiosos y deb\u00edan por lo tanto ser asesinados, los nazis, con los guetos y los campos de concentraci\u00f3n, crearon condiciones en las que la suciedad y el contagio de enfermedades se hac\u00edan realidad. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">1943. La s\u00e1tira contra la mentira. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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una verdad que no coincidiera con el mundo vivido, los fascistas procedieron a hacer de las met\u00e1foras una realidad. No hab\u00eda nada verdadero en las falsedades ideol\u00f3gicas fascistas, pero sus partidarios quer\u00edan que esas mentiras fueran lo m\u00e1s reales posible. Conceb\u00edan lo que ve\u00edan y no les gustaba como algo que no era verdadero.\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Mussolini sosten\u00eda que una tarea central del fascismo era negar las mentiras del sistema democr\u00e1tico<\/span>.<\/a> Opon\u00eda tambi\u00e9n la verdad del fascismo a la \u00abmentira\u00bb de la democracia. El principio de encarnaci\u00f3n era central en la oposici\u00f3n m\u00edtica que el Duce planteaba entre las \u00abmentiras\u00bb democr\u00e1ticas y la \u00abverdad\u00bb fascista. Cre\u00eda en una forma de verdad que trascend\u00eda el sentido com\u00fan democr\u00e1tico porque era trascendental. \u00abEn un momento determinado de mi vida \u2014recordaba\u2014 corr\u00ed el riesgo de volverme impopular con las masas al anunciarles lo que yo cre\u00eda que era la nueva verdad, una santa verdad <em>[la verit\u00e0 santa]\u00bb.<\/em><\/p><p>Para Mussolini, la realidad deb\u00eda seguir imperativos m\u00edticos. Poco importaba que al principio la gente no estuviera convencida; tambi\u00e9n hab\u00eda que desafiar su incredulidad. El marco m\u00edtico del fascismo estaba arraigado en el mito fascista de la naci\u00f3n. Ese mito, declaraba, \u00abnosotros queremos traducirlo a una realidad completa\u00bb. El mito pod\u00eda cambiar la realidad; pero la realidad no pod\u00eda representar un obst\u00e1culo para el mito. Esta santa verdad del fascismo se defin\u00eda tambi\u00e9n por la imposici\u00f3n de fronteras peculiares entre las verdades fascistas y la naturaleza falaz del enemigo. Del otro lado estaban las mentiras del enemigo. A trav\u00e9s de las fronteras europeas, la gente estaba encantada con \u00abla obsesi\u00f3n del Mito Ruso\u00bb \u2014el bolchevismo\u2014, pero Mussolini consideraba que esos mitos rivales eran falsos en la medida en que se opon\u00edan a las formas absolutas de Verdad arraigadas en el nacionalismo extremo, y por supuesto a su propio liderazgo, que \u00e9l hab\u00eda identificado con el mito. A ese mito, dec\u00eda el Duce, \u00absubordinamos todo lo dem\u00e1s\u00bb.<\/p><p>Al modernizarlo, los fascistas transformaban el mito, que pasaba de una creencia personal a una forma primaria de identificaci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica. En esa reformulaci\u00f3n, la pol\u00edtica verdadera era la proyecci\u00f3n de un yo interior antiguo y violento que, aplicado a la pol\u00edtica, superaba los artificios de la raz\u00f3n. Esta operaci\u00f3n les permit\u00eda definir como verdadero todo aquello que se adecuara a sus propios objetivos, postulados y deseos ideol\u00f3gicos.<\/p><p>Esta dimensi\u00f3n m\u00edtica del fascismo era antidemocr\u00e1tica. Hist\u00f3ricamente, la democracia se ha fundado en la idea de que la verdad se opone a la mentira, las creencias equivocadas y la informaci\u00f3n err\u00f3nea. Los fascistas, en cambio, ofrec\u00edan una idea de verdad radical en dictadura. Como explicaba el historiador Robert Paxton, para los fascistas \u00abla verdad era todo lo que permitiera que el hombre (y la mujer) nuevo fascista dominara a otros, y todo lo que contribuyera al triunfo del pueblo elegido. 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Propaganda sovi\u00e9tica a cargo de Kukryniksy, grupo de tres caricaturistas moscovitas. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Image<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gxif7ce\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Pero los precedentes pol\u00edticos abundaban. El car\u00e1cter inquietante que verdad y mentira tienen en el fascismo es una dimensi\u00f3n recurrente en la larga historia de la relaci\u00f3n entre verdad y pol\u00edtica. Para la fil\u00f3sofa Hannah Arendt, si la historia de la pol\u00edtica muestra siempre una relaci\u00f3n tensa con la verdad, la resoluci\u00f3n fascista de esa tensi\u00f3n implica la destrucci\u00f3n de la pol\u00edtica. La mentira organizada define al fascismo. S\u00f3lo los hechos (y las mentiras) formulados por el liderazgo pod\u00edan aceptarse como verdades.<\/p><p>Distorsionar la verdad con el pretexto de promover una realidad alternativa es un fen\u00f3meno com\u00fan en la historia fascista. El dictador fascista espa\u00f1ol Francisco Franco neg\u00f3 su participaci\u00f3n en uno de los m\u00e1s grandes cr\u00edmenes de guerra: el repugnante bombardeo de Guernica, que dej\u00f3 cientos de muertos. Aunque el bombardeo haya sido un acto muy bien documentado del gobierno fascista, Franco sosten\u00eda que \u00ablos Rojos\u00bb hab\u00edan \u00abdestruido Guernica\u00bb para difundir \u00abpropaganda\u00bb y mentiras sobre \u00e9l. Cooptaba as\u00ed la idea misma de verdad, sosteniendo que las mentiras no eran suyas sino de sus enemigos pol\u00edticos.<\/p><p>Del mismo modo, los nazis no distingu\u00edan entre hechos observables y \u00abverdades\u00bb ideol\u00f3gicamente orientadas. Las consecuencias m\u00e1s radicales de la dictadura totalitaria aparecieron cuando \u00ablos l\u00edderes de masas tomaron el poder para amoldar la realidad a sus mentiras\u00bb. A\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, en su controvertido estudio sobre Adolf Eichmann, Arendt aport\u00f3 una indagaci\u00f3n fundamental sobre el razonamiento de uno de los planificadores del Holocausto que epitomizaron el fen\u00f3meno del \u00abdesprecio extremo por los hechos como tales\u00bb. Arendt equiparaba la adhesi\u00f3n a la mentira de Eichmann con toda una sociedad \u00abque se escudaba contra la realidad y la factualidad exactamente con los mismos medios, autoenga\u00f1o, mentiras y estupidez, que ahora se hab\u00edan inoculado en la mentalidad de Eichmann\u00bb.<\/p><p>Arendt perd\u00eda de vista una dimensi\u00f3n importante del proceso de Eichmann: la perspectiva de la verdad tal como la presentaban las v\u00edctimas. En su retrato de Eichmann tambi\u00e9n faltaba la profunda dedicaci\u00f3n ideol\u00f3gica, incluso el fanatismo del hombre. Aun en el momento de morir, Eichmann declar\u00f3 ceremoniosamente: \u00abQue viva Alemania, que viva Argentina, que viva Austria. Yo no las olvidar\u00e9\u00bb. Arendt escribe el j\u00fabilo de Eichmann al sentir la relevancia de su propia muerte como un momento de una \u00abestupidez grotesca\u00bb. Pero para Arendt esa conciencia era se\u00f1al de una representaci\u00f3n estereotipada del momento, no de su comprensi\u00f3n ideol\u00f3gica. En su descripci\u00f3n, las \u00faltimas palabras de Eichmann eran \u00abclis\u00e9s\u00bb: la banalidad del mal. Otros historiadores optaron por hacer hincapi\u00e9 en el hecho de que esas \u00faltimas palabras, y en t\u00e9rminos m\u00e1s generales su pasado nazi y sus cr\u00edmenes, eran resultado del compromiso profundo de Eichmann con lo que \u00e9l consideraba era la verdad ideol\u00f3gica esencial del nazismo. Eichmann ve\u00eda su vida y su muerte como una memoria que iba m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de su itinerario transatl\u00e1ntico entre m\u00faltiples ciudades, de Berl\u00edn a Buenos Aires y de Buenos Aires a Jerusal\u00e9n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rdcvt3z\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No hab\u00eda nada verdadero en las falsedades ideol\u00f3gicas fascistas, pero sus partidarios quer\u00edan que esas mentiras fueran lo m\u00e1s reales posible. Conceb\u00edan lo que ve\u00edan y no les gustaba como algo que no era verdadero. Mussolini sosten\u00eda que una tarea central del fascismo era negar las mentiras del sistema democr\u00e1tico. Opon\u00eda tambi\u00e9n la verdad del fascismo a la \u00abmentira\u00bb de la democracia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o9ybd7y\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Muchos a\u00f1os antes de que Eichmann se enfrentara con la justicia en Jerusal\u00e9n,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/borges-y-bioy-casares-alias\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el escritor argentino Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span> imaginaba una muerte nazi parecida en un cuento publicado en Buenos Aires en 1946. Tras la derrota del nazismo, el asesino de la ficci\u00f3n borgeana, Otto Dietrich zur Linde, reflexiona sobre el significado del fascismo, el pasado y el presente. Zur Linde hab\u00eda vivido el momento sublime de la guerra, pero para \u00e9l era en la derrota donde se revelar\u00eda la verdad definitiva: en \u00ablos grandes d\u00edas y las grandes noches de una guerra feliz Hab\u00eda en el aire que respir\u00e1bamos un sentimiento parecido al amor. Como si bruscamente el mar estuviera cerca, hab\u00eda un asombro y una exaltaci\u00f3n en la sangre\u00bb. Pero en esa exaltaci\u00f3n no hab\u00eda lugar para la verdad. No era en el momento sublime de la victoria sino en el olor a \u00abheces\u00bb de la derrota donde nazis como \u00e9l encontraban una verdad que trascend\u00eda las explicaciones f\u00e1cticas (3).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s1rrsg8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Yo me cre\u00eda capaz de apurar la copa de la c\u00f3lera, pero en las heces me detuvo un sabor no esperado, el misterioso y casi terrible sabor de la felicidad. Ensay\u00e9 diversas explicaciones; no me bast\u00f3 ninguna. <em>Pens\u00e9: Me satisface la derrota, porque secretamente me s\u00e9 culpable y s\u00f3lo puede redimirme el castigo. Pens\u00e9: Me satisface la derrota, porque es un fin y yo estoy muy cansado. Pens\u00e9: Me satisface la derrota, porque ha ocurrido, porque est\u00e1 innumerablemente unida a todos los hechos que son, que fueron, que ser\u00e1n, porque censurar o deplorar un solo hecho real es blasfemar del universo.<\/em> Esas razones ensay\u00e9, hasta dar con la verdadera.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"70\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jfuop4f\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Descartados los hechos y la experiencia vivida, Zur Linde, circularmente, identifica la verdad con la fe nazi. Para Zur Linde, subdirector del campo de concentraci\u00f3n de Tarnowitz, la verdadera \u00abexplicaci\u00f3n\u00bb del fascismo resid\u00eda en la afirmaci\u00f3n de la devoci\u00f3n por la violencia. Era una fe \u2014no necesitaba corroboraci\u00f3n\u2014 que implantar\u00eda el \u00abpara\u00edso\u00bb en la Tierra: \u00abEl mundo se mor\u00eda de juda\u00edsmo, y de esa enfermedad del juda\u00edsmo que es la fe de Jes\u00fas; nosotros le ense\u00f1amos la violencia y la fe de la espada\u00bb.<\/p><p>Como Borges sugiere en tono de broma en la cita que sirve de ep\u00edgrafe a este cap\u00edtulo, uno deber\u00eda reconocer las mentiras como tales, pero no darse el lujo de ignorarlas al analizar los actos de violencia que inspiran. Aunque est\u00e9 claro para nosotros que, como el narrador nazi imaginario de Borges, en Jerusal\u00e9n Eichmann se enga\u00f1aba a s\u00ed mismo, no era as\u00ed como los fascistas explicaban y viv\u00edan sus acciones. Los t\u00e9rminos m\u00edticos en que los fascistas entend\u00edan su papel en la historia reclaman una explicaci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica Arendt insist\u00eda en se\u00f1alar la funci\u00f3n y el papel de esas mentiras en el sistema totalitario sin analizar primero por qu\u00e9 los fascistas cre\u00edan en ellas. No ten\u00eda tanto inter\u00e9s en la l\u00f3gica de sus motivos. \u00abEl sujeto ideal de la regla totalitaria \u2014razonaba\u2014 no es el nazi convencido ni el convencido comunista, sino la gente para la cual ya no hay diferencia entre hechos y ficci\u00f3n (es decir, la realidad de la experiencia) ni entre lo verdadero y lo falso (es decir, los est\u00e1ndares de pensamiento)\u00bb. Pero por importante que sea ese sujeto general \u00abideal\u00bb, el foco de mi libro est\u00e1 en los convencidos. En otras palabras, Arendt lidiaba con tipos ideales, y yo examino figuras reales, hist\u00f3ricamente documentadas, y fundamento mis argumentos en la historia del fascismo. Los historiadores del fascismo tambi\u00e9n necesitan comprender c\u00f3mo justificaban los fascistas sus mentiras.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 cre\u00edan los fascistas que sus mentiras eran la verdad? Como observaron en su momento muchos antifascistas, la historia fascista de la dictadura se funda en mentiras. El imaginario m\u00edtico que los fascistas postulaban como realidad nunca pudo ser corroborado, porque estaba basado en fantas\u00edas de dominaci\u00f3n total en el pasado y el presente.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"n8kqid6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Notas al pie:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">1. Hitler y Goebbels insist\u00edan en que la propaganda requiere constante repetici\u00f3n, pero nunca afirmaron que estuvieran mintiendo En realidad, cre\u00edan lo contrario, que hablaban en nombre de la verdad. Los fascistas suelen negar lo que son y atribuyen sus propias caracter\u00edsticas y sus propias pol\u00edticas totalitarias a sus enemigos. As\u00ed, Goebbels nunca dijo que repetir mentiras fuera fundamental para el nazismo; lo que s\u00ed dijo en 1941, a prop\u00f3sito de la \u00abf\u00e1brica de mentiras de Churchill\u00bb, es que \u00ablos ingleses se rigen por el principio de que si mientes, entonces miente, y sobre todo ap\u00e9gate a la mentira que hayas dicho\u00bb. En 1942 escribi\u00f3 en su diario privado que \u00abla esencia de la propaganda es la simplicidad y la repetici\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">2.\u00a0Adolf Hitler en <em>Mein Kampf.<\/em><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">3.\u00a0Borges, \u00abDeutsches Requiem\u00bb, <em>Obras completas I.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cspshmk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">George Orwell sobre \u00abMein Kampf\u00bb: Hitler o el m\u00e1rtir Prometeo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfPuede volver el fascismo?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La invasi\u00f3n rusa<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5p15vam\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Póster de propaganda estadounidense de la II Guerra Mundial (fechado en 1942). En el cartel se puede leer «No seas el títere de Hitler. ¡Cállate!» en alusión al espionaje nazi en territorio aliado. Crédito: Getty Images.

A alguno de esos mentirosos precisos le di con el puño en

la cara. Los testigos aprobaron mi desahogo, y fabricaron

otras mentiras. No las creí, pero no me atreví a desoírlas.

Jorge Luis Borges

El más famoso propagandista fascista, el líder nazi Joseph Goebbels, suele ser mal citado cuando se le atribuye el dicho de que repetir mentiras fue algo capital para el nazismo. La cita errónea da la imagen de un fascismo plenamente consciente del alcance de sus falsedades deliberadas (1). ¿Está el engaño en el centro del fascismo? ¿Creen los mentirosos en sus propias mentiras? ¿Son conscientes de su falsedad? Cuando Goebbels decía que Hitler lo conocía todo y que era «el instrumento creativo natural del destino divino», ¿manejaba un concepto de conocimiento fundado en la realidad?

El asunto es complicado. En realidad, Goebbels, que alguna vez había inventado y luego publicado noticias sobre un intento de asesinato contra su persona, más tarde las «publicó» en sus diarios como si fueran hechos. En esos diarios, no escritos para consumo del público sino publicados muchos años después de su muerte, también advertía el «éxito» que tenían sus discursos una vez que eran celebrados por los medios que controlaba. ¿Se mentía Goebbels a sí mismo o creía en una forma de verdad que trascendía la demostración empírica? ¿Quería fabricar una nueva realidad? Desde una perspectiva fundada en la realidad, por supuesto, no hay diferencia entre fabricar una mentira y creer en una idea mágica de la verdad, en huir de la veracidad. Al inventar una realidad alternativa, Goebbels se mentía a sí mismo, pero eso no es lo que él y la mayoría de los fascistas transnacionales creían.

Para fascistas como Goebbels, el conocimiento era una cuestión de fe, de fe profunda en el mito del líder fascista. La manipulación o invención de los hechos fue una dimensión clave del fascismo, pero también lo fue la creencia en una verdad que trascendía los hechos Para los fascistas no había contradicción entre verdad y propaganda.

Goebbels definía la propaganda como «el arte no de mentir o distorsionar sino de escuchar “el alma del pueblo” y “hablarle a una persona en el lenguaje que esa persona entiende”». Como señala el historiador Richard Evans, «los nazis actuaban a partir de la premisa de que ellos y sólo ellos, a través de Hitler, tenían un conocimiento y una comprensión íntimos del alma alemana». La idea de una verdad que emanaba del alma era el resultado de un acto de fe en una certeza absoluta, que no podía ser corroborada.

Cuando hablaba de grandes mentiras y grandes verdades, Adolf Hitler delataba el esfuerzo que hacía por trastocar el mundo de lo verdadero y lo falso. Lo que consideraba como mentiras eran hechos que contradecían su teoría racista del universo. Su concepción del mundo descansaba en una noción de verdad que no necesitaba verificación empírica. En otras palabras, lo que es verdad para la mayoría de nosotros (el resultado de causas y efectos demostrables), para él era potencialmente falso. Lo que para la mayoría de nosotros serían mentiras o hechos inventados era para él una forma superior de verdad. Como sostienen hoy muchos medios populistas, Hitler invertía la realidad proyectando en sus enemigos su propia deshonestidad para con la verdad, alegando de manera falaz que los que mentían eran los judíos, no él El mentiroso fascista actuaba como si representara la verdad Acusaba a los judíos de participar de una «distorsión colosal de la Verdad». Pero Hitler asociaba esa verdad real con los mitos antisemitas en los que creía y propagaba (2).

Los más importantes connoisseurs de esta verdad acerca de las posibilidades del uso de la falsedad y la calumnia han sido siempre los judíos; después de todo, toda su existencia se basa en la gran mentira, esto es, la idea de que son una comunidad religiosa, cuando en realidad son una raza —¡y qué raza! Una de las grandes mentes de la humanidad los desenmascaró para siempre como tales con una frase eternamente correcta, de una verdad fundamental: los llamó «los grandes maestros de la mentira». Y quien no lo reconozca o no quiera creerlo nunca será capaz de contribuir al triunfo de la verdad en este mundo.

En los años 30 y 40, Hitler, los fascistas argentinos y muchos fascistas del mundo veían la verdad encarnada en mitos antisemitas, lo que el filósofo judío alemán Ernst Cassirer llamaba «un mito conforme al plan». Los fascistas fantasearon una nueva realidad y luego cambiaron la verdadera. Así, reformularon las fronteras entre mito y realidad. El mito reemplazaba la realidad con políticas destinadas a reconfigurar el mundo en función de las mentiras en las que creían los racistas. Si, según las mentiras antisemitas, los judíos eran intrínsecamente sucios y contagiosos y debían por lo tanto ser asesinados, los nazis, con los guetos y los campos de concentración, crearon condiciones en las que la suciedad y el contagio de enfermedades se hacían realidad. Famélicos, torturados y radicalmente deshumanizados, los reclusos judíos se convirtieron en lo que los nazis habían planeado que se convirtieran, y por consiguiente fueron asesinados.

1943. La sátira contra la mentira. Crédito: Getty Images.

Buscando una verdad que no coincidiera con el mundo vivido, los fascistas procedieron a hacer de las metáforas una realidad. No había nada verdadero en las falsedades ideológicas fascistas, pero sus partidarios querían que esas mentiras fueran lo más reales posible. Concebían lo que veían y no les gustaba como algo que no era verdadero. Mussolini sostenía que una tarea central del fascismo era negar las mentiras del sistema democrático. Oponía también la verdad del fascismo a la «mentira» de la democracia. El principio de encarnación era central en la oposición mítica que el Duce planteaba entre las «mentiras» democráticas y la «verdad» fascista. Creía en una forma de verdad que trascendía el sentido común democrático porque era trascendental. «En un momento determinado de mi vida —recordaba— corrí el riesgo de volverme impopular con las masas al anunciarles lo que yo creía que era la nueva verdad, una santa verdad [la verità santa]».

Para Mussolini, la realidad debía seguir imperativos míticos. Poco importaba que al principio la gente no estuviera convencida; también había que desafiar su incredulidad. El marco mítico del fascismo estaba arraigado en el mito fascista de la nación. Ese mito, declaraba, «nosotros queremos traducirlo a una realidad completa». El mito podía cambiar la realidad; pero la realidad no podía representar un obstáculo para el mito. Esta santa verdad del fascismo se definía también por la imposición de fronteras peculiares entre las verdades fascistas y la naturaleza falaz del enemigo. Del otro lado estaban las mentiras del enemigo. A través de las fronteras europeas, la gente estaba encantada con «la obsesión del Mito Ruso» —el bolchevismo—, pero Mussolini consideraba que esos mitos rivales eran falsos en la medida en que se oponían a las formas absolutas de Verdad arraigadas en el nacionalismo extremo, y por supuesto a su propio liderazgo, que él había identificado con el mito. A ese mito, decía el Duce, «subordinamos todo lo demás».

Al modernizarlo, los fascistas transformaban el mito, que pasaba de una creencia personal a una forma primaria de identificación política. En esa reformulación, la política verdadera era la proyección de un yo interior antiguo y violento que, aplicado a la política, superaba los artificios de la razón. Esta operación les permitía definir como verdadero todo aquello que se adecuara a sus propios objetivos, postulados y deseos ideológicos.

Esta dimensión mítica del fascismo era antidemocrática. Históricamente, la democracia se ha fundado en la idea de que la verdad se opone a la mentira, las creencias equivocadas y la información errónea. Los fascistas, en cambio, ofrecían una idea de verdad radical en dictadura. Como explicaba el historiador Robert Paxton, para los fascistas «la verdad era todo lo que permitiera que el hombre (y la mujer) nuevo fascista dominara a otros, y todo lo que contribuyera al triunfo del pueblo elegido. El fascismo no se apoyaba en la verdad de su doctrina sino en la unión mística del líder con el destino histórico de su pueblo, una idea vinculada con las ideas románticas de florecimiento histórico nacional y de genio espiritual o artístico individual, aunque el fascismo negaba al mismo tiempo la exaltación romántica de la creatividad personal irrestricta».

1941. «¡Aplastemos y aniquilemos al Enemigo!». Propaganda soviética a cargo de Kukryniksy, grupo de tres caricaturistas moscovitas. Crédito: Getty Image

La unificación metafórica fascista de pueblo, nación y líder respondía a la visión del mito como forma de verdad última. Pero los precedentes políticos abundaban. El carácter inquietante que verdad y mentira tienen en el fascismo es una dimensión recurrente en la larga historia de la relación entre verdad y política. Para la filósofa Hannah Arendt, si la historia de la política muestra siempre una relación tensa con la verdad, la resolución fascista de esa tensión implica la destrucción de la política. La mentira organizada define al fascismo. Sólo los hechos (y las mentiras) formulados por el liderazgo podían aceptarse como verdades.

Distorsionar la verdad con el pretexto de promover una realidad alternativa es un fenómeno común en la historia fascista. El dictador fascista español Francisco Franco negó su participación en uno de los más grandes crímenes de guerra: el repugnante bombardeo de Guernica, que dejó cientos de muertos. Aunque el bombardeo haya sido un acto muy bien documentado del gobierno fascista, Franco sostenía que «los Rojos» habían «destruido Guernica» para difundir «propaganda» y mentiras sobre él. Cooptaba así la idea misma de verdad, sosteniendo que las mentiras no eran suyas sino de sus enemigos políticos.

Del mismo modo, los nazis no distinguían entre hechos observables y «verdades» ideológicamente orientadas. Las consecuencias más radicales de la dictadura totalitaria aparecieron cuando «los líderes de masas tomaron el poder para amoldar la realidad a sus mentiras». Años después, en su controvertido estudio sobre Adolf Eichmann, Arendt aportó una indagación fundamental sobre el razonamiento de uno de los planificadores del Holocausto que epitomizaron el fenómeno del «desprecio extremo por los hechos como tales». Arendt equiparaba la adhesión a la mentira de Eichmann con toda una sociedad «que se escudaba contra la realidad y la factualidad exactamente con los mismos medios, autoengaño, mentiras y estupidez, que ahora se habían inoculado en la mentalidad de Eichmann».

Arendt perdía de vista una dimensión importante del proceso de Eichmann: la perspectiva de la verdad tal como la presentaban las víctimas. En su retrato de Eichmann también faltaba la profunda dedicación ideológica, incluso el fanatismo del hombre. Aun en el momento de morir, Eichmann declaró ceremoniosamente: «Que viva Alemania, que viva Argentina, que viva Austria. Yo no las olvidaré». Arendt escribe el júbilo de Eichmann al sentir la relevancia de su propia muerte como un momento de una «estupidez grotesca». Pero para Arendt esa conciencia era señal de una representación estereotipada del momento, no de su comprensión ideológica. En su descripción, las últimas palabras de Eichmann eran «clisés»: la banalidad del mal. Otros historiadores optaron por hacer hincapié en el hecho de que esas últimas palabras, y en términos más generales su pasado nazi y sus crímenes, eran resultado del compromiso profundo de Eichmann con lo que él consideraba era la verdad ideológica esencial del nazismo. Eichmann veía su vida y su muerte como una memoria que iba más allá de su itinerario transatlántico entre múltiples ciudades, de Berlín a Buenos Aires y de Buenos Aires a Jerusalén.

No había nada verdadero en las falsedades ideológicas fascistas, pero sus partidarios querían que esas mentiras fueran lo más reales posible. Concebían lo que veían y no les gustaba como algo que no era verdadero. Mussolini sostenía que una tarea central del fascismo era negar las mentiras del sistema democrático. Oponía también la verdad del fascismo a la «mentira» de la democracia.

Muchos años antes de que Eichmann se enfrentara con la justicia en Jerusalén, el escritor argentino Jorge Luis Borges imaginaba una muerte nazi parecida en un cuento publicado en Buenos Aires en 1946. Tras la derrota del nazismo, el asesino de la ficción borgeana, Otto Dietrich zur Linde, reflexiona sobre el significado del fascismo, el pasado y el presente. Zur Linde había vivido el momento sublime de la guerra, pero para él era en la derrota donde se revelaría la verdad definitiva: en «los grandes días y las grandes noches de una guerra feliz Había en el aire que respirábamos un sentimiento parecido al amor. Como si bruscamente el mar estuviera cerca, había un asombro y una exaltación en la sangre». Pero en esa exaltación no había lugar para la verdad. No era en el momento sublime de la victoria sino en el olor a «heces» de la derrota donde nazis como él encontraban una verdad que trascendía las explicaciones fácticas (3).

Yo me creía capaz de apurar la copa de la cólera, pero en las heces me detuvo un sabor no esperado, el misterioso y casi terrible sabor de la felicidad. Ensayé diversas explicaciones; no me bastó ninguna. Pensé: Me satisface la derrota, porque secretamente me sé culpable y sólo puede redimirme el castigo. Pensé: Me satisface la derrota, porque es un fin y yo estoy muy cansado. Pensé: Me satisface la derrota, porque ha ocurrido, porque está innumerablemente unida a todos los hechos que son, que fueron, que serán, porque censurar o deplorar un solo hecho real es blasfemar del universo. Esas razones ensayé, hasta dar con la verdadera.

Descartados los hechos y la experiencia vivida, Zur Linde, circularmente, identifica la verdad con la fe nazi. Para Zur Linde, subdirector del campo de concentración de Tarnowitz, la verdadera «explicación» del fascismo residía en la afirmación de la devoción por la violencia. Era una fe —no necesitaba corroboración— que implantaría el «paraíso» en la Tierra: «El mundo se moría de judaísmo, y de esa enfermedad del judaísmo que es la fe de Jesús; nosotros le enseñamos la violencia y la fe de la espada».

Como Borges sugiere en tono de broma en la cita que sirve de epígrafe a este capítulo, uno debería reconocer las mentiras como tales, pero no darse el lujo de ignorarlas al analizar los actos de violencia que inspiran. Aunque esté claro para nosotros que, como el narrador nazi imaginario de Borges, en Jerusalén Eichmann se engañaba a sí mismo, no era así como los fascistas explicaban y vivían sus acciones. Los términos míticos en que los fascistas entendían su papel en la historia reclaman una explicación histórica Arendt insistía en señalar la función y el papel de esas mentiras en el sistema totalitario sin analizar primero por qué los fascistas creían en ellas. No tenía tanto interés en la lógica de sus motivos. «El sujeto ideal de la regla totalitaria —razonaba— no es el nazi convencido ni el convencido comunista, sino la gente para la cual ya no hay diferencia entre hechos y ficción (es decir, la realidad de la experiencia) ni entre lo verdadero y lo falso (es decir, los estándares de pensamiento)». Pero por importante que sea ese sujeto general «ideal», el foco de mi libro está en los convencidos. En otras palabras, Arendt lidiaba con tipos ideales, y yo examino figuras reales, históricamente documentadas, y fundamento mis argumentos en la historia del fascismo. Los historiadores del fascismo también necesitan comprender cómo justificaban los fascistas sus mentiras. 

¿Por qué creían los fascistas que sus mentiras eran la verdad? Como observaron en su momento muchos antifascistas, la historia fascista de la dictadura se funda en mentiras. El imaginario mítico que los fascistas postulaban como realidad nunca pudo ser corroborado, porque estaba basado en fantasías de dominación total en el pasado y el presente. 

Notas al pie:

1. Hitler y Goebbels insistían en que la propaganda requiere constante repetición, pero nunca afirmaron que estuvieran mintiendo En realidad, creían lo contrario, que hablaban en nombre de la verdad. Los fascistas suelen negar lo que son y atribuyen sus propias características y sus propias políticas totalitarias a sus enemigos. Así, Goebbels nunca dijo que repetir mentiras fuera fundamental para el nazismo; lo que sí dijo en 1941, a propósito de la «fábrica de mentiras de Churchill», es que «los ingleses se rigen por el principio de que si mientes, entonces miente, y sobre todo apégate a la mentira que hayas dicho». En 1942 escribió en su diario privado que «la esencia de la propaganda es la simplicidad y la repetición».

2. Adolf Hitler en Mein Kampf.

3. Borges, «Deutsches Requiem», Obras completas I.

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