Entrevistas

José Henrique Bortoluci por Anna Pacheco: en el nombre del padre enfermo

En su primer libro, «Lo que es mío» (Random House, 2024), el sociólogo y profesor universitario José Henrique Bortoluci narra, desde la perspectiva amorosa de un hijo académico, su relación con su padre, un hombre común, camionero de profesión durante 50 años y hoy jubilado y gravemente enfermo. A través de las palabras de ambos, Bortoluci (hijo), el primer miembro de la familia que pudo estudiar, relata una vida llena de maravillosas anécdotas en la carretera al tiempo que revisa la historia reciente de Brasil y muestra las cicatrices de un país cuya vida fluye entre contrastes: «El mundo del camión como una especie de "far-west" moderno», dice Bortoluci, un lugar entre carreteras y estaciones de servicio, a ratos peligroso y contradictorio, que sirve para reflexionar sobre camaradería masculina y solidaridad obrera. Aprovechando su paso por Europa con motivo de las múltiples traducciones de su obra, LENGUA invitó a la escritora Anna Pacheco, cuya obra hace foco en temas sociales, feminismos y cultura con perspectiva de clase y género, a entrevistar al autor brasileño a través de videollamada.

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A trav\u00e9s de las palabras de ambos, Bortoluci (hijo), el primer miembro de la familia que pudo estudiar, relata una vida llena de maravillosas an\u00e9cdotas en la carretera al tiempo que revisa la historia reciente de Brasil y muestra las cicatrices de un pa\u00eds cuya vida fluye entre contrastes: \u00abEl mundo del cami\u00f3n como una especie de \"far-west\" moderno\u00bb, dice Bortoluci, un lugar entre carreteras y estaciones de servicio, a ratos peligroso y contradictorio, que sirve para reflexionar sobre camarader\u00eda masculina y solidaridad obrera. 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cosas a veces se colocan solas. La misma semana en la que conoc\u00ed a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/218729-annie-ernaux\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Annie Ernaux<\/a><\/span> en un acto en la Filmoteca de Barcelona, entrevistaba por videollamada a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/968823-jose-henrique-bortoluci\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jos\u00e9 Henrique Bortoluci<\/a><\/span> (Brasil, 1984), autor de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libro-de-biografias\/341560-ebook-lo-que-es-mio-9788439743248\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Lo que es m\u00edo<\/a><\/em><\/span> (Random House, 2024). Un libro que ven\u00eda acompa\u00f1ado, a su vez, de las palabras m\u00e1s exactas para acercar una obra a alguien, la faja m\u00e1s anal\u00f3gica: \u00abCreo que te gustar\u00e1\u00bb. Bortoluci es doctor en Sociolog\u00eda y profesor en S\u00e3o Paulo y esta es su primera obra de car\u00e1cter literario, un relato en el que, como \u00e9l mismo anuncia, \u00abno existen <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ulises_(novela)\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ulises<\/a><\/span> ni <a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Pen%C3%A9lope#:~:text=Pen%C3%A9lope%20(%CE%A0%CE%B7%CE%BD%CE%B5%CE%BB%CF%8C%CF%80%CE%B7)%20es%20un%20personaje,Pen%C3%A9lope%20y%20Odiseo%20fue%20Tel%C3%A9maco.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Pen\u00e9lopes\u00bb<\/span><\/a>: se trata de la historia de su padre, camionero de profesi\u00f3n. O, m\u00e1s bien, de una conversaci\u00f3n entre ambos: su padre, trabajador manual, y \u00e9l, trabajador de la academia. Y se trata, adem\u00e1s, de un di\u00e1logo marcado por la urgencia: casi el mismo d\u00eda en que el hijo le dice al padre que quiere escribir un libro sobre \u00e9l, el padre le dice al hijo que est\u00e1 enfermo de c\u00e1ncer.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abCuando empec\u00e9 a escribir cre\u00eda que ser\u00eda un libro m\u00e1s sociol\u00f3gico, de investigaci\u00f3n, pero al empezar me di cuenta que el c\u00e1ncer de mi padre era una realidad. Mi familia paterna tambi\u00e9n hab\u00eda pasado por tratamientos, as\u00ed que supe que eso ser\u00eda la historia de mi vida en los pr\u00f3ximos a\u00f1os\u00bb, explica el autor en conversaci\u00f3n telef\u00f3nica. As\u00ed, se niega a empapar el texto de academicismos -algo de lo que quiere escapar-; y tambi\u00e9n reh\u00faye de hacer algo as\u00ed como una sociolog\u00eda de los camioneros de la que su padre ser\u00eda \u00abun caso\u00bb. Ni mucho menos, argumenta, se trata de una biograf\u00eda. Para \u00e9l, las biograf\u00edas tienen algo de burgu\u00e9s y autoritario (tratan de encontrar un orden, un sentido elevado, a la vida de personajes c\u00e9lebres, mandatarios, poderosos; cuando las vidas de la gente corriente son m\u00e1s bien lo contrario). Bortoluci acierta en deformar el g\u00e9nero, los g\u00e9neros, y en empaparlo de todas sus filiaciones. (No sin motivo, el libro abre con esta cita de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/ethic.es\/2022\/08\/roland-barthes-es-sobre-todo-un-filosofo\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Roland Barthes<\/a><\/span>: \u00abNo hay texto sin filiaci\u00f3n\u00bb).\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abNo s\u00e9 si de manera consciente, pero dej\u00e9 que todo lo que pasara en el mundo formara parte del libro. Eran, adem\u00e1s, los a\u00f1os del covid y de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Jair_Bolsonaro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bolsonaro<\/a><\/span>, para m\u00ed, era una especie de pacto entre el presidente y el virus para promover la muerte. As\u00ed lo sent\u00eda\u00bb. De este modo, Bortoluci escribe en su libro: \u00abEscribo entre dos devastaciones. Una acomete el cuerpo de mi padre; la otra es colectiva, nacional\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Aunque, en el fondo, dir\u00eda yo, el libro se escribe entre tres devastaciones. La tercera tiene que ver con el lenguaje. El libro funciona como un espejo de esa cualidad multiling\u00fce del escritor de or\u00edgenes obreros. Dice Bortoluci que quienes habitan esta condici\u00f3n de \u00abtransfuguismo social\u00bb tienen que hablar muchas lenguas: \u00abLa de casa, la de los amigos de siempre, la de la universidad, la de la cultura erudita... en el fondo se trata de ser multiling\u00fces sin ser reconocidos como tal\u00bb. Y tras esa condici\u00f3n hay un dolor muy concreto, muy espec\u00edfico: \u00abHay un dolor de percibir que la vida nos pone en situaciones que las personas que m\u00e1s amamos en el mundo no van a tener: cosas que comemos, lugares que conocemos, diferentes formas de confort, de bien vivir, que no compartiremos con nuestros padres\u00bb. Para muchas personas, explica \u00e9l, esto se manifiesta en una especie de culpa de clase. O de verg\u00fcenza. 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Hay una verg\u00fcenza primigenia por \u00abno estar a la altura\u00bb, esa \u00abverg\u00fcenza del no saber eso que se supone que deber\u00edas saber\u00bb; y tambi\u00e9n otra verg\u00fcenza m\u00e1s madurada, producida en parte por los efectos del desclasamiento, una distancia extra\u00f1ada hacia el mundo al que una vez perteneci\u00f3).\u00a0Bortoluci, gran admirador de la obra de Ernaux, entiende del todo de d\u00f3nde emana ese sentimiento, pero no lo ve como algo significativo en su propia obra. \u00abCreo que tiene que ver con la historia social de Brasil. Nosotros experimentamos la movilidad social mucho menos que en Europa. Y la movilidad social no se ha visto siempre como un alejamiento o como un distanciamiento, sino como una conquista, en cierto modo, rara y colectiva. Creo que es un poco distinto de c\u00f3mo sucede en Francia, con unos c\u00f3digos culturales m\u00e1s fijos, m\u00e1s establecidos\u00bb. 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A m\u00ed, -hija, nieta y hasta sobrina- de una saga de hombres f\u00e9rreos, misteriosos y, sobre todo, parcos en palabras, siempre me genera curiosidad asistir a la posibilidad de esos otros hombres, los que hablan y hablan e inventan los detalles que han olvidado solo por el bien del relato.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hab\u00eda en sus recuerdos de ni\u00f1o algo muy trepidante vinculado a la figura de ese padre medio ausente -la madre se encargaba enteramente del trabajo reproductivo-; \u00abese visitante estacional\u00bb, dice \u00e9l, que cuando llegaba a casa desestabilizaba el orden familiar pero, a cambio, tra\u00eda historias de aventuras, rutas imposibles por la Amazonia, amigos estrafalarios, vividores, sagaces... Personaje casi de ficci\u00f3n. \u00abEl mundo del cami\u00f3n como una especie de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Viejo_Oeste\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">far-west<\/a><\/span> <\/em>moderno\u00bb, dice Bortoluci, entre carreteras y estaciones de servicio. Mundo, a ratos peligroso y contradictorio, hecho de camarader\u00eda masculina y potenciales peligros, pero tambi\u00e9n de solidaridad obrera y festividad itinerante. Para \u00e9l es sorprendente la centralidad de los camioneros en la construcci\u00f3n desarrollista y capitalista del pa\u00eds y, en cambio, la escas\u00edsima documentaci\u00f3n existente sobre estos trabajadores y su universo. De ni\u00f1o, Bortoluci pensaba en la Transamaz\u00f3nica como la carretera de su padre. 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">En el libro est\u00e1 muy presente la relaci\u00f3n con la casa como objeto social. Bortoluci me explica que esa fijaci\u00f3n viene ya de su tesis doctoral sobre los apartamentos populares en Brasil. La casa tambi\u00e9n como un ideal aspiracional: en un momento del libro habla de una inundaci\u00f3n en su apartamento de S\u00e3o Paulo decorado con \u00abesos muebles modernos que le permit\u00edan crear algo parecido a un hogar adulto de clase media\u00bb. Me cuenta que entre \u00e9l y su hermano pudieron comprar un piso a sus padres, m\u00e1s moderno, lo que les permiti\u00f3 abandonar la casa familiar, que era \u00abpeque\u00f1a y agobiante, construida al fondo de la de sus abuelos\u00bb. Esta dualidad, entre esas dos casas, la de ni\u00f1o y la de adulto, aparece sutilmente en el libro en forma de tensi\u00f3n. El hijo, doctor, que parece haberlo conseguido todo (doctorado en EEUU, ser profesor en una buena Universidad de S\u00e3o Paulo, tener trabajo m\u00e1s o menos estable), pero que, sin embargo, experimenta una especie de crisis al \u00abdarse cuenta de que no se reconoce del todo ah\u00ed, en el entorno, en la escritura acad\u00e9mica\u00bb, me explica. Por eso, deshace de alg\u00fan modo el camino; por eso, vuelve a Ja\u00fa y a las historias de su padre, que ya hab\u00eda escuchado una y otra vez de ni\u00f1o; por eso, esta vez lo hace para registrarlas y tomar notas. La enfermedad del padre -que \u00e9l describe con la irrupci\u00f3n de un \u00abnuevo l\u00e9xico familiar\u00bb, forzados a repetir palabras como estoma, colostom\u00eda o marcadores tumorales- marca inevitablemente este viaje de vuelta, colonizado por el lenguaje del hospital y de la muerte.\u00a0<\/p><p>A diferencia del funcionalismo que muy a menudo ostenta la clase trabajadora (las cosas tienen que funcionar, las cosas son lo que son), el autor se pregunta en un momento del libro si convertirse en clase media sea, tal vez, \u00abaprender a a\u00f1adir capas\u00bb. Capas a todo, caprichosamente, nuevos espacios sobre los que pensar y decidir, sobrepasar el pragmatismo; poder permit\u00edrselo, de hecho.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abHay un peligro en el que yo pienso a menudo y es pasar muchos a\u00f1os de mi vida escribiendo sobre mis or\u00edgenes sin reconocer que hoy habito una situaci\u00f3n de privilegio, de \u00e9lite cultural, universitaria y, ahora, hasta literaria; algo muy diferente al lugar desde el que part\u00ed. Creo que esta posici\u00f3n es necesario reconocerla desde un punto de vista personal, sociol\u00f3gico, pero, en especial, literario. Tenemos que ser capaces de reconocer esta situaci\u00f3n y de escribir desde esta posici\u00f3n doble\u00bb. Adem\u00e1s, Bortoluci, de ascendencia eminentemente italiana, es consciente de ese \u00abrecurso vitalicio\u00bb que implica nacer blanco en un pa\u00eds racializado y racista. \u00abYo siempre digo que vengo de una clase trabajadora blanca y que cuando paso a la clase media como profesor universitario es m\u00e1s normal, debido al racismo, que yo sea percibido como <em>un natural;<\/em> esto es, como una clase media de toda la vida. Esto es una forma de privilegio, una forma de privilegio racial, pero tambi\u00e9n de g\u00e9nero porque soy un hombre\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"l9c0wb4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abUna de las cosas que yo descubr\u00ed mientras escrib\u00eda el libro es que fue el afecto, no la verg\u00fcenza o la rabia, lo que me manten\u00eda. Fue una tentativa de escribir desde un lugar de amor. Y no digo esto para sonar m\u00e1s honroso, m\u00e1s bonito, solo es la forma desde la que yo produje este trabajo en concreto\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7sw2ysg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En Brasil, me explica, cada vez hay m\u00e1s autores que escriben sobre la condici\u00f3n obrera, la periferia; y muchos de ellos son personas no blancas, como el autor brasile\u00f1o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/cultura\/2024-02-20\/itamar-vieira-retratista-de-la-esclavitud-contemporanea-por-igualdad-debemos-tratar-a-los-desiguales-de-manera-desigual.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Itamar Vieira<\/a><\/span>, finalista del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Premio_Booker\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Premio Booker<\/a><\/span> este mismo a\u00f1o. Bortoluci cree que \u00abhay un poco m\u00e1s de espacio en el <em>establishment<\/em> para voces o trayectorias que no son las convencionales, el modelo del burgu\u00e9s blanco de Nueva York que escribe sobre la incapacidad de escribir\u00bb. Se r\u00ede. \u00abYo le\u00ed mucho a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1228-philip-roth\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Philip Roth<\/a><\/span> y aprend\u00ed mucho con \u00e9l, pero agradezco que cada vez haya m\u00e1s diversidad en las historias y en los or\u00edgenes de los escritores\u00bb. M\u00e1s todav\u00eda en un pa\u00eds como Brasil, en el que m\u00e1s de la mitad de la poblaci\u00f3n es racializada y los autores blancos han gozado, y gozan, de una hist\u00f3rica sobrerrepresentaci\u00f3n en los espacios de poder\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Y aunque pudiera resultar tentador, dada su trayectoria, \u00e9l intenta no hacer en ning\u00fan caso una literatura meritocr\u00e1tica: \u00abQuiero que esa no sea la forma en que mi vida sea le\u00edda. S\u00e9 que hay muchas personas talentosas, inteligentes y dedicadas que no van a tener \u00e9xito literario porque no es as\u00ed como el capitalismo funciona. El capitalismo trabaja con la necesidad de la desigualdad. No es una cuesti\u00f3n de m\u00e9rito personal\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cj2m520\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Henrique Bortoluci. Cr\u00e9dito: cortes\u00eda del autor.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"85yb2c7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Jos\u00e9 Henrique Bortoluci. Cr\u00e9dito: cortes\u00eda del 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el hilo anterior sobre ser clase media, le explico que en Espa\u00f1a el t\u00e9rmino de la \u00abclase media\u00bb es bastante discutido -sobre qui\u00e9n lo es realmente y qui\u00e9n se lo considera, \u00fanicamente; y cu\u00e1nto influye el denominado efecto clase media en la subjetivizaci\u00f3n de todos-. \u00bfTodo el mundo quiere ser clase media en Brasil? \u00bfSe cumple el t\u00f3pico de que en Brasil, como en otros pa\u00edses de Latinoam\u00e9rica, no existen clases medias y las diferencias entre una clase baja\/pobre y una clase alta son mucho m\u00e1s acuciantes? Bortoluci no cree que se pueda tener \u00abuna teor\u00eda sociol\u00f3gica universal sobre la clase media porque, en efecto, var\u00eda mucho en funci\u00f3n de cada pa\u00eds\u00bb. En EEUU opina, todo el mundo quiere ser clase media como una forma de decir \u00abno formo parte de esta \u00e9lite violenta y est\u00fapida, pero tampoco soy pobre, estoy en el medio\u00bb. En Francia, cree, \u00abel capital cultural, a la par que el capital econ\u00f3mico, son centrales a la hora de determinar la clase social, una suma de ambos\u00bb, algo que ya analiz\u00f3 ampliamente <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/psicologiaymente.com\/biografias\/pierre-bourdieu\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pierre Bourdieu<\/a><\/span>, soci\u00f3logo que tambi\u00e9n ayud\u00f3 a Bortoluci a ordenar intuiciones. \u00abEn Brasil, en cambio, hay una dominaci\u00f3n de los t\u00e9rminos econ\u00f3micos. Si tienes algo de dinero, puedes ser clase media o clase media alta. No se necesita capital cultural\u00bb. Por otro lado, me explica que tambi\u00e9n ah\u00ed se ha dado la emergencia de algo que los soci\u00f3logos llamaron \u00abnueva clase media\u00bb, esto es, la ascensi\u00f3n social de muchas personas cuyos padres no fueron a la universidad. Esta nueva clase media (o que tambi\u00e9n podr\u00eda llamarse, dice: \u00abclase trabajadora cualificada, con estudios superiores\u00bb) se caracteriza, por lo general, por ser m\u00e1s d\u00e9bil e inestable, y porque est\u00e1n a un paso (una crisis, dos crisis) de desclasarse para abajo o instalarse directamente en la pobreza.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qxezoau\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abYo le\u00ed mucho a Philip Roth y aprend\u00ed mucho con \u00e9l, pero agradezco que cada vez haya m\u00e1s diversidad en las historias y en los or\u00edgenes de los escritores\u00bb. 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Los discursos de seguridad, extrema defensa de la propiedad y ultraliberalismo casan muy bien con esta nueva clase\u00bb. Esta es, para \u00e9l, una clase que est\u00e1 en \u00abdisputa pol\u00edtica\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La conversaci\u00f3n est\u00e1 a punto de acabar, pero, antes, Bortoluci deja caer que Annie Ernaux ha le\u00eddo su libro y le ha escrito una carta. De modo que la conversaci\u00f3n ya no est\u00e1 a punto de acabar. \u00abRecib\u00ed una carta de Annie Ernaux que me dej\u00f3 muy feliz. Al parecer, ley\u00f3 el libro y dijo que le gust\u00f3 much\u00edsimo. Dijo que lo que ella encuentra una novedad es que traigo la voz de mi padre, de los que quedaron, de alguna manera, en un primer plano. Eso me emocion\u00f3\u00bb. En <em>Lo que es m\u00edo<\/em>, el testimonio de su padre, en cursiva, se alterna de una forma desjerarquizada con el resto del texto y con otras citas acad\u00e9micas o literarias. Algunos fragmentos son solo la voz del padre. Este recurso, en cierto modo muy antropol\u00f3gico, le viene a \u00e9l m\u00e1s del documental, concretamente del documental brasile\u00f1o. Menciona la obra del documentalista <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Eduardo_Coutinho\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Eduardo Coutinho<\/a><\/span>, pero tambi\u00e9n de otros cineastas que fueron influenciados por \u00e9l, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmin.es\/director\/joao-moreira-salles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jo\u00e3o Moreira Salles<\/a><\/span> y <a href=\\\"https:\/\/novocine.es\/carlos-nader\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Carlos Nader<\/span>.<\/a> \u00abSon ejercicios audiovisuales aparentemente muy sencillos que practican la escucha popular, la conversaci\u00f3n\u00bb. Los gestos, las palabras, la cadencia, las repeticiones, la observaci\u00f3n de la vida cotidiana; algo que a \u00e9l tambi\u00e9n le cautiva y que ha intentado trasladar al texto. Adem\u00e1s del documental, el libro tambi\u00e9n se nutre, a un nivel formal, del trabajo de teor\u00eda de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Maggie_Nelson\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Maggie Nelson<\/a><\/span> o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Paul_B._Preciado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Paul B. Preciado<\/a><\/span>; y del ensayismo norteamericano de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1359-joan-didion\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Joan Didion<\/a><\/span> o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/675-susan-sontag\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Susan Sontag<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ahora s\u00ed. Le digo: \u00abEsto ya est\u00e1\u00bb. Una de las im\u00e1genes con las que cierra el libro es con su padre sentado en el peque\u00f1o patio de la casa familiar, un espacio confortable que separaba su casa de la de sus abuelos; un cuadrito, con su escal\u00f3n y mecedora, en el que sentarse a esperar al padre cuando volv\u00eda de un viaje, a esperar la cena, a esperar otro d\u00eda de colegio o de trabajo, a esperar que volviera la salud. Cuando Bortolucci vuelve a Ja\u00fa y sale a correr, ahora desv\u00eda el camino para no pasar delante de su antigua casa; para no recordar, tal vez, ese cuadro donde tantos d\u00edas estuvieron su padre y \u00e9l simplemente hablando y esperando, como en el libro.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"slcu9de\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-chico-buarque-fito-paez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Chico Buarque por Fito P\u00e1ez: bienvenidos al siglo XXI<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/john-banville-por-rodrigo-fresan-dublineses-la-alquimia-del-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">John Banville por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: Dublin\u00e9s\/\u00bfes?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-laura-fernandez-el-invencible-verano-de-liliana\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza por Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: el di\u00e1logo con Liliana que no termina, ni terminar\u00e1<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/ariel-florencia-richards-inacabada-visibilidad-trans\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ariel Florencia Richards: \u00abEl tr\u00e1nsito es social y necesita ser verbalizado y visualizado para existir\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/maria-ospina-pizano-premio-sor-juana-ines-de-la-cruz-gabi-martinez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mar\u00eda Ospina: \u00abNo se puede concebir la historia colombiana sin pensar en los efectos de la guerra en la naturaleza\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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15 minutos
Dos imágenes de Didi, padre de José Henrique Bortoluci. Crédito: cortesía del autor.

Dos imágenes de Didi, padre de José Henrique Bortoluci. Crédito: cortesía del autor.

Las cosas a veces se colocan solas. La misma semana en la que conocí a Annie Ernaux en un acto en la Filmoteca de Barcelona, entrevistaba por videollamada a José Henrique Bortoluci (Brasil, 1984), autor de Lo que es mío (Random House, 2024). Un libro que venía acompañado, a su vez, de las palabras más exactas para acercar una obra a alguien, la faja más analógica: «Creo que te gustará». Bortoluci es doctor en Sociología y profesor en São Paulo y esta es su primera obra de carácter literario, un relato en el que, como él mismo anuncia, «no existen Ulises ni Penélopes»: se trata de la historia de su padre, camionero de profesión. O, más bien, de una conversación entre ambos: su padre, trabajador manual, y él, trabajador de la academia. Y se trata, además, de un diálogo marcado por la urgencia: casi el mismo día en que el hijo le dice al padre que quiere escribir un libro sobre él, el padre le dice al hijo que está enfermo de cáncer.  

«Cuando empecé a escribir creía que sería un libro más sociológico, de investigación, pero al empezar me di cuenta que el cáncer de mi padre era una realidad. Mi familia paterna también había pasado por tratamientos, así que supe que eso sería la historia de mi vida en los próximos años», explica el autor en conversación telefónica. Así, se niega a empapar el texto de academicismos -algo de lo que quiere escapar-; y también rehúye de hacer algo así como una sociología de los camioneros de la que su padre sería «un caso». Ni mucho menos, argumenta, se trata de una biografía. Para él, las biografías tienen algo de burgués y autoritario (tratan de encontrar un orden, un sentido elevado, a la vida de personajes célebres, mandatarios, poderosos; cuando las vidas de la gente corriente son más bien lo contrario). Bortoluci acierta en deformar el género, los géneros, y en empaparlo de todas sus filiaciones. (No sin motivo, el libro abre con esta cita de Roland Barthes: «No hay texto sin filiación»).  

«No sé si de manera consciente, pero dejé que todo lo que pasara en el mundo formara parte del libro. Eran, además, los años del covid y de Bolsonaro, para mí, era una especie de pacto entre el presidente y el virus para promover la muerte. Así lo sentía». De este modo, Bortoluci escribe en su libro: «Escribo entre dos devastaciones. Una acomete el cuerpo de mi padre; la otra es colectiva, nacional». 

Aunque, en el fondo, diría yo, el libro se escribe entre tres devastaciones. La tercera tiene que ver con el lenguaje. El libro funciona como un espejo de esa cualidad multilingüe del escritor de orígenes obreros. Dice Bortoluci que quienes habitan esta condición de «transfuguismo social» tienen que hablar muchas lenguas: «La de casa, la de los amigos de siempre, la de la universidad, la de la cultura erudita... en el fondo se trata de ser multilingües sin ser reconocidos como tal». Y tras esa condición hay un dolor muy concreto, muy específico: «Hay un dolor de percibir que la vida nos pone en situaciones que las personas que más amamos en el mundo no van a tener: cosas que comemos, lugares que conocemos, diferentes formas de confort, de bien vivir, que no compartiremos con nuestros padres». Para muchas personas, explica él, esto se manifiesta en una especie de culpa de clase. O de vergüenza. No es su caso.

  • ¡En oferta!

Lo que es mío

José Henrique Bortoluci

Una proeza de la literatura brasileña actual, publicada en diez países con un éxito insólito y rotundo.

«Una luminosa historia social de Brasil, contada desde la perspectiva amorosa de un hijo acad...

En la obra de Annie Ernaux, la vergüenza de clase es un material literario de primer orden (una vergüenza que va en múltiples direcciones. Hay una vergüenza primigenia por «no estar a la altura», esa «vergüenza del no saber eso que se supone que deberías saber»; y también otra vergüenza más madurada, producida en parte por los efectos del desclasamiento, una distancia extrañada hacia el mundo al que una vez perteneció). Bortoluci, gran admirador de la obra de Ernaux, entiende del todo de dónde emana ese sentimiento, pero no lo ve como algo significativo en su propia obra. «Creo que tiene que ver con la historia social de Brasil. Nosotros experimentamos la movilidad social mucho menos que en Europa. Y la movilidad social no se ha visto siempre como un alejamiento o como un distanciamiento, sino como una conquista, en cierto modo, rara y colectiva. Creo que es un poco distinto de cómo sucede en Francia, con unos códigos culturales más fijos, más establecidos». Bortoluci también se fija en el pulso que subyace en la obra de Edouard Louis, por ejemplo, y explica: «En su literatura la rabia es muy productiva, una forma de venganza de clase. Esto muestra hasta qué punto cada uno de nosotros lo vive de una forma concreta. Una de las cosas que yo descubrí mientras escribía el libro es que fue el afecto, no la vergüenza o la rabia, lo que me mantenía. Fue una tentativa de escribir desde un lugar de amor y no digo esto para sonar más honroso, más bonito, solo es la forma desde la que yo produje este trabajo en concreto».

«Hay un peligro en el que yo pienso a menudo y es pasar muchos años de mi vida escribiendo sobre mis orígenes sin reconocer que hoy habito una situación de privilegio, de élite cultural, universitaria y, ahora, hasta literaria; algo muy diferente al lugar desde el que partí».

Tuvo la suerte, dice, de que su padre fuera un gran narrador de historias. A mí, -hija, nieta y hasta sobrina- de una saga de hombres férreos, misteriosos y, sobre todo, parcos en palabras, siempre me genera curiosidad asistir a la posibilidad de esos otros hombres, los que hablan y hablan e inventan los detalles que han olvidado solo por el bien del relato. 

Había en sus recuerdos de niño algo muy trepidante vinculado a la figura de ese padre medio ausente -la madre se encargaba enteramente del trabajo reproductivo-; «ese visitante estacional», dice él, que cuando llegaba a casa desestabilizaba el orden familiar pero, a cambio, traía historias de aventuras, rutas imposibles por la Amazonia, amigos estrafalarios, vividores, sagaces... Personaje casi de ficción. «El mundo del camión como una especie de far-west moderno», dice Bortoluci, entre carreteras y estaciones de servicio. Mundo, a ratos peligroso y contradictorio, hecho de camaradería masculina y potenciales peligros, pero también de solidaridad obrera y festividad itinerante. Para él es sorprendente la centralidad de los camioneros en la construcción desarrollista y capitalista del país y, en cambio, la escasísima documentación existente sobre estos trabajadores y su universo. De niño, Bortoluci pensaba en la Transamazónica como la carretera de su padre. Llegados a este punto de la conversación, no puedo evitar recomendarle la adaptación de Manolito Gafotas de Miguel Albadelejo, crónica sentimental de una España popular a las puertas del nuevo milenio y con uno de los padres camioneros más memorables de los últimos años en la ficción.

Imágenes del archivo de la familia Bortoluci. Crédito: cortesía del autor.

Imágenes del archivo de la familia Bortoluci. Crédito: cortesía del autor.

En el libro está muy presente la relación con la casa como objeto social. Bortoluci me explica que esa fijación viene ya de su tesis doctoral sobre los apartamentos populares en Brasil. La casa también como un ideal aspiracional: en un momento del libro habla de una inundación en su apartamento de São Paulo decorado con «esos muebles modernos que le permitían crear algo parecido a un hogar adulto de clase media». Me cuenta que entre él y su hermano pudieron comprar un piso a sus padres, más moderno, lo que les permitió abandonar la casa familiar, que era «pequeña y agobiante, construida al fondo de la de sus abuelos». Esta dualidad, entre esas dos casas, la de niño y la de adulto, aparece sutilmente en el libro en forma de tensión. El hijo, doctor, que parece haberlo conseguido todo (doctorado en EEUU, ser profesor en una buena Universidad de São Paulo, tener trabajo más o menos estable), pero que, sin embargo, experimenta una especie de crisis al «darse cuenta de que no se reconoce del todo ahí, en el entorno, en la escritura académica», me explica. Por eso, deshace de algún modo el camino; por eso, vuelve a Jaú y a las historias de su padre, que ya había escuchado una y otra vez de niño; por eso, esta vez lo hace para registrarlas y tomar notas. La enfermedad del padre -que él describe con la irrupción de un «nuevo léxico familiar», forzados a repetir palabras como estoma, colostomía o marcadores tumorales- marca inevitablemente este viaje de vuelta, colonizado por el lenguaje del hospital y de la muerte. 

A diferencia del funcionalismo que muy a menudo ostenta la clase trabajadora (las cosas tienen que funcionar, las cosas son lo que son), el autor se pregunta en un momento del libro si convertirse en clase media sea, tal vez, «aprender a añadir capas». Capas a todo, caprichosamente, nuevos espacios sobre los que pensar y decidir, sobrepasar el pragmatismo; poder permitírselo, de hecho.  

«Hay un peligro en el que yo pienso a menudo y es pasar muchos años de mi vida escribiendo sobre mis orígenes sin reconocer que hoy habito una situación de privilegio, de élite cultural, universitaria y, ahora, hasta literaria; algo muy diferente al lugar desde el que partí. Creo que esta posición es necesario reconocerla desde un punto de vista personal, sociológico, pero, en especial, literario. Tenemos que ser capaces de reconocer esta situación y de escribir desde esta posición doble». Además, Bortoluci, de ascendencia eminentemente italiana, es consciente de ese «recurso vitalicio» que implica nacer blanco en un país racializado y racista. «Yo siempre digo que vengo de una clase trabajadora blanca y que cuando paso a la clase media como profesor universitario es más normal, debido al racismo, que yo sea percibido como un natural; esto es, como una clase media de toda la vida. Esto es una forma de privilegio, una forma de privilegio racial, pero también de género porque soy un hombre».

«Una de las cosas que yo descubrí mientras escribía el libro es que fue el afecto, no la vergüenza o la rabia, lo que me mantenía. Fue una tentativa de escribir desde un lugar de amor. Y no digo esto para sonar más honroso, más bonito, solo es la forma desde la que yo produje este trabajo en concreto».

En Brasil, me explica, cada vez hay más autores que escriben sobre la condición obrera, la periferia; y muchos de ellos son personas no blancas, como el autor brasileño Itamar Vieira, finalista del Premio Booker este mismo año. Bortoluci cree que «hay un poco más de espacio en el establishment para voces o trayectorias que no son las convencionales, el modelo del burgués blanco de Nueva York que escribe sobre la incapacidad de escribir». Se ríe. «Yo leí mucho a Philip Roth y aprendí mucho con él, pero agradezco que cada vez haya más diversidad en las historias y en los orígenes de los escritores». Más todavía en un país como Brasil, en el que más de la mitad de la población es racializada y los autores blancos han gozado, y gozan, de una histórica sobrerrepresentación en los espacios de poder».  

Y aunque pudiera resultar tentador, dada su trayectoria, él intenta no hacer en ningún caso una literatura meritocrática: «Quiero que esa no sea la forma en que mi vida sea leída. Sé que hay muchas personas talentosas, inteligentes y dedicadas que no van a tener éxito literario porque no es así como el capitalismo funciona. El capitalismo trabaja con la necesidad de la desigualdad. No es una cuestión de mérito personal».

José Henrique Bortoluci. Crédito: cortesía del autor.

José Henrique Bortoluci. Crédito: cortesía del autor.

Retomando el hilo anterior sobre ser clase media, le explico que en España el término de la «clase media» es bastante discutido -sobre quién lo es realmente y quién se lo considera, únicamente; y cuánto influye el denominado efecto clase media en la subjetivización de todos-. ¿Todo el mundo quiere ser clase media en Brasil? ¿Se cumple el tópico de que en Brasil, como en otros países de Latinoamérica, no existen clases medias y las diferencias entre una clase baja/pobre y una clase alta son mucho más acuciantes? Bortoluci no cree que se pueda tener «una teoría sociológica universal sobre la clase media porque, en efecto, varía mucho en función de cada país». En EEUU opina, todo el mundo quiere ser clase media como una forma de decir «no formo parte de esta élite violenta y estúpida, pero tampoco soy pobre, estoy en el medio». En Francia, cree, «el capital cultural, a la par que el capital económico, son centrales a la hora de determinar la clase social, una suma de ambos», algo que ya analizó ampliamente Pierre Bourdieu, sociólogo que también ayudó a Bortoluci a ordenar intuiciones. «En Brasil, en cambio, hay una dominación de los términos económicos. Si tienes algo de dinero, puedes ser clase media o clase media alta. No se necesita capital cultural». Por otro lado, me explica que también ahí se ha dado la emergencia de algo que los sociólogos llamaron «nueva clase media», esto es, la ascensión social de muchas personas cuyos padres no fueron a la universidad. Esta nueva clase media (o que también podría llamarse, dice: «clase trabajadora cualificada, con estudios superiores») se caracteriza, por lo general, por ser más débil e inestable, y porque están a un paso (una crisis, dos crisis) de desclasarse para abajo o instalarse directamente en la pobreza.

«Yo leí mucho a Philip Roth y aprendí mucho con él, pero agradezco que cada vez haya más diversidad en las historias y en los orígenes de los escritores». Más todavía en un país como Brasil, en el que más de la mitad de la población es racializada y los autores blancos han gozado, y gozan, de una histórica sobrerrepresentación en los espacios de poder».

«Esto es algo que en Brasil ha trabajado mucho la extrema derecha, se ha dirigido a este grupo, que es muy, muy heterogéneo, y les ha dicho, por ejemplo: "ahora que usted tiene un poco de dinero, tenemos que reforzar la policía para que los bandidos no tomen lo que es suyo". Los discursos de seguridad, extrema defensa de la propiedad y ultraliberalismo casan muy bien con esta nueva clase». Esta es, para él, una clase que está en «disputa política».  

La conversación está a punto de acabar, pero, antes, Bortoluci deja caer que Annie Ernaux ha leído su libro y le ha escrito una carta. De modo que la conversación ya no está a punto de acabar. «Recibí una carta de Annie Ernaux que me dejó muy feliz. Al parecer, leyó el libro y dijo que le gustó muchísimo. Dijo que lo que ella encuentra una novedad es que traigo la voz de mi padre, de los que quedaron, de alguna manera, en un primer plano. Eso me emocionó». En Lo que es mío, el testimonio de su padre, en cursiva, se alterna de una forma desjerarquizada con el resto del texto y con otras citas académicas o literarias. Algunos fragmentos son solo la voz del padre. Este recurso, en cierto modo muy antropológico, le viene a él más del documental, concretamente del documental brasileño. Menciona la obra del documentalista Eduardo Coutinho, pero también de otros cineastas que fueron influenciados por él, como João Moreira Salles y Carlos Nader. «Son ejercicios audiovisuales aparentemente muy sencillos que practican la escucha popular, la conversación». Los gestos, las palabras, la cadencia, las repeticiones, la observación de la vida cotidiana; algo que a él también le cautiva y que ha intentado trasladar al texto. Además del documental, el libro también se nutre, a un nivel formal, del trabajo de teoría de Maggie Nelson o Paul B. Preciado; y del ensayismo norteamericano de Joan Didion o Susan Sontag

Ahora sí. Le digo: «Esto ya está». Una de las imágenes con las que cierra el libro es con su padre sentado en el pequeño patio de la casa familiar, un espacio confortable que separaba su casa de la de sus abuelos; un cuadrito, con su escalón y mecedora, en el que sentarse a esperar al padre cuando volvía de un viaje, a esperar la cena, a esperar otro día de colegio o de trabajo, a esperar que volviera la salud. Cuando Bortolucci vuelve a Jaú y sale a correr, ahora desvía el camino para no pasar delante de su antigua casa; para no recordar, tal vez, ese cuadro donde tantos días estuvieron su padre y él simplemente hablando y esperando, como en el libro.

Memorias de toda una vida

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