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Adiós al maestro de los tebeos: Francisco Ibáñez

En España, prácticamente todo aquel nacido a partir de los sesenta está marcado por la lectura del que quizá haya sido el historietista más popular del cómic español: Francisco Ibáñez. Con su muerte a los ochenta y siete años el pasado 15 de julio en Barcelona no se va una parte de tantas (tantísimas) infancias y juventudes, sino que queda aún más patente la importancia de una obra que permanecerá viva para siempre. Desde su precoz entrada en Bruguera en los años cincuenta (pese a las restricciones de la dictadura de Franco) y hasta este mismo 2023, Ibáñez consiguió trascender los límites del papel impreso para dibujar personajes que se convierten en parte insustituible de la iconografía colectiva. Noelia Ibarra-Rius, doctora en Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura y miembro de la Cátedra de Estudios del Cómic Fundación SM-UV, llora su muerte con este repaso a la trayectoria del creador de iconos de la talla de Mortadelo y Filemón, Pepe Gotera y Otilio, el botones Sacarino o el miope Rompetechos.

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Con su muerte a los ochenta y siete a\u00f1os el pasado 15 de julio en Barcelona no se va una parte de tantas (tant\u00edsimas) infancias y juventudes, sino que queda a\u00fan m\u00e1s patente la importancia de una obra que permanecer\u00e1 viva para siempre. Desde su precoz entrada en Bruguera en los a\u00f1os cincuenta (pese a las restricciones de la dictadura de Franco) y hasta este mismo 2023, Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez consigui\u00f3 trascender los l\u00edmites del papel impreso para dibujar personajes que se convierten en parte insustituible de la iconograf\u00eda colectiva. 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infancia son recuerdos de un patio de Sevilla\u00bb, aseveraba Machado en su poema \u00abRetrato\u00bb publicado en<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/314181-libro-poesia-completa-9788466360395\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Campos de Castilla<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> hecho m\u00fasica despu\u00e9s por Serrat; los m\u00edos, y seguramente los de muchos hoy adultos o j\u00f3venes nacidos a partir de los a\u00f1os sesenta, est\u00e1n marcados por la lectura del que quiz\u00e1 haya sido <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4122-francisco-ibanez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el historietista m\u00e1s popular del c\u00f3mic espa\u00f1ol: Francisco Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez<\/a><\/span>. El recuerdo de la casa familiar, de los veranos inacabables hasta la llegada de septiembre con su nuevo curso escolar, de los libros de texto entre los que escond\u00eda una m\u00e1s de sus historias para poder seguir leyendo a hurtadillas de los deberes o las estanter\u00edas de mi habitaci\u00f3n infantil est\u00e1n poblados de sus inolvidables creaciones: desde la inmortal pareja de funcionarios conformada por Mortadelo y Filem\u00f3n; pasando por dos chapuceros obreros, Pepe Gotera y Otilio; la torpeza e ingenuidad de un botones denominado Sacarino; el miope Rompetechos, personaje favorito del propio Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez, o la abigarrada composici\u00f3n de p\u00e1gina que albergaba las vidas de los habitantes de 13, Rue del Percebe.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Lamentablemente, no soy original si confieso que parte de mi amor por el libro y la lectura creci\u00f3 al comp\u00e1s de sus vi\u00f1etas, cuyas nuevas entregas esperaba con deleite: desde el s\u00e1bado 15 de julio de 2023 en el que se anunci\u00f3 su fallecimiento, a los ochenta y siete a\u00f1os en su Barcelona natal, numerosas personalidades han unido sus voces para brindarle un sentido homenaje a trav\u00e9s del recuerdo de sus t\u00edtulos y, sobre todo, de la influencia que ha tenido en las trayectorias vitales de los hoy autores, divulgadores, traductores, editores, cr\u00edticos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/dialnet.unirioja.es\/servlet\/autor?codigo=1914197\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">estudiosos y apasionados<\/a><\/span> de toda \u00edndole por el fascinante mundo del noveno arte.<\/p><p>Diferentes perfiles de lectores reconocemos en estos d\u00edas el indudable protagonismo de Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez en nuestro personal descubrimiento del placer est\u00e9tico, l\u00fadico e intelectual que la lectura constituye, nos descubrimos ante su papel fundacional en la alfabetizaci\u00f3n inicial y educaci\u00f3n lectora sentimental de distintas generaciones que iniciamos la andadura gracias a alg\u00fan fragmento de sus obras.\u00a0<\/p><p>En un pa\u00eds cuyos \u00edndices de lectura no dejan de ser tema de debate cada vez que se publica un informe al respecto, la coincidencia de un mismo referente a lo largo de m\u00e1s de medio siglo no deja de ser sintom\u00e1tica: Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez forma parte del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/lecturas\/que-comic-leo-si-no-tengo-ni-idea-de-comics\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">imaginario lector de perfiles dispares<\/a><\/span>, tanto en cuanto a edades como a preferencias o niveles de competencia. 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su precoz <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/11663-bruguera\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">entrada en Bruguera<\/a><\/span> en los a\u00f1os cincuenta y pese a las restricciones de la dictadura a las que debe plegarse para perge\u00f1ar sus guiones, Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez consigue trascender los l\u00edmites del papel impreso para dibujar personajes que se convierten en parte insustituible de la iconograf\u00eda colectiva. As\u00ed, en enero de 1958 ve la luz en la revista <em>Pulgarcito<\/em> la primera historieta de la que quiz\u00e1 sea su creaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s emblem\u00e1tica: Mortadelo y Filem\u00f3n, la pareja de detectives inspirada en Sherlock Holmes, que luego seguir\u00eda el g\u00e9nero de esp\u00edas para convertirse en agentes de la T.I.A. y vivir extravagantes y divertidas aventuras a lo largo de m\u00e1s de 220 \u00e1lbumes. Cifra que se dice pronto pero que supone una dedicaci\u00f3n de m\u00e1s de sesenta a\u00f1os a este m\u00edtico dueto.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Estas primeras vi\u00f1etas constituyen el embri\u00f3n de la saga, que en 1969 evolucionar\u00e1 en forma de historieta larga con el t\u00edtulo de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/10207-libro-mortadelo-y-filemon-el-sulfato-atomico-esenciales-ibanez-1\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El sulfato at\u00f3mico<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> con la que adem\u00e1s trascender\u00e1 los l\u00edmites del mercado nacional. Durante la d\u00e9cada de los sesenta, Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez alumbrar\u00e1 diferentes series para revistas de la editorial Bruguera como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/275068-libro-lo-mejor-de-la-familia-trapisonda-lo-mejor-de-9788402426611\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La familia Trapisonda<\/a><\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/261272-ebook-lo-mejor-de-el-botones-sacarino-lo-mejor-de-9788402424983\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El botones Sacarino<\/a><\/span>, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/258262-ebook-rompetechos-edicion-integral-primera-parte-9788402426499\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Rompetechos<\/span><\/a>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/16260-ebook-lo-mejor-de-pepe-gotera-y-otilio-lo-mejor-de-9788402422446\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pepe Gotera y Otilio<\/a><\/span> o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/258261-ebook-13-rue-del-percebe-edicion-integral-9788402426482\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">13, Rue del Percebe<\/a><\/span>. Su \u00e9xito sin precedentes se constata en n\u00fameros incre\u00edbles de ventas, pues en los setenta la tirada de la revista <em>Mortadelo<\/em> se cifra en aproximadamente 250.000 ejemplares semanales, lo que supone un mill\u00f3n de ejemplares mensuales y las revistas de Bruguera abrir\u00e1n con una historia suya como reclamo para el comprador: la misma <em>Mortadelo,<\/em> <em>DDT<\/em> con Pepe Gotera y Otilio o <em>T\u00edo Vivo<\/em> con Sacarino.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pese al indudable \u00e9xito que brilla tras cada una de sus obras, no todo eran luces: la obra de Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez era tambi\u00e9n reflejo de las pr\u00e1cticas editoriales de la \u00e9poca, desde la obligaci\u00f3n de seguir los estilos de \u00e9xito de otros autores (los primeros dibujos de Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez segu\u00edan claramente a V\u00e1zquez, para luego clonar el trazo de Franquin a partir de las historias largas) a los problemas de autor\u00eda, que se traducir\u00edan en la multiplicaci\u00f3n sin l\u00edmite de la aparici\u00f3n de los personajes, con centenares de p\u00e1ginas ap\u00f3crifas en las que se negaba la autor\u00eda en los cr\u00e9ditos. No deja de ser parad\u00f3jico que, pese a todo (o quiz\u00e1 debido a todo), Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez se convirtiera en un ejemplo en la lucha por los derechos de autor\u00eda para recuperar el control de su obra, que le conducir\u00eda a crear Chicha, Tato y Clodoveo, de Profesi\u00f3n sin Empleo y 7 Rebolling Street para la revista<em> Guai.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ct422oq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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p\u00e1ginas de Jubilaci\u00f3n... \u00a1a los noventa! (2011) y La gallina de los huevos de oro (1976). Cr\u00e9dito: D. R.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ch87wkk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Primeras p\u00e1ginas de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/9055-libro-mortadelo-y-filemon-jubilacion-a-los-noventa-magos-del-humor-146-9788466646697\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jubilaci\u00f3n... \u00a1a los noventa!<\/a><\/em><\/span> (2011) y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/10127-libro-la-gallina-de-los-huevos-de-oro-el-brujo-tete-cohete-los-guardaespaldas-objetivo-eliminar-al-rana-super-humor-9788402421739\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La gallina de los huevos de oro<\/a><\/em><\/span> (1976). Cr\u00e9dito: D. R.<\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"n5fe0jk\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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all\u00e1 de estas luces y sombras vinculadas a su figura, la contribuci\u00f3n de Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez a la historieta espa\u00f1ola resulta insustituible por diferentes motivos, entre otros, su maestr\u00eda en el uso del gag, el control del ritmo y la expresividad como recursos empleados para conseguir un sello personal m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del estilo, con el resultado de una comicidad basada en el disparate m\u00e1s hilarante, y la experimentaci\u00f3n con el lenguaje a trav\u00e9s de la b\u00fasqueda de sus l\u00edmites o la invenci\u00f3n de t\u00e9rminos hasta el paroxismo ling\u00fc\u00edstico. La carcajada brota r\u00e1pida de los labios del lector al verse inmerso en una sucesi\u00f3n de chistes que desembocan en ese final tan reconocible en el que todos se persiguen, en la mejor tradici\u00f3n del <em>slapstick.<\/em> Sin embargo, pese a esta b\u00fasqueda perenne de la sonrisa, sus personajes configuran toda una galer\u00eda de antih\u00e9roes cuyo poso de nostalgia trasciende nuestras pupilas y nos permite ver la evoluci\u00f3n de la sociedad espa\u00f1ola a trav\u00e9s del tiempo, retratada por medio de sus miserias, vicios y preocupaciones. Una mirada que trasciende el costumbrismo desde la cr\u00edtica orquestada en el marco de un sainete y que se oculta, a manera de disfraz de Mortadelo, en la s\u00e1tira que subyace tras las situaciones dibujadas, en ese amargo poso que resta tras el aparente absurdo y la violencia como arma de resoluci\u00f3n de conflictos. La genialidad de Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez no se detiene en un retrato realista a ritmo de caricaturas e hip\u00e9rboles, sino que se adentra en los l\u00edmites de la ficci\u00f3n para atraparnos en una lectura que refiere de forma constante al entorno circundante, y cuando el lector se interroga por su parecido y comienza a invadirle cierta nostalgia es golpeado con un gag que clausura la historia desde una singular forma de entender el absurdo a ritmo vertiginoso y le devuelve a la cruda realidad de la existencia.<\/p><p>Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez se ha ido, trabajando hasta los \u00faltimos d\u00edas de su existencia, tal y como le gustaba dibujarse e introducirse en sus tramas: seguramente, con un l\u00e1piz en la oreja y dibujando, rodeado por sus personajes pendientes de su inmenso talento para sumergirlos en alg\u00fan argumento contempor\u00e1neo desde el que abordar las actuales preocupaciones de la sociedad espa\u00f1ola y generar un nuevo \u00e9xito de ventas, como el conseguido con la publicaci\u00f3n de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/16247-libro-el-tesorero-contra-jimmy-el-cachondo-super-humor-mortadelo-60\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El tesorero<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> a ra\u00edz de los papeles de B\u00e1rcenas, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/243451-libro-elecciones-ole-mortadelo-203\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00a1Elecciones!<\/a><\/em><\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/258584-libro-mortadelo-y-filemon-el-cambio-climatico-magos-del-humor-211\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El cambio clim\u00e1tico<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0o los esperados n\u00fameros centrados en las Olimpiadas o los Mundiales, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/310221-libro-mortadelo-y-filemon-mundial-2022-magos-del-humor-217\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mundial 2022<\/a><\/em><\/span>. Nos deja un inmenso legado: el haber formado generaciones de lectores a trav\u00e9s del disfrute y los referentes compartidos durante m\u00e1s de medio siglo que hoy lloramos su p\u00e9rdida. Nos queda una herencia de dimensiones considerables, pues posiblemente se trate del autor con m\u00e1s obra viva en cat\u00e1logo en Europa, con decenas de miles de p\u00e1ginas dibujadas. Con Ib\u00e1\u00f1ez no se va una parte de nuestra infancia o nuestra juventud, permanecer\u00e1n vivas siempre que nos sumerjamos en la magia de sus vi\u00f1etas y nos dejemos atrapar por ese humor disparatado capaz de fundar un cosmos propio en el que distanciarse de la realidad y reconocerse como parte de un colectivo: sus lectores.\u00a0<\/p><p>Nos queda <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4122-francisco-ibanez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la magia de tus vi\u00f1etas<\/a><\/span>. Gracias, maestro.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3n9kt1x\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>Noelia Ibarra-Rius es profesora titular en el Departament de Did\u00e0ctica de la Llengua i la Literatura de la Universitat de Val\u00e8ncia. Entre sus l\u00edneas de investigaci\u00f3n destaca la educaci\u00f3n literaria en contextos interculturales y pluriling\u00fces, el desarrollo de la competencia lecto-literaria y la formaci\u00f3n de h\u00e1bitos lectores, la literatura infantil y juvenil, el \u00e1lbum ilustrado y el c\u00f3mic. Adem\u00e1s, es miembro de la junta directiva de la Sociedad Espa\u00f1ola de Did\u00e1ctica de la Lengua y la Literatura (SEDLL) y de la C\u00e1tedra de Estudios del C\u00f3mic Fundaci\u00f3n SM-UV. Tambi\u00e9n codirige el m\u00e1ster propio de la Universidad de Valencia C\u00f3mic y educaci\u00f3n lectora.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nvvgl8x\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/obituario-quino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Apuntes para (re)conocer a Quino<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/art-spiegelman-liniers\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Art Spiegelman: \u00abAuschwitz estaba en mi patio trasero: era mi casa\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/carlos-gimenez-alvaro-pons\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Inmortal Carlos Gim\u00e9nez: \u00abSoy consciente de mi edad, soy quiz\u00e1 el autor de historietas en activo mas viejo de la profesi\u00f3n\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span 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10 minutos
Francisco Ibáñez y sus personajes. Crédito: D. R.

Francisco Ibáñez y sus personajes. Crédito: D. R.

«Mi infancia son recuerdos de un patio de Sevilla», aseveraba Machado en su poema «Retrato» publicado en Campos de Castilla, hecho música después por Serrat; los míos, y seguramente los de muchos hoy adultos o jóvenes nacidos a partir de los años sesenta, están marcados por la lectura del que quizá haya sido el historietista más popular del cómic español: Francisco Ibáñez. El recuerdo de la casa familiar, de los veranos inacabables hasta la llegada de septiembre con su nuevo curso escolar, de los libros de texto entre los que escondía una más de sus historias para poder seguir leyendo a hurtadillas de los deberes o las estanterías de mi habitación infantil están poblados de sus inolvidables creaciones: desde la inmortal pareja de funcionarios conformada por Mortadelo y Filemón; pasando por dos chapuceros obreros, Pepe Gotera y Otilio; la torpeza e ingenuidad de un botones denominado Sacarino; el miope Rompetechos, personaje favorito del propio Ibáñez, o la abigarrada composición de página que albergaba las vidas de los habitantes de 13, Rue del Percebe.  

Lamentablemente, no soy original si confieso que parte de mi amor por el libro y la lectura creció al compás de sus viñetas, cuyas nuevas entregas esperaba con deleite: desde el sábado 15 de julio de 2023 en el que se anunció su fallecimiento, a los ochenta y siete años en su Barcelona natal, numerosas personalidades han unido sus voces para brindarle un sentido homenaje a través del recuerdo de sus títulos y, sobre todo, de la influencia que ha tenido en las trayectorias vitales de los hoy autores, divulgadores, traductores, editores, críticos, estudiosos y apasionados de toda índole por el fascinante mundo del noveno arte.

Diferentes perfiles de lectores reconocemos en estos días el indudable protagonismo de Ibáñez en nuestro personal descubrimiento del placer estético, lúdico e intelectual que la lectura constituye, nos descubrimos ante su papel fundacional en la alfabetización inicial y educación lectora sentimental de distintas generaciones que iniciamos la andadura gracias a algún fragmento de sus obras. 

En un país cuyos índices de lectura no dejan de ser tema de debate cada vez que se publica un informe al respecto, la coincidencia de un mismo referente a lo largo de más de medio siglo no deja de ser sintomática: Ibáñez forma parte del imaginario lector de perfiles dispares, tanto en cuanto a edades como a preferencias o niveles de competencia. Su obra constituye un espacio de encuentro entre numerosos receptores que reconocen a sus personajes como parte intrínseca de la cultura popular española que recorre desde mediados del siglo XX al siglo XXI, ha extendido sus límites al cine y a la televisión a través de traslaciones o series propias claramente deudoras y ha conquistado, además, mercados internacionales, como Alemania o Reino Unido.

Francisco Ibáñez: Crédito: D. R.

Francisco Ibáñez: Crédito: D. R.

Desde su precoz entrada en Bruguera en los años cincuenta y pese a las restricciones de la dictadura a las que debe plegarse para pergeñar sus guiones, Ibáñez consigue trascender los límites del papel impreso para dibujar personajes que se convierten en parte insustituible de la iconografía colectiva. Así, en enero de 1958 ve la luz en la revista Pulgarcito la primera historieta de la que quizá sea su creación más emblemática: Mortadelo y Filemón, la pareja de detectives inspirada en Sherlock Holmes, que luego seguiría el género de espías para convertirse en agentes de la T.I.A. y vivir extravagantes y divertidas aventuras a lo largo de más de 220 álbumes. Cifra que se dice pronto pero que supone una dedicación de más de sesenta años a este mítico dueto.  

Estas primeras viñetas constituyen el embrión de la saga, que en 1969 evolucionará en forma de historieta larga con el título de El sulfato atómico, con la que además trascenderá los límites del mercado nacional. Durante la década de los sesenta, Ibáñez alumbrará diferentes series para revistas de la editorial Bruguera como La familia Trapisonda, El botones Sacarino, Rompetechos, Pepe Gotera y Otilio o 13, Rue del Percebe. Su éxito sin precedentes se constata en números increíbles de ventas, pues en los setenta la tirada de la revista Mortadelo se cifra en aproximadamente 250.000 ejemplares semanales, lo que supone un millón de ejemplares mensuales y las revistas de Bruguera abrirán con una historia suya como reclamo para el comprador: la misma Mortadelo, DDT con Pepe Gotera y Otilio o Tío Vivo con Sacarino. 

Pese al indudable éxito que brilla tras cada una de sus obras, no todo eran luces: la obra de Ibáñez era también reflejo de las prácticas editoriales de la época, desde la obligación de seguir los estilos de éxito de otros autores (los primeros dibujos de Ibáñez seguían claramente a Vázquez, para luego clonar el trazo de Franquin a partir de las historias largas) a los problemas de autoría, que se traducirían en la multiplicación sin límite de la aparición de los personajes, con centenares de páginas apócrifas en las que se negaba la autoría en los créditos. No deja de ser paradójico que, pese a todo (o quizá debido a todo), Ibáñez se convirtiera en un ejemplo en la lucha por los derechos de autoría para recuperar el control de su obra, que le conduciría a crear Chicha, Tato y Clodoveo, de Profesión sin Empleo y 7 Rebolling Street para la revista Guai.

Primeras páginas de Jubilación... ¡a los noventa! (2011) y La gallina de los huevos de oro (1976). Crédito: D. R.

Primeras páginas de Jubilación... ¡a los noventa! (2011) y La gallina de los huevos de oro (1976). Crédito: D. R.

Más allá de estas luces y sombras vinculadas a su figura, la contribución de Ibáñez a la historieta española resulta insustituible por diferentes motivos, entre otros, su maestría en el uso del gag, el control del ritmo y la expresividad como recursos empleados para conseguir un sello personal más allá del estilo, con el resultado de una comicidad basada en el disparate más hilarante, y la experimentación con el lenguaje a través de la búsqueda de sus límites o la invención de términos hasta el paroxismo lingüístico. La carcajada brota rápida de los labios del lector al verse inmerso en una sucesión de chistes que desembocan en ese final tan reconocible en el que todos se persiguen, en la mejor tradición del slapstick. Sin embargo, pese a esta búsqueda perenne de la sonrisa, sus personajes configuran toda una galería de antihéroes cuyo poso de nostalgia trasciende nuestras pupilas y nos permite ver la evolución de la sociedad española a través del tiempo, retratada por medio de sus miserias, vicios y preocupaciones. Una mirada que trasciende el costumbrismo desde la crítica orquestada en el marco de un sainete y que se oculta, a manera de disfraz de Mortadelo, en la sátira que subyace tras las situaciones dibujadas, en ese amargo poso que resta tras el aparente absurdo y la violencia como arma de resolución de conflictos. La genialidad de Ibáñez no se detiene en un retrato realista a ritmo de caricaturas e hipérboles, sino que se adentra en los límites de la ficción para atraparnos en una lectura que refiere de forma constante al entorno circundante, y cuando el lector se interroga por su parecido y comienza a invadirle cierta nostalgia es golpeado con un gag que clausura la historia desde una singular forma de entender el absurdo a ritmo vertiginoso y le devuelve a la cruda realidad de la existencia.

Ibáñez se ha ido, trabajando hasta los últimos días de su existencia, tal y como le gustaba dibujarse e introducirse en sus tramas: seguramente, con un lápiz en la oreja y dibujando, rodeado por sus personajes pendientes de su inmenso talento para sumergirlos en algún argumento contemporáneo desde el que abordar las actuales preocupaciones de la sociedad española y generar un nuevo éxito de ventas, como el conseguido con la publicación de El tesorero, a raíz de los papeles de Bárcenas, ¡Elecciones!, El cambio climático o los esperados números centrados en las Olimpiadas o los Mundiales, como Mundial 2022. Nos deja un inmenso legado: el haber formado generaciones de lectores a través del disfrute y los referentes compartidos durante más de medio siglo que hoy lloramos su pérdida. Nos queda una herencia de dimensiones considerables, pues posiblemente se trate del autor con más obra viva en catálogo en Europa, con decenas de miles de páginas dibujadas. Con Ibáñez no se va una parte de nuestra infancia o nuestra juventud, permanecerán vivas siempre que nos sumerjamos en la magia de sus viñetas y nos dejemos atrapar por ese humor disparatado capaz de fundar un cosmos propio en el que distanciarse de la realidad y reconocerse como parte de un colectivo: sus lectores. 

Nos queda la magia de tus viñetas. Gracias, maestro.

Noelia Ibarra-Rius es profesora titular en el Departament de Didàctica de la Llengua i la Literatura de la Universitat de València. Entre sus líneas de investigación destaca la educación literaria en contextos interculturales y plurilingües, el desarrollo de la competencia lecto-literaria y la formación de hábitos lectores, la literatura infantil y juvenil, el álbum ilustrado y el cómic. Además, es miembro de la junta directiva de la Sociedad Española de Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura (SEDLL) y de la Cátedra de Estudios del Cómic Fundación SM-UV. También codirige el máster propio de la Universidad de Valencia Cómic y educación lectora.

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