Despedidas

Cormac McCarthy, el genio raro: guía para no iniciados

En 2022, el anuncio del regreso de Cormac McCarthy a la novela tras 16 años de silencio devino -como no podía ser de otra manera- en uno de los más grandes acontecimientos del sector editorial. La publicación de aquellas dos novelas interconectadas, «El pasajero» y «Stella Maris», adquieren hoy forma de carta de despedida: el gran novelista de la América más profunda, autor de libros imprescindibles como «No es país para viejos», «Meridiano de sangre» o «La carretera», ha fallecido este 13 de junio de 2023 en su casa de Santa Fe, Nuevo México, a los 89 años. Para honrar su memoria, a continuación repasamos la personalidad, trayectoria y obra de uno de los más grandes autores americanos contemporáneos -y uno de los más heterodoxos- a partir de algunos términos clave.

{"id":1371,"id_simpleblog_post":"1371","id_simpleblog_category":"49","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Antonio Lozano","author_url":"https:\/\/twitter.com\/antoniolozzy","likes":"0","views":"9522","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:6:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;i:4;b:0;i:5;b:0;i:6;b:0;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"","id_category_tematica":"14,19","id_category_autor":"602","id_category_editorial":"11353","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Cormac McCarthy, el genio raro: gu\u00eda para no iniciados","meta_title":"Cormac McCarthy, el genio raro: gu\u00eda para no iniciados","meta_description":"El gran novelista de la Am\u00e9rica m\u00e1s profunda, autor de libros imprescindibles como \u00abNo es pa\u00eds para viejos\u00bb, \u00abMeridiano de sangre\u00bb o \u00abLa carretera\u00bb, ha fallecido este 13 de junio de 2023. Honramos su memoria acerc\u00e1ndonos a su obra y personalidad.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, Penguin Libros, Cormac McCarthy","short_content":"<p>En 2022, el anuncio del regreso de Cormac McCarthy a la novela tras 16 a\u00f1os de silencio devino -como no pod\u00eda ser de otra manera- en uno de los m\u00e1s grandes acontecimientos del sector editorial. La publicaci\u00f3n de aquellas dos novelas interconectadas, \u00abEl pasajero\u00bb y \u00abStella Maris\u00bb, adquieren hoy forma de carta de despedida: el gran novelista de la Am\u00e9rica m\u00e1s profunda, autor de libros imprescindibles como \u00abNo es pa\u00eds para viejos\u00bb, \u00abMeridiano de sangre\u00bb o \u00abLa carretera\u00bb, ha fallecido este 13 de junio de 2023 en su casa de Santa Fe, Nuevo M\u00e9xico, a los 89 a\u00f1os. Para honrar su memoria, a continuaci\u00f3n repasamos la personalidad, trayectoria y obra de uno de los m\u00e1s grandes autores americanos contempor\u00e1neos -y uno de los m\u00e1s heterodoxos- a partir de algunos t\u00e9rminos 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fe ciega en sus capacidades y dedicaci\u00f3n absoluta son los cimientos de la carrera del escritor. La literatura no entra de lleno en su vida hasta que se encuentra destinado a una base militar en Alaska tras abandonar la universidad para unirse a las Fuerzas A\u00e9reas. Rechaza seguir la tradici\u00f3n familiar en el \u00e1mbito del Derecho, rechaza una titulaci\u00f3n acad\u00e9mica, rechaza la formaci\u00f3n de los talleres literarios. Desde muy temprano da muestras de ser un verso libre. Todo se subordina a la creaci\u00f3n de las condiciones id\u00f3neas para escribir. El confort y los ingresos son secundarios.\u00a0<\/p><p>En 1961 se instala con su primera esposa en una chabola, a los pies de las Smoky Mountains, que carece de agua corriente y de calefacci\u00f3n. En 1969 adquiere con su segunda mujer un granero en Louisville (Tennessee) que renueva con sus propias manos. El matrimonio se lava en un lago cercano y tiene en las latas de alubias su fuente alimenticia b\u00e1sica. A mediados de los a\u00f1os 80 se traslada a una casucha de piedra ubicada detr\u00e1s de un centro comercial de El Paso, que \u00e9l mismo define como \u00abapenas habitable\u00bb. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/602-cormac-mccarthy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">A Cormac s\u00f3lo le interesa escribir, escribir, escribir.<\/a><\/span> Le da la espalda a colaboraciones remuneradas, s\u00f3lo acepta becas que le permiten viajar a Europa y por el sudoeste de su pa\u00eds de cara a adquirir experiencias valiosas a traspasar a sus libros. Estos <em>(<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/25604-ebook-la-oscuridad-exterior-9788499893174\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La oscuridad exterior<\/a><\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/19928-ebook-suttree-9788439724919\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Suttree<\/a><\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/19927-ebook-meridiano-de-sangre-9788439724902\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Meridiano de sangre<\/a><\/span>)<\/em> van obteniendo prestigio entre la cr\u00edtica pero la desconexi\u00f3n con el gran p\u00fablico es total pues cada uno no supera los cinco mil ejemplares. \u00bfAfloja McCarthy? \u00bfAcepta un puesto de profesor, colaboraciones en prensa, charlas? \u00bfLima la crudeza de sus historias para llegar a m\u00e1s lectores? NO.\u00a0<\/p><p>Es un misterio si el autor podr\u00eda haber mantenido mucho tiempo este r\u00e9gimen tan asc\u00e9tico, o si se habr\u00eda visto forzado a realizar algunas concesiones que comprometieran su entrega febril a la escritura, en el caso de que <em>Todos los hermosos caballos<\/em> -primera entrega de la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/content\/498-sagas?id=19926&amp;cod_agrup=00306\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Trilog\u00eda de la frontera<\/a><\/em><\/span>, ganadora del National Book Award y del National Book Critics Circle Award, y completada con <em>En la frontera<\/em> y <em>Ciudades de la llanura<\/em>- no hubiese supuesto un bombazo en 1991. En cualquier caso, adi\u00f3s a los aprietos econ\u00f3micos y a los alojamientos insalubres -desde los a\u00f1os 90 resid\u00eda en una casa en Tesuque, una localidad de Nuevo M\u00e9xico-, y garant\u00eda de continuidad a su burbuja creativa revestida con acero inoxidable.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"5\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kbpw7re\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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ser el hombre invisible como Thomas Pynchon ni el recluso apenas fotografiado que fue J.D. Salinger, McCarthy ha sido una figura escurridiza, guardando siempre celosamente un generoso per\u00edmetro de seguridad respecto a cualquier foco: no ha participado en festivales, impartido conferencias, ofrecido presentaciones o firmas de libros y apenas ha concedido cuatro entrevistas a lo largo de su vida. La primera fue al diario <em>The New York Times<\/em> en 1992, cuando ten\u00eda casi sesenta a\u00f1os; la segunda a <em>Vanity Fair<\/em> en 2005; la tercera al programa televisivo de Oprah Winfrey; y la \u00faltima, en 2009, a <em>The Wall Street Journal.<\/em> Contra la especulaci\u00f3n y la tentaci\u00f3n de generar leyendas, McCarthy le asegur\u00f3 a Winfrey que se ha limitado a consagrar todas sus fuerzas a la escritura, descartando cualquier distracci\u00f3n, ya fuera lucrativa o que inflamara su vanidad. \u00abSiempre supe que no quer\u00eda trabajar, que mi prioridad absoluta era dedicar la \u00fanica vida que tenemos a hacer lo que m\u00e1s me gusta\u00bb. Si de joven acept\u00f3 vivir en la semi pobreza fue para descubrir de lo que era capaz con la literatura y la \u00fanica forma de averiguarlo radicaba en teclear d\u00eda y noche en su Olivetti Lettera 32, m\u00e1quina de escribir que, por cierto, fue vendida en 2009 por la casa de subastas Christie's por 254.000 d\u00f3lares.<\/p><p>\u00bfPero detr\u00e1s de la negativa a prodigarse en p\u00fablico y a ce\u00f1irse a unos m\u00ednimos peajes promocionales estaba \u00fanicamente la voluntad de dedicar el m\u00e1ximo tiempo posible a sus novelas? Aquellas muestras tempranas y luego ya para siempre sostenidas del escritor-isla (o mis\u00e1ntropo o herm\u00e9tico o hura\u00f1o o celoso de su privacidad), \u00bfs\u00f3lo respond\u00edan a una estrategia de rentabilidad productiva? No. Tambi\u00e9n obedec\u00edan a una obsesi\u00f3n anti anal\u00edtica. McCarthy siempre ha sido al\u00e9rgico a explicar, profundizar o interpretar su trabajo pues considera que lo que ha quedado por escrito ya est\u00e1 fijado. Fuera de la p\u00e1gina no hay 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del ermita\u00f1o escritor de Providence no es un pa\u00eds para viejos, ni para d\u00e9biles, ni para los que van sobrados de fe en la bondad del individuo. Explorador frecuente de cuanto tiene de cruel y carente de compasi\u00f3n la naturaleza humana, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/602-cormac-mccarthy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">McCarthy<\/a><\/span> estableci\u00f3 de forma reiterada en su obra un paralelismo entre nuestro oscuro interior y el entorno \u00e1rido, inclemente y hostil que nos circunda. El paroxismo de esta confrontaci\u00f3n llegaba con<em> La carretera,<\/em> -\u00abse produjo un resplandor, se pudrieron las cosechas, se murieron los animales, se acab\u00f3 el combustible\u2026\u00bb- una visi\u00f3n del Apocalipsis en la que el escritor proyectaba un mundo bald\u00edo, despoblado, silencioso, mortecino\u2026 definido por la sustracci\u00f3n de elementos vitales y la acumulaci\u00f3n de atrocidades. Desamparados y aterrorizados, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cormac-mccarthy-emiliano-monge\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">un padre y un hijo eran dos pobres almas atravesando un Purgatorio<\/span><\/a> a la espera de una salida al mar que los condujera al cielo de la salvaci\u00f3n, so pena de acabar en las fauces de unos can\u00edbales que los engulleran hacia el infierno.<\/p><p>El trayecto abarcado con anterioridad no hab\u00eda sido tampoco un camino de rosas: la persecuci\u00f3n y el incesto con la cordillera de los Apalaches de fondo en <em>La oscuridad exterior<\/em>; la lucha por la supervivencia del pescador Cornelius Suttree y su banda de vagabundos, ladrones, prostitutas, jugadores y dem\u00e1s parias en el Tennessee de los a\u00f1os 50 en <em>Suttree<\/em>; la \u00e9pica historia de dos antih\u00e9roes intentando salir a flote en las inclementes tierras fronteriza entre Estados Unidos y M\u00e9xico en la <em>Trilog\u00eda de la frontera;<\/em> el baqueteado sheriff que debe lidiar con el tr\u00e1fico de drogas y un asesino de peculiar modus operandi en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/19930-ebook-no-es-pais-para-viejos-9788439724933\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">No es pa\u00eds para viejos<\/a>\u2026<\/em><\/span><\/p><p>La Am\u00e9rica de McCarthy es pues despiadada, feroz y desesperanzada. Un tema recurrente ha consistido en colocar a individuos desalmados en parajes inh\u00f3spitos, siendo perseguidos por agentes de la ley y hombres buenos cuya moral no alcanza para luchar contra la oscuridad circundante. No existe Dios ni se le espera en la bibliograf\u00eda del autor, que ha trabajado en tradiciones tan distintas como el western, el g\u00f3tico sure\u00f1o, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/tendencias\/the-last-of-us-serie-hbo-libros-que-te-gustaran\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la distop\u00eda<\/a><\/span> y el policial. Su capacidad para retratar el Mal, para angustiarnos y acelerarnos el pulso, pero tambi\u00e9n para conmovernos con historias de amistad y amor, de superaci\u00f3n y resiliencia, en situaciones cr\u00edticas explican en parte la atracci\u00f3n que ha ejercido su obra sobre el cine. Memorables las adaptaciones de los Hermanos Coen y John Hillcoat de <em>No es pa\u00eds para viejos<\/em> y <em>La carretera,<\/em> respectivamente, al tiempo que el autor escribi\u00f3 plasm\u00f3 directamente en forma de guion <em>El consejero<\/em> que m\u00e1s tarde pondr\u00eda en im\u00e1genes Ridley Scott, donde la tentaci\u00f3n de ganar una peque\u00f1a fortuna llevaba a un abogado a meterse en una operaci\u00f3n de tr\u00e1fico de coca\u00edna que le colocar\u00eda una diana en la 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si a estas alturas queda alguna duda respecto a que estamos delante de una <em>rara avis<\/em> de la literatura contempor\u00e1nea, alguien que ha buscado subirse a hombros de gigantes como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4491-herman-melville\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Herman Melville<\/a><\/span>, Nathaniel Hawthorne o William Faulkner explorando su propio imaginario y v\u00edas expresivas, aqu\u00ed van otros datos que singularizan su figura:\u00a0<\/p><p>1) Sabotaje a las normas: McCarthy abog\u00f3 por la simplicidad de la frase declarativa y la m\u00e1xima reducci\u00f3n de las marcas sobre la p\u00e1gina, lo que se ha traducido en una puntuaci\u00f3n m\u00ednima (sacrificio de comas, puntos, guiones\u2026), algo que confiere un ritmo especial a la historia pero que obliga a forzar la concentraci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>2) Polivalencia: Lejos de centrarse en exclusiva en la novela, el autor ha buceado en diversos g\u00e9neros. Public\u00f3 tres relatos entre 1959 y 1965 y tiene tres guiones cinematogr\u00e1ficos in\u00e9ditos, otro publicado y nunca filmado, y un quinto s\u00ed publicado y adaptado (el citado <em>El consejero).<\/em> A esto se suman dos obras de teatro:<em> The Stonemason<\/em> -que se remonta a finales de los 80 y que se inspira en los meses que el autor trabaj\u00f3 en una cantera con una familia afroamericana del sur de su pa\u00eds - y<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/19966-ebook-el-sunset-limited-9788439725978\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El Sunset Limited<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> publicada en 2006 y que despliega una batalla dial\u00e9ctica sobre el sentido de la existencia, la fe y Dios entre un hombre blanco y otro de color (densidad conceptual que nos invita a recordar que su responsable forma parte de la Sociedad Filos\u00f3fica Americana).\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>3) Ciencia: Sin embargo, fue en el campo cient\u00edfico donde McCarthy volc\u00f3 sus intereses y esfuerzos en las \u00faltimas d\u00e9cadas con resultados sorprendentes. Desde hace muchos a\u00f1os, la mesa de trabajo del escritor se encuentra en un despacho del Santa Fe Institute, un centro de investigaci\u00f3n multidisciplinar dedicado al estudio de sistemas complejos adaptativos en el que el escritor asegur\u00f3 estar rodeado de las mentes m\u00e1s brillantes imaginables, cuyo trabajo y charlas provocaron que su mente entrara en ebullici\u00f3n. De este modo, pese a carecer de formaci\u00f3n cient\u00edfica, en 2017 McCarthy public\u00f3 un ensayo, <em>The Keluk\u00e9 Problem,<\/em> dedicado al inconsciente humano y al origen del lenguaje, al tiempo que ejerci\u00f3 de corrector de pruebas para libros de f\u00edsica, entre ellos<em> Quantum Man,<\/em> una biograf\u00eda del m\u00edtico Richard Feynman a cargo de Lawrence Krauss, y se prest\u00f3 a ofrecer consejos para la redacci\u00f3n de art\u00edculos cient\u00edficos a la revista <em>Nature.\u00a0 \u00a0\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><strong>LA NOVEDAD (x2)<\/strong><\/p><p>Es en este contexto de abducci\u00f3n por la ciencia que cristalizaron <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/310585-ebook-el-pasajero-stella-maris-9788439740711\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El pasajero <\/a><\/span><\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/310585-ebook-el-pasajero-stella-maris-9788439740711\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">y<\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/310585-ebook-el-pasajero-stella-maris-9788439740711\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"> Stella Maris<\/a><\/span>, <\/em>si bien a algunas de sus ideas y personajes llevaba cuatro d\u00e9cadas d\u00e1ndole vueltas. Dos novelas que dialogan a trav\u00e9s de los hermanos Western, Bobby y Alicia, unidos por v\u00ednculos complejos en los que se mezclan los sentimientos tab\u00fa, el amor por la f\u00edsica y las matem\u00e1ticas y el ascendente de su padre, colaborador de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/oppenheimer-y-su-banda-de-hijos-de-puta-el-dia-en-que-la-ciencia-devino-muerte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Robert Oppenheimer en el desarrollo de la bomba at\u00f3mica<\/a><\/span>. La naturaleza esquiva de la realidad, los secretos de la conciencia, la paranoia como modo por defecto de la psique americana (aqu\u00ed McCarthy converge con los intereses de otros colegas ermita\u00f1os como Thomas Pynchon o Don DeLillo), el papel de la f\u00edsica y las matem\u00e1ticas en la redefinici\u00f3n del lugar del ser humano en el mundo, la legitimidad del suicidio, los traumas y fantasmas del pasado, los l\u00edmites morales en las relaciones fraternales, la inestabilidad mental\u2026 <em>El pasajero <\/em>y<em> Stella Maris, <\/em>la descomunal \u00faltima obra de un autor al que hoy decimos adi\u00f3s,\u00a0abordan multitud de temas de calado, retando al lector a acompa\u00f1arlo en un <em>tour de force<\/em> repleto de disquisiciones trascendentales y preguntas desafiantes. Se acaba de ir y ya le echamos de menos. Que la tierra te sea leve, se\u00f1or McCarthy.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"c5rzx6t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cormac-mccarthy-emiliano-monge\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cormac McCarthy por Emiliano Monge: un padre y un hijo, un hijo y un padre<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/colson-whitehead-nueva-york-el-ritmo-de-harlem\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Colson Whitehead: \u00abNueva York toca fondo a menudo, pero siempre resucita\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/bret-easton-ellis-rodrigo-fresan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abL.A. Psycho\u00bb: Bret Easton Ellis ataca de nuevo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en detalle<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-colson-whitehead\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEl ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo\u00bb o el holocausto norteamericano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/joan-didion-california\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">California seg\u00fan Joan Didion: el lado oscuro del sue\u00f1o americano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/deborah-levy-por-nuria-labari-la-escritora-que-rompio-el-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Deborah Levy por Nuria Labari: la escritora que rompi\u00f3 el tiempo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/margaret-atwood-soy-una-mala-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Margaret Atwood: \u00bfSoy una mala feminista?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/susan-sontag-david-rieff-prologo-obra-imprescindible\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Susan Sontag por David Rieff: desesperada por perdurar<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: 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10 minutos
Cormac McCarthy. Crédito: D. R.

Cormac McCarthy. Crédito: D. R.

ENTREGA

Autodidactismo, fe ciega en sus capacidades y dedicación absoluta son los cimientos de la carrera del escritor. La literatura no entra de lleno en su vida hasta que se encuentra destinado a una base militar en Alaska tras abandonar la universidad para unirse a las Fuerzas Aéreas. Rechaza seguir la tradición familiar en el ámbito del Derecho, rechaza una titulación académica, rechaza la formación de los talleres literarios. Desde muy temprano da muestras de ser un verso libre. Todo se subordina a la creación de las condiciones idóneas para escribir. El confort y los ingresos son secundarios. 

En 1961 se instala con su primera esposa en una chabola, a los pies de las Smoky Mountains, que carece de agua corriente y de calefacción. En 1969 adquiere con su segunda mujer un granero en Louisville (Tennessee) que renueva con sus propias manos. El matrimonio se lava en un lago cercano y tiene en las latas de alubias su fuente alimenticia básica. A mediados de los años 80 se traslada a una casucha de piedra ubicada detrás de un centro comercial de El Paso, que él mismo define como «apenas habitable». A Cormac sólo le interesa escribir, escribir, escribir. Le da la espalda a colaboraciones remuneradas, sólo acepta becas que le permiten viajar a Europa y por el sudoeste de su país de cara a adquirir experiencias valiosas a traspasar a sus libros. Estos (La oscuridad exterior, Suttree, Meridiano de sangre) van obteniendo prestigio entre la crítica pero la desconexión con el gran público es total pues cada uno no supera los cinco mil ejemplares. ¿Afloja McCarthy? ¿Acepta un puesto de profesor, colaboraciones en prensa, charlas? ¿Lima la crudeza de sus historias para llegar a más lectores? NO. 

Es un misterio si el autor podría haber mantenido mucho tiempo este régimen tan ascético, o si se habría visto forzado a realizar algunas concesiones que comprometieran su entrega febril a la escritura, en el caso de que Todos los hermosos caballos -primera entrega de la Trilogía de la frontera, ganadora del National Book Award y del National Book Critics Circle Award, y completada con En la frontera y Ciudades de la llanura- no hubiese supuesto un bombazo en 1991. En cualquier caso, adiós a los aprietos económicos y a los alojamientos insalubres -desde los años 90 residía en una casa en Tesuque, una localidad de Nuevo México-, y garantía de continuidad a su burbuja creativa revestida con acero inoxidable.

SILENCIO

Sin ser el hombre invisible como Thomas Pynchon ni el recluso apenas fotografiado que fue J.D. Salinger, McCarthy ha sido una figura escurridiza, guardando siempre celosamente un generoso perímetro de seguridad respecto a cualquier foco: no ha participado en festivales, impartido conferencias, ofrecido presentaciones o firmas de libros y apenas ha concedido cuatro entrevistas a lo largo de su vida. La primera fue al diario The New York Times en 1992, cuando tenía casi sesenta años; la segunda a Vanity Fair en 2005; la tercera al programa televisivo de Oprah Winfrey; y la última, en 2009, a The Wall Street Journal. Contra la especulación y la tentación de generar leyendas, McCarthy le aseguró a Winfrey que se ha limitado a consagrar todas sus fuerzas a la escritura, descartando cualquier distracción, ya fuera lucrativa o que inflamara su vanidad. «Siempre supe que no quería trabajar, que mi prioridad absoluta era dedicar la única vida que tenemos a hacer lo que más me gusta». Si de joven aceptó vivir en la semi pobreza fue para descubrir de lo que era capaz con la literatura y la única forma de averiguarlo radicaba en teclear día y noche en su Olivetti Lettera 32, máquina de escribir que, por cierto, fue vendida en 2009 por la casa de subastas Christie's por 254.000 dólares.

¿Pero detrás de la negativa a prodigarse en público y a ceñirse a unos mínimos peajes promocionales estaba únicamente la voluntad de dedicar el máximo tiempo posible a sus novelas? Aquellas muestras tempranas y luego ya para siempre sostenidas del escritor-isla (o misántropo o hermético o huraño o celoso de su privacidad), ¿sólo respondían a una estrategia de rentabilidad productiva? No. También obedecían a una obsesión anti analítica. McCarthy siempre ha sido alérgico a explicar, profundizar o interpretar su trabajo pues considera que lo que ha quedado por escrito ya está fijado. Fuera de la página no hay nada.

FEROCIDAD

El del ermitaño escritor de Providence no es un país para viejos, ni para débiles, ni para los que van sobrados de fe en la bondad del individuo. Explorador frecuente de cuanto tiene de cruel y carente de compasión la naturaleza humana, McCarthy estableció de forma reiterada en su obra un paralelismo entre nuestro oscuro interior y el entorno árido, inclemente y hostil que nos circunda. El paroxismo de esta confrontación llegaba con La carretera, -«se produjo un resplandor, se pudrieron las cosechas, se murieron los animales, se acabó el combustible…»- una visión del Apocalipsis en la que el escritor proyectaba un mundo baldío, despoblado, silencioso, mortecino… definido por la sustracción de elementos vitales y la acumulación de atrocidades. Desamparados y aterrorizados, un padre y un hijo eran dos pobres almas atravesando un Purgatorio a la espera de una salida al mar que los condujera al cielo de la salvación, so pena de acabar en las fauces de unos caníbales que los engulleran hacia el infierno.

El trayecto abarcado con anterioridad no había sido tampoco un camino de rosas: la persecución y el incesto con la cordillera de los Apalaches de fondo en La oscuridad exterior; la lucha por la supervivencia del pescador Cornelius Suttree y su banda de vagabundos, ladrones, prostitutas, jugadores y demás parias en el Tennessee de los años 50 en Suttree; la épica historia de dos antihéroes intentando salir a flote en las inclementes tierras fronteriza entre Estados Unidos y México en la Trilogía de la frontera; el baqueteado sheriff que debe lidiar con el tráfico de drogas y un asesino de peculiar modus operandi en No es país para viejos

La América de McCarthy es pues despiadada, feroz y desesperanzada. Un tema recurrente ha consistido en colocar a individuos desalmados en parajes inhóspitos, siendo perseguidos por agentes de la ley y hombres buenos cuya moral no alcanza para luchar contra la oscuridad circundante. No existe Dios ni se le espera en la bibliografía del autor, que ha trabajado en tradiciones tan distintas como el western, el gótico sureño, la distopía y el policial. Su capacidad para retratar el Mal, para angustiarnos y acelerarnos el pulso, pero también para conmovernos con historias de amistad y amor, de superación y resiliencia, en situaciones críticas explican en parte la atracción que ha ejercido su obra sobre el cine. Memorables las adaptaciones de los Hermanos Coen y John Hillcoat de No es país para viejos y La carretera, respectivamente, al tiempo que el autor escribió plasmó directamente en forma de guion El consejero que más tarde pondría en imágenes Ridley Scott, donde la tentación de ganar una pequeña fortuna llevaba a un abogado a meterse en una operación de tráfico de cocaína que le colocaría una diana en la espalda.

Cormac McCarthy. Crédito: Beowulf Sheehan.

Cormac McCarthy. Crédito: Beowulf Sheehan.

HETERODOXIA

Por si a estas alturas queda alguna duda respecto a que estamos delante de una rara avis de la literatura contemporánea, alguien que ha buscado subirse a hombros de gigantes como Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne o William Faulkner explorando su propio imaginario y vías expresivas, aquí van otros datos que singularizan su figura: 

1) Sabotaje a las normas: McCarthy abogó por la simplicidad de la frase declarativa y la máxima reducción de las marcas sobre la página, lo que se ha traducido en una puntuación mínima (sacrificio de comas, puntos, guiones…), algo que confiere un ritmo especial a la historia pero que obliga a forzar la concentración.

2) Polivalencia: Lejos de centrarse en exclusiva en la novela, el autor ha buceado en diversos géneros. Publicó tres relatos entre 1959 y 1965 y tiene tres guiones cinematográficos inéditos, otro publicado y nunca filmado, y un quinto sí publicado y adaptado (el citado El consejero). A esto se suman dos obras de teatro: The Stonemason -que se remonta a finales de los 80 y que se inspira en los meses que el autor trabajó en una cantera con una familia afroamericana del sur de su país - y El Sunset Limited, publicada en 2006 y que despliega una batalla dialéctica sobre el sentido de la existencia, la fe y Dios entre un hombre blanco y otro de color (densidad conceptual que nos invita a recordar que su responsable forma parte de la Sociedad Filosófica Americana).  

3) Ciencia: Sin embargo, fue en el campo científico donde McCarthy volcó sus intereses y esfuerzos en las últimas décadas con resultados sorprendentes. Desde hace muchos años, la mesa de trabajo del escritor se encuentra en un despacho del Santa Fe Institute, un centro de investigación multidisciplinar dedicado al estudio de sistemas complejos adaptativos en el que el escritor aseguró estar rodeado de las mentes más brillantes imaginables, cuyo trabajo y charlas provocaron que su mente entrara en ebullición. De este modo, pese a carecer de formación científica, en 2017 McCarthy publicó un ensayo, The Keluké Problem, dedicado al inconsciente humano y al origen del lenguaje, al tiempo que ejerció de corrector de pruebas para libros de física, entre ellos Quantum Man, una biografía del mítico Richard Feynman a cargo de Lawrence Krauss, y se prestó a ofrecer consejos para la redacción de artículos científicos a la revista Nature.    

LA NOVEDAD (x2)

Es en este contexto de abducción por la ciencia que cristalizaron El pasajero y Stella Maris, si bien a algunas de sus ideas y personajes llevaba cuatro décadas dándole vueltas. Dos novelas que dialogan a través de los hermanos Western, Bobby y Alicia, unidos por vínculos complejos en los que se mezclan los sentimientos tabú, el amor por la física y las matemáticas y el ascendente de su padre, colaborador de Robert Oppenheimer en el desarrollo de la bomba atómica. La naturaleza esquiva de la realidad, los secretos de la conciencia, la paranoia como modo por defecto de la psique americana (aquí McCarthy converge con los intereses de otros colegas ermitaños como Thomas Pynchon o Don DeLillo), el papel de la física y las matemáticas en la redefinición del lugar del ser humano en el mundo, la legitimidad del suicidio, los traumas y fantasmas del pasado, los límites morales en las relaciones fraternales, la inestabilidad mental… El pasajero y Stella Maris, la descomunal última obra de un autor al que hoy decimos adiós, abordan multitud de temas de calado, retando al lector a acompañarlo en un tour de force repleto de disquisiciones trascendentales y preguntas desafiantes. Se acaba de ir y ya le echamos de menos. Que la tierra te sea leve, señor McCarthy.

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