Fenómenos

De cómo Dickens redefinió la Navidad

A principios de la década de 1840, Charles Dickens se acercaba a sus treinta años en medio de una oleada de éxitos. La publicación por entregas de historias como «Oliver Twist» lo habían convertido en un favorito del Londres victoriano. Sin embargo, la relación con sus editores se deterioró poco después: debido a las escasas ventas de «La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit», estos le amenazaron con rebajar sus honorarios. A esto habría que añadirle un quinto hijo en camino y que, mientras lidiaba con las deudas, se estaba haciendo cargo de su padre, por lo que se vio en una situación límite: tenía que escribir un gran superventas... y tenía hacerlo rápido. Y así surgió «Canción de Navidad», que no sólo fue un exitazo (aunque ni mucho menos llenó los bolsillos del autor), sino que también ayudó a formar nuestro concepto de la Navidad: el de la caridad, la reconciliación, la generosidad y la buena voluntad en una mesa llena de comida reluciente.

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dice \u00abNavidad\u00bb como el viejo avaro <em>dickensiano<\/em> que odia todo lo relacionado con el d\u00eda maldito. 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embargo, es menos conocida la historia que anim\u00f3 a Dickens a escribir su relato m\u00e1s famoso y que, en un a\u00f1o en que los debates sobre el hambre infantil y el valor de la Navidad por encima de los bienes materiales han tenido un car\u00e1cter apremiante, no podr\u00eda ser m\u00e1s oportuna.<\/p><p>Primero, un poco de ambientaci\u00f3n. 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La publicaci\u00f3n por entregas de historias como <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36775-libro-oliver-twist-edicion-conmemorativa-9788491054535\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Oliver Twist<\/a><\/span>, Nicholas Nickleby, La tienda de antig\u00fcedades <\/em>y<em> Barnaby Rudge<\/em> lo hab\u00edan convertido en un favorito del Londres victoriano, del que disfrutaba incluso la joven reina. Sin embargo, a principios de la d\u00e9cada de 1840 la relaci\u00f3n con sus editores se deterior\u00f3 y el cada vez m\u00e1s politizado Dickens se desanim\u00f3 ante la vuelta de los conservadores en el poder. En 1843, adem\u00e1s, Dickens necesitaba urgentemente liquidez: su nueva novela por entregas, <em>La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit,<\/em> se estaba vendiendo tan poco que sus editores lo amenazaron con rebajar sus honorarios. 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un documento, sin embargo, que supuso un acicate para Dickens: a principios de 1843 present\u00f3 al Parlamento un informe sobre el alcance del trabajo infantil en el pa\u00eds. Detallaba horrores inimaginables: entrevistas con ni\u00f1os de siete a\u00f1os que hab\u00edan pasado la mitad de su vida en las minas; ni\u00f1os de ocho a\u00f1os que fumaban y llevaban tanto tiempo trabajando que ni siquiera sus padres sab\u00edan cu\u00e1ndo empezaron; y las circunstancias anecd\u00f3ticas de que \u00abse llevan a los peque\u00f1os en cuanto son capaces de mantenerse en pie\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Varios escritores, indignados, reaccionaron escribiendo sobre ello, como Elizabeth Gaskell, Benjamin Disraeli y Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Pero pocos ten\u00edan la experiencia vital de Dickens, que trabaj\u00f3 en una f\u00e1brica de bet\u00fan a los doce a\u00f1os, despu\u00e9s de que su padre fuese enviado a una c\u00e1rcel para deudores.<\/p><p>Dickens promovi\u00f3 un plan para elaborar un panfleto de protesta llamado \u00abUn llamamiento al pueblo de Inglaterra en nombre del hijo del pobre\u00bb, pero enseguida se dio cuenta de que no bastar\u00eda con un panfleto para asestar un \u00abmazazo\u00bb a la conciencia a prop\u00f3sito de las tribulaciones de los ni\u00f1os pobres. De modo que Dickens estaba decidido a escribir algo que tuviera \u00abuna fuerza veinte mil veces mayor\u00bb que un panfleto enviado al gobierno.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qqhfbpl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Su nueva novela por entregas, <em>La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit,<\/em> se estaba vendiendo tan poco que sus editores lo amenazaron con rebajar sus honorarios. A eso hay que a\u00f1adirle un quinto hijo en camino y que, mientras Dickens vadeaba las deudas, se estaba haciendo cargo de su padre, por lo que ten\u00eda que escribir un gran \u00e9xito, y hacerlo r\u00e1pido.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ul9g3hv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Una visita a un hospicio infantil tambi\u00e9n hizo su parte. Dickens no era ajeno a estas instituciones, que proporcionaban educaci\u00f3n gratuita a los ni\u00f1os pobres y desamparados \u2014fueron una inspiraci\u00f3n directa para la guarida de Fagin de <em>Oliver Twist\u2014,<\/em> y una visita en 1843 lo convenci\u00f3 a\u00fan m\u00e1s de que la pobreza, la ignorancia, la redenci\u00f3n y la bondad ser\u00edan fundamentales para <em>Canci\u00f3n de Navidad.<\/em> En 1846 Dickens escribi\u00f3 una carta al peri\u00f3dico <em>The Daily News<\/em> donde detallaba su experiencia. Describe \u00abdos o tres estancias miserables, en la planta de arriba de una casa miserable\u00bb donde hab\u00eda \u00abuna multitud de muchachos, desde beb\u00e9s hasta adultos j\u00f3venes, vendedores de fruta, hierbas, f\u00f3sforos y pedernales, que duermen bajo las arcadas secas de los puentes, j\u00f3venes ladrones y mendigos, sin ning\u00fan rastro de juventud en ellos\u00bb. Haber visto aquello, a\u00f1adi\u00f3, lo \u00abatormentaba\u00bb.<\/p><p>En una de las escenas clave \u2014y m\u00e1s politizadas\u2014 de <em>Canci\u00f3n de Navidad,<\/em> a menudo omitida en las adaptaciones modernas, Scrooge se encuentra, bajo el manto del Fantasma de la Navidad Presente, \u00aba dos ni\u00f1os andrajosos, abyectos, espantosos, repulsivos y miserables [\u2026] un ni\u00f1o y una ni\u00f1a\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00ab\\\"Esp\u00edritu, \u00bfson tuyos?\\\", fue todo cuanto pudo decir Scrooge. \\\"Son del Hombre\\\", dijo el Esp\u00edritu, mientras los contemplaba [\u2026] Este ni\u00f1o es la Ignorancia. Esta ni\u00f1a es la Carencia. Gu\u00e1rdate de ellos, y de todos sus semejantes\\\"\u00bb.<\/p><p>Con estos dos personajes, a menudo olvidados, Dickens transmiti\u00f3 el mensaje de que desatender a los ni\u00f1os pobres era robarles su futuro. Sin aprendizaje, refugio, comida y atenci\u00f3n m\u00e9dica, los ni\u00f1os vulnerables crecer\u00edan r\u00e1pidamente como delincuentes en potencia, si es que llegaban a la edad 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Scrooge (Reginald Owen) habla con el fantasma de Marley (Leo G. 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Dickens viaj\u00f3 al norte para pronunciar un discurso sobre la importancia de la educaci\u00f3n en todo el espectro social, y visit\u00f3 a su hermana, Fanny, que viv\u00eda en la ciudad. Su sobrino Henry ten\u00eda discapacidad y, al verlos, Dickens fue consciente de las dificultades a las que pod\u00eda enfrentarse una familia. Y ah\u00ed surgi\u00f3 la inspiraci\u00f3n para el Peque\u00f1o Tim.\u00a0<\/p><p>Dickens entreg\u00f3 treinta mil palabras en seis semanas, evocando la historia mientras caminaba entre veinticinco y treinta kil\u00f3metros por Londres en las profundidades nocturnas del oto\u00f1o de 1843. Sin embargo, sus editores, nada convencidos tras las mediocres ventas de <em>La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit,<\/em> se negaron a apoquinar por el libro, de modo que fue el propio Dickens quien pag\u00f3 su impresi\u00f3n. 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En cambio, la frivolidad festiva del Reino Unido a\u00fan estaba en su infancia. <em>Canci\u00f3n de Navidad<\/em> se public\u00f3 el mismo a\u00f1o en que se inventaron las tarjetas navide\u00f1as, y el concepto de festividad era tan novedoso en Reino Unido como lo es hoy el Black Friday, de modo que la gente se sent\u00eda embelesada por ella. El propio Dickens organiz\u00f3 una fiesta el 26 de diciembre (el c\u00e9lebre Boxing Day), donde el escritor realiz\u00f3 algunos trucos de magia, como convertir \u00ablos pa\u00f1uelos de las damas en golosinas\u00bb y transformar \u00abuna caja de salvado en un conejillo de indias\u00bb. En un a\u00f1o, <em>Canci\u00f3n de Navidad<\/em> fue reimpreso once veces, dos de ellas antes de que acabara 1843.\u00a0<\/p><p>El libro tambi\u00e9n anim\u00f3 a los cr\u00edticos, que celebraron \u00absu amable esp\u00edritu de humanidad\u00bb y la capacidad de Dickens \u00abpara hacer re\u00edr y llorar al lector, para abrirle las manos y el coraz\u00f3n a la caridad, incluso hacia quienes no son caritativos\u00bb. Otro gran comentarista social, William Makepeace Thackeray, lo admiraba mucho, y se refiri\u00f3 a \u00e9l como \u00abuna bondad personal\u00bb. Sin embargo, dos cr\u00edticos se apresuraron a se\u00f1alar la iron\u00eda de que un libro sobre la defensa de las necesidades de los pobres fuese inaccesible para ellos, dada la opulencia de su edici\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ixm2bmw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Dickens transmiti\u00f3 el mensaje de que desatender a los ni\u00f1os pobres era robarles su futuro. Sin aprendizaje, refugio, comida y atenci\u00f3n m\u00e9dica, los ni\u00f1os vulnerables crecer\u00edan r\u00e1pidamente como delincuentes en potencia, si es que llegaban a la edad adulta.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gebotrw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Tal vez sea ir\u00f3nico que todo este buen \u00e1nimo no lograra satisfacer por completo las necesidades financieras de Dickens. Aunque anhelaba recibir mil libras esterlinas por cada d\u00eda de pago (el equivalente a cien mil libras) acab\u00f3 con cerca de 230 libras tras la primera edici\u00f3n, al cabo de un a\u00f1o, y su margen de beneficio fue de 744 libras.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como la mayor\u00eda de los escritores, incluso hoy, termin\u00f3 ganando m\u00e1s dinero con las conferencias que con la venta de los libros, aunque no fue hasta la d\u00e9cada de 1850, cuando empez\u00f3 a leer una versi\u00f3n m\u00e1s corta de la historia en no menos de 127 actos p\u00fablicos durante los veinte a\u00f1os siguientes, hasta su muerte en 1870.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para entonces,<em> Canci\u00f3n de Navidad<\/em> hab\u00eda arraigado con firmeza en el imaginario p\u00fablico. A pesar de que no llen\u00f3 los bolsillos de Dickens, ayud\u00f3 a formar nuestro concepto de la Navidad: el de la caridad, la reconciliaci\u00f3n, la generosidad y la buena voluntad en una mesa llena de comida reluciente. Antes de <em>Canci\u00f3n de Navidad,<\/em> los victorianos no se deseaban una \u00abfeliz Navidad\u00bb, ni llamaban \u00abScrooge\u00bb a quienes no lo hac\u00edan. El legado del libro est\u00e1 muy manido, pero sus or\u00edgenes le dan una credibilidad y un mensaje pertinentes: cuidar de los m\u00e1s vulnerables de la sociedad es el mayor regalo de todos.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguin.co.uk\/articles\/2020\/12\/charles-dickens-a-christmas-carol-story-of\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Texto original publicado por Alice Vincent en 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/stephen-king-por-rodrigo-fresan-holly\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Stephen King por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: el Rey y yo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/dias-de-fantasmas-novela-gotica-libros-terror\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">D\u00edas de fantasmas... y de libros: un recorrido por la novela g\u00f3tica y de terror<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/george-orwell-120-aniversario-ensayos-por-que-escribo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Belleza, compromiso y vanidad: por qu\u00e9 escrib\u00eda George Orwell<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/fanfiction\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El fanfiction o el noble arte de elegir tu propia 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10 minutos
Los cómicos ingleses Rowan Atkinson (izquierda) y Tony Robinson en un fotograma de El cuento de Navidad de Víbora Negra, adaptación libre de la BBC (1988) del libro de Dickens. Crédito: Getty Images.

Los cómicos ingleses Rowan Atkinson (izquierda) y Tony Robinson en un fotograma de El cuento de Navidad de Víbora Negra, adaptación libre de la BBC (1988) del libro de Dickens. Crédito: Getty Images.

Nadie dice «Navidad» como el viejo avaro dickensiano que odia todo lo relacionado con el día maldito. La historia de Ebenezer Scrooge y los fantasmas que lo visitan es tan sinónima de estas fechas como el cordero, Papá Noel y los roscones con nata. Ya que la mayoría de las ediciones no superan las cien páginas, es el libro perfecto para acurrucarse con él y una copa de vino especiado.

Al igual que la Biblia, Canción de Navidad de Charles Dickens nunca se ha descatalogado y, con ejemplos que van desde los Teleñecos hasta Robbie Williams —véase la portada de The Christmas Present—, este festivo cuento de codicia, desigualdad y valores por los que merece la pena vivir ha sido reinventado innumerables veces desde que se publicó por primera vez en 1843.

Sin embargo, es menos conocida la historia que animó a Dickens a escribir su relato más famoso y que, en un año en que los debates sobre el hambre infantil y el valor de la Navidad por encima de los bienes materiales han tenido un carácter apremiante, no podría ser más oportuna.

Primero, un poco de ambientación. La década de 1840 se llamó «los hambrientos cuarenta» debido a la devastadora conjunción de una caída del comercio, que provocó una depresión económica y un altísimo desempleo, y varias cosechas fallidas que encarecieron el pan. Para las clases trabajadoras y pobres, en especial, los tiempos eran sumamente difíciles. Además, Inglaterra estaba experimentando un proceso de industrialización a gran escala: las familias acudían en masa a ciudades superpobladas y la demanda de empleo era tal que incluso se mandaba a los niños a buscar trabajo.

Con este telón de fondo, Dickens se acercaba a sus treinta años en medio de una oleada de éxitos. La publicación por entregas de historias como Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, La tienda de antigüedades y Barnaby Rudge lo habían convertido en un favorito del Londres victoriano, del que disfrutaba incluso la joven reina. Sin embargo, a principios de la década de 1840 la relación con sus editores se deterioró y el cada vez más politizado Dickens se desanimó ante la vuelta de los conservadores en el poder. En 1843, además, Dickens necesitaba urgentemente liquidez: su nueva novela por entregas, La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit, se estaba vendiendo tan poco que sus editores lo amenazaron con rebajar sus honorarios. A eso hay que añadirle un quinto hijo en camino y que, mientras Dickens vadeaba las deudas, se estaba haciendo cargo de su padre, por lo que tenía que escribir un gran éxito, y hacerlo rápido.

Eso podría haber sido suficiente motivación para que Dickens escribiera una novela en seis semanas, pero influyeron más problemas. El escritor había estado invirtiendo aún más tiempo en las causas sociales: en 1842 realizó una gira por Estados Unidos donde abundó en las críticas a la esclavitud que ya había expresado en Los papeles póstumos del Club Pickwick. Escribió sátiras contra el conservadurismo y se asoció con médicos y filósofos que hicieron campaña por el cambio social en una Gran Bretaña cada vez más dividida.

Reginald Owen como Ebenezer Scrooge en Cuento de Navidad, la adaptación al cine de la obra de Dickens firmada por Edwin L. Marin en 1938. Crédito: Getty Images.

Reginald Owen como Ebenezer Scrooge en Cuento de Navidad, la adaptación al cine de la obra de Dickens firmada por Edwin L. Marin en 1938. Crédito: Getty Images.

Hubo un documento, sin embargo, que supuso un acicate para Dickens: a principios de 1843 presentó al Parlamento un informe sobre el alcance del trabajo infantil en el país. Detallaba horrores inimaginables: entrevistas con niños de siete años que habían pasado la mitad de su vida en las minas; niños de ocho años que fumaban y llevaban tanto tiempo trabajando que ni siquiera sus padres sabían cuándo empezaron; y las circunstancias anecdóticas de que «se llevan a los pequeños en cuanto son capaces de mantenerse en pie». 

Varios escritores, indignados, reaccionaron escribiendo sobre ello, como Elizabeth Gaskell, Benjamin Disraeli y Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Pero pocos tenían la experiencia vital de Dickens, que trabajó en una fábrica de betún a los doce años, después de que su padre fuese enviado a una cárcel para deudores.

Dickens promovió un plan para elaborar un panfleto de protesta llamado «Un llamamiento al pueblo de Inglaterra en nombre del hijo del pobre», pero enseguida se dio cuenta de que no bastaría con un panfleto para asestar un «mazazo» a la conciencia a propósito de las tribulaciones de los niños pobres. De modo que Dickens estaba decidido a escribir algo que tuviera «una fuerza veinte mil veces mayor» que un panfleto enviado al gobierno.

Su nueva novela por entregas, La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit, se estaba vendiendo tan poco que sus editores lo amenazaron con rebajar sus honorarios. A eso hay que añadirle un quinto hijo en camino y que, mientras Dickens vadeaba las deudas, se estaba haciendo cargo de su padre, por lo que tenía que escribir un gran éxito, y hacerlo rápido.

Una visita a un hospicio infantil también hizo su parte. Dickens no era ajeno a estas instituciones, que proporcionaban educación gratuita a los niños pobres y desamparados —fueron una inspiración directa para la guarida de Fagin de Oliver Twist—, y una visita en 1843 lo convenció aún más de que la pobreza, la ignorancia, la redención y la bondad serían fundamentales para Canción de Navidad. En 1846 Dickens escribió una carta al periódico The Daily News donde detallaba su experiencia. Describe «dos o tres estancias miserables, en la planta de arriba de una casa miserable» donde había «una multitud de muchachos, desde bebés hasta adultos jóvenes, vendedores de fruta, hierbas, fósforos y pedernales, que duermen bajo las arcadas secas de los puentes, jóvenes ladrones y mendigos, sin ningún rastro de juventud en ellos». Haber visto aquello, añadió, lo «atormentaba».

En una de las escenas clave —y más politizadas— de Canción de Navidad, a menudo omitida en las adaptaciones modernas, Scrooge se encuentra, bajo el manto del Fantasma de la Navidad Presente, «a dos niños andrajosos, abyectos, espantosos, repulsivos y miserables […] un niño y una niña». 

«"Espíritu, ¿son tuyos?", fue todo cuanto pudo decir Scrooge. "Son del Hombre", dijo el Espíritu, mientras los contemplaba […] Este niño es la Ignorancia. Esta niña es la Carencia. Guárdate de ellos, y de todos sus semejantes"».

Con estos dos personajes, a menudo olvidados, Dickens transmitió el mensaje de que desatender a los niños pobres era robarles su futuro. Sin aprendizaje, refugio, comida y atención médica, los niños vulnerables crecerían rápidamente como delincuentes en potencia, si es que llegaban a la edad adulta.

Ebenezer Scrooge (Reginald Owen) habla con el fantasma de Marley (Leo G. Carroll) en un fotograma de Cuento de Navidad (1938). Crédito: Getty Images.

Ebenezer Scrooge (Reginald Owen) habla con el fantasma de Marley (Leo G. Carroll) en un fotograma de Cuento de Navidad (1938). Crédito: Getty Images.

Hizo falta un viaje a Mánchester, en octubre, para que su ambición se osificara en Canción de Navidad. Dickens viajó al norte para pronunciar un discurso sobre la importancia de la educación en todo el espectro social, y visitó a su hermana, Fanny, que vivía en la ciudad. Su sobrino Henry tenía discapacidad y, al verlos, Dickens fue consciente de las dificultades a las que podía enfrentarse una familia. Y ahí surgió la inspiración para el Pequeño Tim. 

Dickens entregó treinta mil palabras en seis semanas, evocando la historia mientras caminaba entre veinticinco y treinta kilómetros por Londres en las profundidades nocturnas del otoño de 1843. Sin embargo, sus editores, nada convencidos tras las mediocres ventas de La vida y aventuras de Martin Chuzzlewit, se negaron a apoquinar por el libro, de modo que fue el propio Dickens quien pagó su impresión. No le puso las cosas fáciles a nadie al rechazar al menos dos opciones de guardas: primero unas de color oliva grisáceo, y después unas amarillas, más alegres, que desentonaban con la página titular. El libro acabado era un artículo bastante lujoso: encuadernado en tela roja y con los bordes de las páginas dorados, terminó de producirse dos días antes de la fecha de publicación, el 19 de diciembre. Con un precio equivalente a veinticinco libras esterlinas de hoy, cautivó el corazón de la clase media victoriana que, cada vez más ávida de Navidad, en Nochebuena ya se había hecho con los seis mil ejemplares.

Fotograma de Cuento de Navidad, la adaptación de Edwin L. Marin de 1938. Crédito: Getty Images.

Fotograma de Cuento de Navidad, la adaptación de Edwin L. Marin de 1938. Crédito: Getty Images.

Es difícil imaginar esas escenas sin las típicas florituras dickensianas de los árboles navideños, los regalos sofisticadamente envueltos y tal vez una pizca de nieve. En cambio, la frivolidad festiva del Reino Unido aún estaba en su infancia. Canción de Navidad se publicó el mismo año en que se inventaron las tarjetas navideñas, y el concepto de festividad era tan novedoso en Reino Unido como lo es hoy el Black Friday, de modo que la gente se sentía embelesada por ella. El propio Dickens organizó una fiesta el 26 de diciembre (el célebre Boxing Day), donde el escritor realizó algunos trucos de magia, como convertir «los pañuelos de las damas en golosinas» y transformar «una caja de salvado en un conejillo de indias». En un año, Canción de Navidad fue reimpreso once veces, dos de ellas antes de que acabara 1843. 

El libro también animó a los críticos, que celebraron «su amable espíritu de humanidad» y la capacidad de Dickens «para hacer reír y llorar al lector, para abrirle las manos y el corazón a la caridad, incluso hacia quienes no son caritativos». Otro gran comentarista social, William Makepeace Thackeray, lo admiraba mucho, y se refirió a él como «una bondad personal». Sin embargo, dos críticos se apresuraron a señalar la ironía de que un libro sobre la defensa de las necesidades de los pobres fuese inaccesible para ellos, dada la opulencia de su edición.

Dickens transmitió el mensaje de que desatender a los niños pobres era robarles su futuro. Sin aprendizaje, refugio, comida y atención médica, los niños vulnerables crecerían rápidamente como delincuentes en potencia, si es que llegaban a la edad adulta.

Tal vez sea irónico que todo este buen ánimo no lograra satisfacer por completo las necesidades financieras de Dickens. Aunque anhelaba recibir mil libras esterlinas por cada día de pago (el equivalente a cien mil libras) acabó con cerca de 230 libras tras la primera edición, al cabo de un año, y su margen de beneficio fue de 744 libras. 

Como la mayoría de los escritores, incluso hoy, terminó ganando más dinero con las conferencias que con la venta de los libros, aunque no fue hasta la década de 1850, cuando empezó a leer una versión más corta de la historia en no menos de 127 actos públicos durante los veinte años siguientes, hasta su muerte en 1870. 

Para entonces, Canción de Navidad había arraigado con firmeza en el imaginario público. A pesar de que no llenó los bolsillos de Dickens, ayudó a formar nuestro concepto de la Navidad: el de la caridad, la reconciliación, la generosidad y la buena voluntad en una mesa llena de comida reluciente. Antes de Canción de Navidad, los victorianos no se deseaban una «feliz Navidad», ni llamaban «Scrooge» a quienes no lo hacían. El legado del libro está muy manido, pero sus orígenes le dan una credibilidad y un mensaje pertinentes: cuidar de los más vulnerables de la sociedad es el mayor regalo de todos.

Texto original publicado por Alice Vincent en Penguin.co.uk.

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