Fenómenos

«Suite francesa», de Irène Némirovsky: la fábrica de una obra maestra

Nacida en Kiev en 1903, Irène Némirovsky huyó con su familia en 1918 de la Unión Soviética tras sufrir el acoso de los bolcheviques. Viajó a Francia, donde escribió en su nueva lengua de adopción -el francés- la mejor literatura de su tiempo. Sin embargo, la II Guerra Mundial marcó trágicamente su destino: denegada en varias ocasiones por el régimen de Vichy su solicitud de nacionalidad, Némirovsky fue deportada y murió asesinada en Auschwitz en agosto de 1942. Su propia historia precipitó también el destino de «Suite francesa», la cual describe el éxodo que en junio de 1940 sumió a muchas familias francesas en un terrible caos y refleja la inquietante vida diaria de un país bajo el yugo de los invasores. Arrestada dos meses antes de su muerte, el manuscrito quedó inacabado y sus notas fueron guardadas en una maleta. Años más tarde, su hija Denise desempolvó aquellos textos que devendrían en «Suite francesa». Existieron, sin embargo, dos versiones de la novela: la publicada, que obtuvo el Premio Renaudot en 2004, y una segunda reelaborada que, descubierta en 2013, ve ahora la luz en español (otoño de 2023) en una edición que corre a cargo de Salamandra (como el resto de la obra de Némirovsky traducida al castellano). Al hilo de la publicación de esta versión inédita, reproducimos el epílogo, un texto en el que la filóloga Teresa Lussone, una de las mayores especialistas en la obra de la autora rusa, explica la compleja arquitectura de esta magistral novela, la cual fue concebida siguiendo el modelo de una composición musical en cuatro o cinco movimientos, de los que sólo serían escritos los dos primeros: «Tempestad en junio» y «Dolce».

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24 de abril [de 1941]. Por primera vez en mucho tiempo, un poco de calma... Convencerse de que la serie de las <em>Tempestades,<\/em> por llamarla as\u00ed, debe ser (es) una obra maestra. Trabajar en ella sin desfallecer\u00bb. [Ver notas a pie de texto: 1]<\/p><p>Cuando Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky empieza a escribir lo que acabar\u00e1 siendo <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/331094-ebook-suite-francesa-version-inedita-9788419456175\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Suite francesa<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> el proyecto a\u00fan no est\u00e1 del todo claro en su mente. Descubre la \u00abf\u00f3rmula\u00bb que debe convertir su novela en una obra maestra a medida que avanza en su trabajo. Cuando lo logre, escribir\u00e1: \u00abHay que escribir a toda m\u00e1quina\u00bb. La sensaci\u00f3n de disponer de poco tiempo la impulsa a trabajar con ah\u00ednco, a proseguir la escritura de <em>Dolce<\/em>, segunda parte de su obra, y a emprender una reescritura global de lo ya redactado. A la primera versi\u00f3n de <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinaula.com\/es\/libro\/suite-francesa-bolsillo-sg-tempestad-en-junio-0182866\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Tempestad en junio<\/a><\/em>, contenida en un manuscrito y aparecida en 2004 conforme a la transcripci\u00f3n realizada por la hija de la novelista, Denise Epstein, se a\u00f1aden una segunda versi\u00f3n, de la que s\u00f3lo se conserva una p\u00e1gina mecanografiada, y una tercera, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/331094-ebook-suite-francesa-version-inedita-9788419456175\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">publicada aqu\u00ed<\/a><\/span> y transmitida por un mecanoscrito efectuado por su marido, Michel Epstein, sobre el que Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky realiz\u00f3 numerosas anotaciones manuscritas [2]. Algunas de esas anotaciones sugieren que, de haber tenido tiempo, habr\u00eda proseguido su trabajo sobre la novela. As\u00ed pues, aunque no pueda considerarse acabada, esta \u00abversi\u00f3n 2 corregida\u00bb, como la llama Denise Epstein, o ese \u00ab3.er estado\u00bb, denominaci\u00f3n que usa la autora en sus notas, merece ser conocida, porque constituye una etapa m\u00e1s hacia su sue\u00f1o de \u00abhacer algo grande\u00bb.<\/p><p>Ese ambicioso proyecto puede comprenderse a la luz de las notas de trabajo a las que dedica algunas p\u00e1ginas del manuscrito. Se trata de comentarios sobre lo que ya ha escrito y de observaciones de car\u00e1cter program\u00e1tico sobre las partes por escribir. En su conjunto, las anotaciones constituyen casi un manifiesto po\u00e9tico, al que se conforman las modificaciones que introduce. 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\u00ab\u00a1Qu\u00e9 mala composici\u00f3n!\u00bb<\/strong><\/p><p>Con <em>Suite francesa<\/em>, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky se propone representar un mundo que se tambalea, invadido por el miedo. Ese proyecto marca sin duda alguna el adi\u00f3s al modelo novelesco en el que hab\u00eda cimentado su fama, centrado en la representaci\u00f3n de un individuo o una familia y en el an\u00e1lisis de los sentimientos m\u00e1s turbios. La novelista es muy consciente de que se trata de un enfoque nuevo por completo: \u00abEvidentemente desde un punto de vista cl\u00e1sico, <em>regular,<\/em> \u00a1qu\u00e9 mala composici\u00f3n!\u00bb. Sus anotaciones dejan traslucir sus dudas ante la encrucijada: \u00abHoy el instinto dice s\u00ed y la raz\u00f3n, no\u00bb. Al final vence el instinto, atra\u00eddo por lo nuevo. La b\u00fasqueda de una nueva forma se la sugieren los textos te\u00f3ricos cuya lectura acompa\u00f1a el trabajo de redacci\u00f3n: <em>Aspectos de la novela<\/em> de E. M. Forster (1927) y<em> The Craft of Fiction<\/em> de P. Lubbock (1921), que tuvieron un papel determinante en la elaboraci\u00f3n de la novela \u00abmodernista\u00bb inglesa y de los que Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky extrae y comenta citas en su diario de trabajo. Aunque no sigue sus recomendaciones al pie de la letra, recibe su influencia y, a trav\u00e9s de ellos, redescubre algunos aspectos t\u00e9cnicos del arte narrativo de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1091-lev-tolstoi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Tolst\u00f3i<\/a><\/span> o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1316-gustave-flaubert\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Flaubert<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p>Impulsada por estas reflexiones te\u00f3ricas, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky concibe la compleja arquitectura de su obra maestra siguiendo el modelo de una composici\u00f3n musical en cuatro o cinco movimientos, de los que s\u00f3lo llegar\u00e1 a escribir los dos primeros, <em>Tempestad en junio<\/em> y <em>Dolce<\/em>. En ellos alternan, a lo largo de los cap\u00edtulos, personajes cuyas historias se desarrollan poco a poco. En el caso de <em>Tempestad,<\/em> los destinos individuales est\u00e1n unidos por la experiencia com\u00fan del \u00e9xodo, que no perdona a ninguna clase social, ni siquiera a la m\u00e1s privilegiada: los P\u00e9ricand, una familia de la alta burgues\u00eda; el rico escritor Gabriel Corte y su amante Florence; los Michaud, empleados de banco; su hijo, Jean-Marie, que, movilizado y gravemente herido, encontrar\u00e1 refugio en casa de los Labarie, granjeros; y, por \u00faltimo, Charles Langelet, coleccionista de porcelanas.<\/p><p>En el \u00ab3.er estado\u00bb, se han a\u00f1adido t\u00edtulos a los cap\u00edtulos, lo que muestra m\u00e1s claramente la sucesi\u00f3n de las historias contadas y, a veces, la extracci\u00f3n social de los personajes o algunos de sus rasgos distintivos. Adem\u00e1s, la autora se esfuerza en relacionar entre s\u00ed las peripecias de sus personajes, destacar su personalidad y evitar que los lectores confundan unos nombres con otros. Estas estrategias tienen como objetivo orquestar esa sinfon\u00eda sobre los des\u00f3rdenes que golpean a la sociedad, haci\u00e9ndola m\u00e1s 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\u00abQue se desarrolle como una pel\u00edcula\u00bb<\/strong><\/p><p>Cuando construye su novela alternando historias, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky tiene en mente, con toda probabilidad, <em>Ana Karenina,<\/em> que reley\u00f3 los \u00faltimos d\u00edas de su vida. La yuxtaposici\u00f3n de las diferentes intrigas, la b\u00fasqueda del equilibrio entre ellas y su entrelazamiento responden a una t\u00e9cnica de montaje que se podr\u00eda calificar de cinematogr\u00e1fica. Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky pasa de una escena a otra como si montara una pel\u00edcula: sus historias tienen que producir la sensaci\u00f3n de desarrollarse ante los ojos del lector. La consecuci\u00f3n de ese \u00abefecto cinematogr\u00e1fico\u00bb requiere un ritmo sostenido, que obtiene gracias a la supresi\u00f3n puntual de todo lo que podr\u00eda ralentizar el tempo, es decir, de cualquier anacronismo, cualquier retrospecci\u00f3n y cualquier anticipaci\u00f3n. Es el caso, por ejemplo, de este pasaje eliminado del primer cap\u00edtulo: \u00ab[Hubert P\u00e9ricand] Era <em>boy scout.<\/em> Sus compa\u00f1eros y \u00e9l formar\u00edan un grupo de voluntarios, de francotiradores que defender\u00edan el pa\u00eds hasta el final. En un segundo, recorri\u00f3 mentalmente el tiempo y el espacio. Sus camaradas y \u00e9l, un peque\u00f1o ej\u00e9rcito unido bajo la bandera del honor y la fidelidad, luchar\u00edan incluso de noche; salvar\u00edan el Par\u00eds bombardeado, incendiado... \u00a1Qu\u00e9 experiencia tan emocionante, tan maravillosa! El coraz\u00f3n le brincaba en el pecho. Sin embargo, la guerra era algo espantoso y atroz, se dijo, pero estaba embriagado por esas visiones\u00bb.<\/p><p>El adolescente arde en deseos de luchar, pese a ser demasiado joven para alistarse. Y, en efecto, durante el \u00e9xodo, burla la vigilancia de su madre para unirse a las tropas. No obstante, sus enso\u00f1aciones habr\u00edan alterado el orden de la narraci\u00f3n en el primer cap\u00edtulo; tambi\u00e9n habr\u00edan anulado la sorpresa de uno de los pasajes m\u00e1s conseguidos de la novela: Hubert en combate \u2014inspirado probablemente en las peripecias de Fabrice en Waterloo, en <em>La cartuja de Parma<\/em>\u2014 es uno de los episodios que mejor ilustran su desorientaci\u00f3n y la imposibilidad de comprender el alcance global de los acontecimientos.<\/p><p><strong>3. Una \u00ablava incandescente\u00bb apenas sedimentada<\/strong><\/p><p>Novela sobre la historia contempor\u00e1nea, sobre la \u00ablava incandescente\u00bb, para usar la expresi\u00f3n de la propia Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky, pero en la que la historia s\u00f3lo debe ser rozada: lo que se debe mostrar son los sentimientos humanos. No s\u00f3lo porque \u00abla historia palidecer\u00e1\u00bb, mientras que los sentimientos humanos perdurar\u00e1n, sino tambi\u00e9n porque, como escribe la autora en un breve art\u00edculo de 1934 sobre las relaciones entre el cine y el teatro, la especificidad de las artes frente al periodismo es que aqu\u00e9llas filtran y decantan \u00abla realidad cruda\u00bb. [3] En consecuencia, como si se impusiera interpretar m\u00e1s fielmente su papel de novelista, N\u00e9mirovsky descarta todos los pasajes que le parecen excesivamente realistas, como esta descripci\u00f3n de un bombardeo: \u00abLa muerte planeaba en el cielo y, de pronto, se precipitaba, se lanzaba en picado desde las alturas con las alas desplegadas y el pico de acero dirigido hacia aquella larga y temblorosa hilera de insectos negros que se arrastraba por la carretera. Todo el mundo se arrojaba al suelo. Las mujeres se echaban encima de sus hijos para protegerlos con el cuerpo. Cuando cesaba el fuego, la muchedumbre estaba surcada por largos y estrechos claros, como los que forma el viento en los trigales o los \u00e1rboles talados en un bosque. Tras unos instantes de silencio, empezaban a o\u00edrse llamadas y gemidos que parec\u00edan responderse, gemidos que nadie escuchaba, llamadas lanzadas en vano\u00bb.<\/p><p>La adopci\u00f3n del \u00abpunto de vista del personaje\u00bb contribuye asimismo a \u00abdecantar\u00bb y filtrar la brutalidad de los hechos. Es, al parecer, la \u00fanica forma posible de contar la Historia; tanto es as\u00ed que la autora escribe: \u00ab\u00a1Oh, <em>divine indirect method,<\/em> te doy 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\u00ab\u00a1Qu\u00e9 divertido ser\u00eda!\u00bb<\/strong><\/p><p>Cuando empieza a pensar en una novela sobre el \u00e9xodo, a Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky no le cabe duda de que escribirla ser\u00e1 \u00abdivertido\u00bb. Su novela sobre la tragedia francesa contempor\u00e1nea resulta ser su obra m\u00e1s c\u00f3mica. En ella experimenta con todas las tonalidades de la risa: a la iron\u00eda que siempre ha caracterizado sus textos, se unen la s\u00e1tira, el humor, la comicidad, lo grotesco... [4] El episodio de Adrien P\u00e9ricand, a\u00f1adido en la \u00faltima versi\u00f3n, utiliza toda la gama de esos diferentes registros. La ant\u00edfrasis del t\u00edtulo (\u00abEl final de un fil\u00e1ntropo\u00bb) da paso a la representaci\u00f3n de un personaje totalmente inadaptado, incapaz de comprender la gravedad de la situaci\u00f3n y cobarde hasta lo rid\u00edculo. Por fin, sometido a una degradaci\u00f3n completa en el instante fatal que pone fin a sus haza\u00f1as, se convierte en el s\u00edmbolo m\u00e1s impresionante de la epopeya de h\u00e9roes vulgares que es <em>Tempestad en junio.<\/em> Una <em>Odisea<\/em> invertida cuyos protagonistas huyen del hogar en vez de regresar a \u00e9l. Una epopeya sin honor, sin <em>pathos,<\/em> sin dioses, que muestra a un pueblo indigno de elogios. Una epopeya sin gloria, que hacer re\u00edr, pero con amargura.<\/p><p><strong>5. \u00abLa debilidad de los personajes reales\u00bb<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abEn resumen, eso es lo que busco\u00bb, comenta Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky respecto a la siguiente cita de Percy Lubbock sobre <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36679-libro-la-feria-de-las-vanidades-9788491051985\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La feria de las vanidades<\/a><\/span>: \u00abThe impresion of a world, a society, a time \u2014 certain manners of life [...] Thackeray flings together a crowd of the people he knows so well [...]; the unity [...] depends in truth upon one fact only, the fact that all his throng of men and women are strongly, picturesquely typical of the world from which they are taken\u00bb.<\/em> [5] La novelista rechaza la f\u00f3rmula de la novela hist\u00f3rica adoptada por Tolst\u00f3i, que combina personajes hist\u00f3ricos y personajes de ficci\u00f3n. A la presencia de \u00abpersonajes reales\u00bb, que considera la \u00fanica debilidad de <em>Guerra y paz,<\/em> opone el tipo, a la manera de Thackeray o Balzac. Siguiendo este principio, durante la revisi\u00f3n, subraya con un trazo m\u00e1s grueso el car\u00e1cter de ciertos personajes. En comparaci\u00f3n con otras novelas sobre la guerra <em>\u2014Los bienes de este mundo<\/em> y <em>Los fuegos de oto\u00f1o\u2014,<\/em> ese proceso de tipificaci\u00f3n al que se ven sometidos los personajes, unido al rechazo a su evoluci\u00f3n \u2014muy comprensible, por lo dem\u00e1s, dado que el arco temporal de los hechos narrados es relativamente limitado\u2014, constituye precisamente la especificidad de su epopeya sin gloria, de su feria de las cobard\u00edas.<\/p><p><strong>6. Miosotis, fresas y cerezos<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abCreo que habr\u00e1 que sustituir las fresas por miosotis: parece imposible hacer coincidir en el mismo per\u00edodo de tiempo cerezos en flor y fresas comestibles\u00bb, escribe la novelista en sus notas. La exactitud de las referencias a la naturaleza y a la estacionalidad de las frutas, tanto como la de las fechas mencionadas y los lugares que recorren los personajes, es una de las preocupaciones de Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky: en su conjunto, el plano de fondo debe ser lo m\u00e1s exacto posible. Eso implica la supresi\u00f3n de cualquier descripci\u00f3n demasiado pintoresca, que contravendr\u00eda el imperativo de realismo. No obstante, la evocaci\u00f3n de la belleza natural nunca es gratuita. Y, si en la narraci\u00f3n \u00e9pica la naturaleza acompa\u00f1a las vicisitudes de los seres humanos, en esta epopeya sin gloria parece del todo indiferente. Indiferencia que desmitifica las preocupaciones humanas. 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\u00abEl inigualable arte de los contrastes\u00bb<\/strong><\/p><p><em>Suite francesa<\/em> es un universo maniqueo que maneja \u00abel inigualable arte de los contrastes\u00bb entre esp\u00edritu comunitario y esp\u00edritu individual, pudientes y despose\u00eddos, presas y depredadores, entre el pollo y \u00abquienes se lo comer\u00e1n\u00bb (y, dicho sea de paso, para N\u00e9mirovsky, \u00abel pollo vale m\u00e1s que quienes se lo comer\u00e1n\u00bb), entre ego\u00edsmo y generosidad, entre cobard\u00eda y hero\u00edsmo (cualidad ciertamente muy escasa). En el \u00ab3.er estado\u00bb, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky acent\u00faa a\u00fan m\u00e1s los contrastes en los que se basa su cuadro, en particular entre Philippe P\u00e9ricand y su familia. Philippe es un personaje excepcional en el panorama que muestra <em>Suite francesa.<\/em> Es el m\u00e1s \u00absobrenatural\u00bb, como lo define la autora en sus notas, y el que m\u00e1s se acerca a su modelo real, el padre Roger Br\u00e9chard, [6] hasta el punto de ser el \u00fanico personaje que no es sometido a un proceso de tipificaci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>En la \u00faltima versi\u00f3n, conocedora ya de las circunstancias de la muerte de Br\u00e9chard, la novelista modifica el relato. Y, en una inversi\u00f3n espectacular, hace correr al padre del sacerdote la indigna suerte que corr\u00eda su hijo en la versi\u00f3n anterior. En cuanto a Philippe, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky reescribe el episodio mezclando probablemente la realidad con el recuerdo de la tercera historia de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/164253-ebook-cuentos-inolvidables-segun-julio-cortazar-9789877384338\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Relatos de Sebastopol<\/em><\/a><\/span> de Tolst\u00f3i, ambientada en agosto de 1855, en la que el sacrificio de un humilde soldado ruso resulta tan in\u00fatil como el de Philippe. En esta \u00faltima versi\u00f3n, la futilidad de su sacrificio, su desinteresada generosidad y la abnegaci\u00f3n con la que se enfrenta a su destino dan fe de su estatura moral, del mismo modo que su gran fervor espiritual pone de relieve, por contraposici\u00f3n, la \u00ababrumadora cobard\u00eda\u00bb y la bajeza moral de su familia. Y para mostrar de forma a\u00fan m\u00e1s clara el contraste entre el temple de su car\u00e1cter y la mezquindad de los miembros de su familia, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky suprime meticulosamente cualquier alusi\u00f3n a una elevaci\u00f3n espiritual de estos \u00faltimos. No se salva ninguno. De la cartera del abuelo desaparecen \u00ablas im\u00e1genes piadosas\u00bb y, de su testamento, la referencia a \u00abla oraci\u00f3n de la tarde\u00bb de los ni\u00f1os de la Obra de los Peque\u00f1os Arrepentidos. Del mismo modo, en la \u00faltima versi\u00f3n, ya no hay el menor rastro de los escr\u00fapulos religiosos que atenazaban a Adrien, el padre de Philippe, y le prohib\u00edan \u00abmentir sobre sus deseos\u00bb. La \u00abcrisis de duda religiosa\u00bb que atravesaba su hermano Hubert tambi\u00e9n desaparece. En cuanto a su madre, Charlotte P\u00e9ricand, en la segunda versi\u00f3n ya no sigue \u00abel ejemplo de nuestro divino Salvador\u00bb ni recita \u00absus oraciones\u00bb; la referencia al \u00abcatecismo\u00bb que hab\u00eda ense\u00f1ado a Jacqueline tambi\u00e9n desaparece. Su relaci\u00f3n con la Iglesia se limita, pues, a lo que las convenciones sociales exigen de una familia de su categor\u00eda. En consecuencia, resulta a\u00fan m\u00e1s evidente que los P\u00e9ricand son el ejemplo perfecto de la preocupaci\u00f3n por la respetabilidad burguesa, circunstancia que los convierte en el blanco preferido de la autora.<\/p><p><strong>8. Una idea puede estropearlo todo<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abTolst\u00f3i, por ejemplo, lo estropea todo con una idea\u00bb, escribe la novelista en sus notas, refiri\u00e9ndose probablemente a los pasajes en los que el escritor ruso expresa su concepci\u00f3n de la Historia y que son parte esencial de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36564-libro-guerra-y-paz-9788491050216\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Guerra y paz.<\/em><\/a><\/span> Ella prefiere la impersonalidad flaubertiana, que le sugiere Forster y que parece seguir de forma cada vez m\u00e1s escrupulosa a lo largo de su trabajo de reescritura. Lo dice con toda claridad: el narrador debe limitarse a \u00abpintar, describir\u00bb, sin demostrar nada, \u00abni que los unos son buenos y los otros malos, ni que fulano est\u00e1 equivocado y mengano tiene raz\u00f3n. Aunque sea verdad, sobre todo si es verdad\u00bb. Con ese fin, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky elimina cualquier intrusi\u00f3n del narrador en el relato, cualquier juicio sobre los personajes o tentativa expl\u00edcita de dar un significado a sus peripecias, como en este pasaje relativo a Langelet, que la autora no conservar\u00e1: \u00abFelices o desgraciados, los acontecimientos extraordinarios no cambian el alma de un hombre, sino que la precisan, como un golpe de viento que se lleva las hojas muertas y deja al desnudo la forma de un \u00e1rbol; sacan a la luz lo que permanec\u00eda en la oscuridad y empujan el esp\u00edritu en la direcci\u00f3n en que seguir\u00e1 creciendo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky, que hab\u00eda cimentado su fama en su capacidad para analizar las oscilaciones de los estados an\u00edmicos y descubrir en ellas leyes psicol\u00f3gicas, parece optar ahora por un narrador que desaparece detr\u00e1s de sus personajes. Un narrador que se limita a contar, como si no hubiera ninguna lecci\u00f3n que extraer, como si los hechos relatados estuvieran destinados a seguir siendo 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"gpuelva\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>9. Lo que merece pasar a la posteridad<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00c9sa es la piedra de toque definitiva, el criterio radical que motiva la b\u00fasqueda de una cierta densidad textual. Todos los episodios no significativos y varios personajes considerados secundarios son eliminados. Al margen de una lista que censa a los personajes, al ver que son muchos, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky escribe: \u00ab\u00a1Desde luego, qu\u00e9 locura!\u00bb. Incluso se plantea suprimir los cap\u00edtulos dedicados a Charlie Langelet, aunque acaba renunciando a hacerlo.<\/p><p><strong>10. N\u00e9mirovskiana, pero no demasiado<\/strong><\/p><p>La autora acu\u00f1\u00f3 este adjetivo en una nota sobre <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/literatura-contemporanea\/73227-libro-el-vino-de-la-soledad-9788498384031\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El vino de la soledad<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> en 1934: \u00abSer\u00eda muy n\u00e9mirovskiano\u00bb, [7] apunta, consciente de su propia \u00abmanera\u00bb y, tambi\u00e9n, disfrutando del placer de utilizarla plenamente para su novela m\u00e1s autobiogr\u00e1fica. Si se pretende aplicar ese calificativo a <em>Suite francesa<\/em>, habr\u00eda que puntualizar que su \u00faltima novela es, por supuesto, n\u00e9mirovskiana, pero no demasiado. En efecto, aunque numerosos aspectos de la obra puedan considerarse n\u00e9mirovskianos, parecen quedar en segundo plano frente a los elementos nuevos. Esta ruptura radical respecto al modelo novelesco que era el suyo es la consecuencia de una reflexi\u00f3n \u2014 que Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky comparte, por lo dem\u00e1s, con muchos de los escritores m\u00e1s importantes de su generaci\u00f3n \u2014 sobre la forma de representar la \u00ablava incandescente\u00bb, como llama ella misma a la guerra y la derrota.<\/p><p>Por su parte, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky se apoya, como ya hemos dicho, en dos textos de te\u00f3ricos del modernismo ingl\u00e9s, Aspectos de la novela y The Craft of Fiction, elecci\u00f3n no demasiado previsible en el panorama franc\u00e9s de la \u00e9poca, porque, en realidad, la circulaci\u00f3n de dichos textos fue limitada. A partir de sus sugerencias, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky acaba encontrando la f\u00f3rmula de su obra maestra: la arquitectura compleja, la t\u00e9cnica del montaje cinematogr\u00e1fico, la adopci\u00f3n del punto de vista del personaje, el empleo de la iron\u00eda y la b\u00fasqueda de densidad textual son los elementos que permiten la representaci\u00f3n de un mundo sumido en el caos y gobernado por leyes incomprensibles, y la puesta en escena de su epopeya sin gloria, de su feria de las cobard\u00edas.<\/p><p>Resulta, pues, evidente que, si <em>Suite francesa<\/em> ocupa un lugar excepcional en la producci\u00f3n de su autora, no se debe tan s\u00f3lo a las complejas vicisitudes de su composici\u00f3n y, d\u00e9cadas despu\u00e9s, de su publicaci\u00f3n. Esta novela da fe de la pasi\u00f3n con que ella intenta crear una nueva forma de escritura. Tanto la \u00faltima versi\u00f3n de <em>Tempestad en junio,<\/em> publicada ahora por primera vez, como las notas de trabajo de <em>Dolce<\/em> y <em>Cautividad<\/em> muestran a las claras hasta qu\u00e9 punto se empe\u00f1\u00f3 en ese nuevo proyecto. Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky cree totalmente en \u00e9l y pone el alma en hacerlo realidad. Con una lucidez asombrosa, comprendi\u00f3 que con esa novela se jugaba el todo por el todo. Y, convencida de que ganar\u00eda la apuesta, en los \u00faltimos instantes que pudo dedicar a su trabajo, escribi\u00f3 con su habitual iron\u00eda: \u00ab\u00a1Nunca habr\u00e1 habido nada con tanta clase!\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"an7y41n\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>NOTAS A PIE DE TEXTO:<\/strong><\/p><p>1. Todas las referencias a las anotaciones de la autora han sido extra\u00eddas del manuscrito de <em>Suite francesa,<\/em> de los diarios de trabajo de la \u00e9poca o de borradores. Estos documentos se conservan en el Institut M\u00e9moires de l\u2019\u00e9dition contemporaine (IMEC, Caen) y llevan las signaturas 78NMR\/2\/I (Manuscrito de <em>Suite fran\u00e7aise),<\/em> 273ALM\/3000\/2<em> (Diario de trabajo 1940-1941)<\/em> y 273ALM\/3000\/I2<em> (Suite fran\u00e7aise,<\/em> Cautividad), p\u00e1ginas no numeradas. Las anotaciones relativas a las partes por escribir, en especial, a <em>Cautividad,<\/em> est\u00e1n incluidas en un anexo a esta edici\u00f3n titulado \u00abNotas de trabajo sobre<em> Dolce<\/em> y <em>Cautividad\u00bb.<\/em><\/p><p>2. Consciente de que exist\u00eda una versi\u00f3n posterior de la novela, en 2004 Denise Epstein opt\u00f3 por publicar la versi\u00f3n del manuscrito principalmente porque sospechaba de una intervenci\u00f3n de su padre en la segunda<em> (cf.<\/em> D. Epstein, <em>Vivre et survivre, Deno\u00ebl,<\/em> Par\u00eds, 2008, pp. 54-55). Sin embargo, tanto los borradores manuscritos que muestran el paso de una versi\u00f3n a otra como las numerosas anotaciones manuscritas sobre el mecanoscrito confirman que la \u00faltima versi\u00f3n de la novela que nos ha llegado puede atribuirse en su totalidad a Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky<em> (cf.<\/em> Teresa Lussone, \u00abUne versi\u00f3n inconnue de <em>Suite fran\u00e7aise\u00bb,<\/em> <em>Romantische Zeitschrift f\u00fcr Literaturgeschichte,<\/em> n.\u00ba 39, 2015, pp. 165-179; <em>id.,<\/em> \u00abUn roman sans \\\"chichis\\\". Illusion comique et r\u00e9alit\u00e9 tragique dans la deuxi\u00e8me version de <em>Suite fran\u00e7aise\u00bb, Approches,<\/em> n.\u00ba 180, 2019, pp. 89-103; \u00ab\u00c0 l\u2019\u00e9coute des critiques. \u00c9criture et r\u00e9\u00e9critures de <em>Suite fran\u00e7aise<\/em> d'Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky: du manuscrit \u00e0 la version in\u00e9dite\u00bb, de pr\u00f3xima publicaci\u00f3n en las Presses universitaires de Burdeos.<\/p><p>3. Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky, \u00abAutour de la querelle du th\u00e9atre et du cin\u00e9ma\u00bb, <em>Paris-Soir,<\/em> 24 de marzo de 1934, reproducido en <em>Approches,<\/em> n.\u00ba 180, 2019, pp. 163-167.<\/p><p>4. Y. Baudelle, \u00ab\\\"L\u2019assiette \u00e0 bouillie de bonne-maman\\\" y el \\\"r\u00e2telier de rechange de papa\\\". Ironie et comique dans S<em>uite fran\u00e7aise\u00bb, Roman<\/em> 20-50, n.\u00ba 54, 2012, pp. 109-123.<\/p><p>5. \u00abLa impresi\u00f3n de un mundo, una sociedad, una \u00e9poca, ciertas formas de vida [...] Thackeray re\u00fane a una muchedumbre de gente a la que conoce muy bien [...]; en realidad, la unidad se basa en una sola cosa: el hecho de que toda esa muchedumbre de hombres y mujeres es profunda y pintorescamente t\u00edpica del mundo del que la ha tomado.\u00bb P. Lubbock, <em>The Craft of Fiction,<\/em> Londres, Jonathan Cape, 1960 [1921], p. 95.<\/p><p>6. Respecto a la relaci\u00f3n de la autora con Roger Br\u00e9chard, ca\u00eddo en combate mientras defend\u00eda un pueblo de los Vosgos, <em>cf. supra,<\/em> O. Philipponnat, pr\u00f3logo, p. 24.<\/p><p>7. Cita localizada por Elena Quaglia, <em>cf.<\/em> \u00abLe style de gen\u00e8se d'Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky\u00bb,<em> Approches,<\/em> n.\u00ba 180, 2019, pp. 57-71.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fjh92li\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/irene-nemirovsky-la-vida-de-chejov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Las vidas paralelas de Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky y Anton Ch\u00e9jov<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/doris-lessing-vosotros-al-infierno-nosotros-al-cielo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Doris Lessing: Vosotros al infierno, nosotros al cielo<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/Alice-Munro-El-perdon-en-las-familias-Algo-que-queria-contarte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEl perd\u00f3n en las familias\u00bb, un relato original de Alice Munro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/margaret-atwood-soy-una-mala-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Margaret Atwood: \u00bfSoy una mala feminista?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/svetlana-alexievich-premio-nobel-literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Svetlana Alexi\u00e9vich: la persona es m\u00e1s que la guerra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/lucia-berlin-sara-mesa-una-nueva-vida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Lucia Berlin por Sara Mesa: todos esos nombres, todas esas 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20 minutos
Irène Némirovsky. Crédito: Getty Images.

Irène Némirovsky. Crédito: Getty Images.

«Hoy, 24 de abril [de 1941]. Por primera vez en mucho tiempo, un poco de calma... Convencerse de que la serie de las Tempestades, por llamarla así, debe ser (es) una obra maestra. Trabajar en ella sin desfallecer». [Ver notas a pie de texto: 1]

Cuando Irène Némirovsky empieza a escribir lo que acabará siendo Suite francesa, el proyecto aún no está del todo claro en su mente. Descubre la «fórmula» que debe convertir su novela en una obra maestra a medida que avanza en su trabajo. Cuando lo logre, escribirá: «Hay que escribir a toda máquina». La sensación de disponer de poco tiempo la impulsa a trabajar con ahínco, a proseguir la escritura de Dolce, segunda parte de su obra, y a emprender una reescritura global de lo ya redactado. A la primera versión de Tempestad en junio, contenida en un manuscrito y aparecida en 2004 conforme a la transcripción realizada por la hija de la novelista, Denise Epstein, se añaden una segunda versión, de la que sólo se conserva una página mecanografiada, y una tercera, publicada aquí y transmitida por un mecanoscrito efectuado por su marido, Michel Epstein, sobre el que Irène Némirovsky realizó numerosas anotaciones manuscritas [2]. Algunas de esas anotaciones sugieren que, de haber tenido tiempo, habría proseguido su trabajo sobre la novela. Así pues, aunque no pueda considerarse acabada, esta «versión 2 corregida», como la llama Denise Epstein, o ese «3.er estado», denominación que usa la autora en sus notas, merece ser conocida, porque constituye una etapa más hacia su sueño de «hacer algo grande».

Ese ambicioso proyecto puede comprenderse a la luz de las notas de trabajo a las que dedica algunas páginas del manuscrito. Se trata de comentarios sobre lo que ya ha escrito y de observaciones de carácter programático sobre las partes por escribir. En su conjunto, las anotaciones constituyen casi un manifiesto poético, al que se conforman las modificaciones que introduce. A partir de las palabras de la propia Irène Némirovsky, establecemos lo que podríamos llamar un «decálogo», cuyo rastro hallamos a lo largo del proceso de creación, hasta el «3.er estado», y que permite comprender por qué y cómo reescribió Irène Némirovsky Tempestad en junio.

1. «¡Qué mala composición!»

Con Suite francesa, Irène Némirovsky se propone representar un mundo que se tambalea, invadido por el miedo. Ese proyecto marca sin duda alguna el adiós al modelo novelesco en el que había cimentado su fama, centrado en la representación de un individuo o una familia y en el análisis de los sentimientos más turbios. La novelista es muy consciente de que se trata de un enfoque nuevo por completo: «Evidentemente desde un punto de vista clásico, regular, ¡qué mala composición!». Sus anotaciones dejan traslucir sus dudas ante la encrucijada: «Hoy el instinto dice sí y la razón, no». Al final vence el instinto, atraído por lo nuevo. La búsqueda de una nueva forma se la sugieren los textos teóricos cuya lectura acompaña el trabajo de redacción: Aspectos de la novela de E. M. Forster (1927) y The Craft of Fiction de P. Lubbock (1921), que tuvieron un papel determinante en la elaboración de la novela «modernista» inglesa y de los que Irène Némirovsky extrae y comenta citas en su diario de trabajo. Aunque no sigue sus recomendaciones al pie de la letra, recibe su influencia y, a través de ellos, redescubre algunos aspectos técnicos del arte narrativo de Tolstói o Flaubert.

Impulsada por estas reflexiones teóricas, Irène Némirovsky concibe la compleja arquitectura de su obra maestra siguiendo el modelo de una composición musical en cuatro o cinco movimientos, de los que sólo llegará a escribir los dos primeros, Tempestad en junio y Dolce. En ellos alternan, a lo largo de los capítulos, personajes cuyas historias se desarrollan poco a poco. En el caso de Tempestad, los destinos individuales están unidos por la experiencia común del éxodo, que no perdona a ninguna clase social, ni siquiera a la más privilegiada: los Péricand, una familia de la alta burguesía; el rico escritor Gabriel Corte y su amante Florence; los Michaud, empleados de banco; su hijo, Jean-Marie, que, movilizado y gravemente herido, encontrará refugio en casa de los Labarie, granjeros; y, por último, Charles Langelet, coleccionista de porcelanas.

En el «3.er estado», se han añadido títulos a los capítulos, lo que muestra más claramente la sucesión de las historias contadas y, a veces, la extracción social de los personajes o algunos de sus rasgos distintivos. Además, la autora se esfuerza en relacionar entre sí las peripecias de sus personajes, destacar su personalidad y evitar que los lectores confundan unos nombres con otros. Estas estrategias tienen como objetivo orquestar esa sinfonía sobre los desórdenes que golpean a la sociedad, haciéndola más armoniosa.

2. «Que se desarrolle como una película»

Cuando construye su novela alternando historias, Irène Némirovsky tiene en mente, con toda probabilidad, Ana Karenina, que releyó los últimos días de su vida. La yuxtaposición de las diferentes intrigas, la búsqueda del equilibrio entre ellas y su entrelazamiento responden a una técnica de montaje que se podría calificar de cinematográfica. Irène Némirovsky pasa de una escena a otra como si montara una película: sus historias tienen que producir la sensación de desarrollarse ante los ojos del lector. La consecución de ese «efecto cinematográfico» requiere un ritmo sostenido, que obtiene gracias a la supresión puntual de todo lo que podría ralentizar el tempo, es decir, de cualquier anacronismo, cualquier retrospección y cualquier anticipación. Es el caso, por ejemplo, de este pasaje eliminado del primer capítulo: «[Hubert Péricand] Era boy scout. Sus compañeros y él formarían un grupo de voluntarios, de francotiradores que defenderían el país hasta el final. En un segundo, recorrió mentalmente el tiempo y el espacio. Sus camaradas y él, un pequeño ejército unido bajo la bandera del honor y la fidelidad, lucharían incluso de noche; salvarían el París bombardeado, incendiado... ¡Qué experiencia tan emocionante, tan maravillosa! El corazón le brincaba en el pecho. Sin embargo, la guerra era algo espantoso y atroz, se dijo, pero estaba embriagado por esas visiones».

El adolescente arde en deseos de luchar, pese a ser demasiado joven para alistarse. Y, en efecto, durante el éxodo, burla la vigilancia de su madre para unirse a las tropas. No obstante, sus ensoñaciones habrían alterado el orden de la narración en el primer capítulo; también habrían anulado la sorpresa de uno de los pasajes más conseguidos de la novela: Hubert en combate —inspirado probablemente en las peripecias de Fabrice en Waterloo, en La cartuja de Parma— es uno de los episodios que mejor ilustran su desorientación y la imposibilidad de comprender el alcance global de los acontecimientos.

3. Una «lava incandescente» apenas sedimentada

Novela sobre la historia contemporánea, sobre la «lava incandescente», para usar la expresión de la propia Irène Némirovsky, pero en la que la historia sólo debe ser rozada: lo que se debe mostrar son los sentimientos humanos. No sólo porque «la historia palidecerá», mientras que los sentimientos humanos perdurarán, sino también porque, como escribe la autora en un breve artículo de 1934 sobre las relaciones entre el cine y el teatro, la especificidad de las artes frente al periodismo es que aquéllas filtran y decantan «la realidad cruda». [3] En consecuencia, como si se impusiera interpretar más fielmente su papel de novelista, Némirovsky descarta todos los pasajes que le parecen excesivamente realistas, como esta descripción de un bombardeo: «La muerte planeaba en el cielo y, de pronto, se precipitaba, se lanzaba en picado desde las alturas con las alas desplegadas y el pico de acero dirigido hacia aquella larga y temblorosa hilera de insectos negros que se arrastraba por la carretera. Todo el mundo se arrojaba al suelo. Las mujeres se echaban encima de sus hijos para protegerlos con el cuerpo. Cuando cesaba el fuego, la muchedumbre estaba surcada por largos y estrechos claros, como los que forma el viento en los trigales o los árboles talados en un bosque. Tras unos instantes de silencio, empezaban a oírse llamadas y gemidos que parecían responderse, gemidos que nadie escuchaba, llamadas lanzadas en vano».

La adopción del «punto de vista del personaje» contribuye asimismo a «decantar» y filtrar la brutalidad de los hechos. Es, al parecer, la única forma posible de contar la Historia; tanto es así que la autora escribe: «¡Oh, divine indirect method, te doy gracias!»

Irène Némirovsky con 25 años. Crédito: Denise Epstein, hija de Irène Némirovsky / Wikimedia Commons.

Irène Némirovsky con 25 años. Crédito: Denise Epstein, hija de Irène / Wikimedia Commons.

4. «¡Qué divertido sería!»

Cuando empieza a pensar en una novela sobre el éxodo, a Irène Némirovsky no le cabe duda de que escribirla será «divertido». Su novela sobre la tragedia francesa contemporánea resulta ser su obra más cómica. En ella experimenta con todas las tonalidades de la risa: a la ironía que siempre ha caracterizado sus textos, se unen la sátira, el humor, la comicidad, lo grotesco... [4] El episodio de Adrien Péricand, añadido en la última versión, utiliza toda la gama de esos diferentes registros. La antífrasis del título («El final de un filántropo») da paso a la representación de un personaje totalmente inadaptado, incapaz de comprender la gravedad de la situación y cobarde hasta lo ridículo. Por fin, sometido a una degradación completa en el instante fatal que pone fin a sus hazañas, se convierte en el símbolo más impresionante de la epopeya de héroes vulgares que es Tempestad en junio. Una Odisea invertida cuyos protagonistas huyen del hogar en vez de regresar a él. Una epopeya sin honor, sin pathos, sin dioses, que muestra a un pueblo indigno de elogios. Una epopeya sin gloria, que hacer reír, pero con amargura.

5. «La debilidad de los personajes reales»

«En resumen, eso es lo que busco», comenta Irène Némirovsky respecto a la siguiente cita de Percy Lubbock sobre La feria de las vanidades: «The impresion of a world, a society, a time — certain manners of life [...] Thackeray flings together a crowd of the people he knows so well [...]; the unity [...] depends in truth upon one fact only, the fact that all his throng of men and women are strongly, picturesquely typical of the world from which they are taken». [5] La novelista rechaza la fórmula de la novela histórica adoptada por Tolstói, que combina personajes históricos y personajes de ficción. A la presencia de «personajes reales», que considera la única debilidad de Guerra y paz, opone el tipo, a la manera de Thackeray o Balzac. Siguiendo este principio, durante la revisión, subraya con un trazo más grueso el carácter de ciertos personajes. En comparación con otras novelas sobre la guerra —Los bienes de este mundo y Los fuegos de otoño—, ese proceso de tipificación al que se ven sometidos los personajes, unido al rechazo a su evolución —muy comprensible, por lo demás, dado que el arco temporal de los hechos narrados es relativamente limitado—, constituye precisamente la especificidad de su epopeya sin gloria, de su feria de las cobardías.

6. Miosotis, fresas y cerezos

«Creo que habrá que sustituir las fresas por miosotis: parece imposible hacer coincidir en el mismo período de tiempo cerezos en flor y fresas comestibles», escribe la novelista en sus notas. La exactitud de las referencias a la naturaleza y a la estacionalidad de las frutas, tanto como la de las fechas mencionadas y los lugares que recorren los personajes, es una de las preocupaciones de Irène Némirovsky: en su conjunto, el plano de fondo debe ser lo más exacto posible. Eso implica la supresión de cualquier descripción demasiado pintoresca, que contravendría el imperativo de realismo. No obstante, la evocación de la belleza natural nunca es gratuita. Y, si en la narración épica la naturaleza acompaña las vicisitudes de los seres humanos, en esta epopeya sin gloria parece del todo indiferente. Indiferencia que desmitifica las preocupaciones humanas. La elección del título de la primera parte de la novela también puede interpretarse en ese sentido: Irène Némirovsky cambia el que había elegido en un principio, Pánico, por Tempestad en junio, que restablece la supremacía de un orden natural.

Doris Irène Némirovsky con 16 años. Crédito: Wikimedia Commons.en Londres en octubre de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

Irène Némirovsky con 16 años. Crédito: Wikimedia Commons.

7. «El inigualable arte de los contrastes»

Suite francesa es un universo maniqueo que maneja «el inigualable arte de los contrastes» entre espíritu comunitario y espíritu individual, pudientes y desposeídos, presas y depredadores, entre el pollo y «quienes se lo comerán» (y, dicho sea de paso, para Némirovsky, «el pollo vale más que quienes se lo comerán»), entre egoísmo y generosidad, entre cobardía y heroísmo (cualidad ciertamente muy escasa). En el «3.er estado», Irène Némirovsky acentúa aún más los contrastes en los que se basa su cuadro, en particular entre Philippe Péricand y su familia. Philippe es un personaje excepcional en el panorama que muestra Suite francesa. Es el más «sobrenatural», como lo define la autora en sus notas, y el que más se acerca a su modelo real, el padre Roger Bréchard, [6] hasta el punto de ser el único personaje que no es sometido a un proceso de tipificación.

En la última versión, conocedora ya de las circunstancias de la muerte de Bréchard, la novelista modifica el relato. Y, en una inversión espectacular, hace correr al padre del sacerdote la indigna suerte que corría su hijo en la versión anterior. En cuanto a Philippe, Irène Némirovsky reescribe el episodio mezclando probablemente la realidad con el recuerdo de la tercera historia de Relatos de Sebastopol de Tolstói, ambientada en agosto de 1855, en la que el sacrificio de un humilde soldado ruso resulta tan inútil como el de Philippe. En esta última versión, la futilidad de su sacrificio, su desinteresada generosidad y la abnegación con la que se enfrenta a su destino dan fe de su estatura moral, del mismo modo que su gran fervor espiritual pone de relieve, por contraposición, la «abrumadora cobardía» y la bajeza moral de su familia. Y para mostrar de forma aún más clara el contraste entre el temple de su carácter y la mezquindad de los miembros de su familia, Irène Némirovsky suprime meticulosamente cualquier alusión a una elevación espiritual de estos últimos. No se salva ninguno. De la cartera del abuelo desaparecen «las imágenes piadosas» y, de su testamento, la referencia a «la oración de la tarde» de los niños de la Obra de los Pequeños Arrepentidos. Del mismo modo, en la última versión, ya no hay el menor rastro de los escrúpulos religiosos que atenazaban a Adrien, el padre de Philippe, y le prohibían «mentir sobre sus deseos». La «crisis de duda religiosa» que atravesaba su hermano Hubert también desaparece. En cuanto a su madre, Charlotte Péricand, en la segunda versión ya no sigue «el ejemplo de nuestro divino Salvador» ni recita «sus oraciones»; la referencia al «catecismo» que había enseñado a Jacqueline también desaparece. Su relación con la Iglesia se limita, pues, a lo que las convenciones sociales exigen de una familia de su categoría. En consecuencia, resulta aún más evidente que los Péricand son el ejemplo perfecto de la preocupación por la respetabilidad burguesa, circunstancia que los convierte en el blanco preferido de la autora.

8. Una idea puede estropearlo todo

«Tolstói, por ejemplo, lo estropea todo con una idea», escribe la novelista en sus notas, refiriéndose probablemente a los pasajes en los que el escritor ruso expresa su concepción de la Historia y que son parte esencial de Guerra y paz. Ella prefiere la impersonalidad flaubertiana, que le sugiere Forster y que parece seguir de forma cada vez más escrupulosa a lo largo de su trabajo de reescritura. Lo dice con toda claridad: el narrador debe limitarse a «pintar, describir», sin demostrar nada, «ni que los unos son buenos y los otros malos, ni que fulano está equivocado y mengano tiene razón. Aunque sea verdad, sobre todo si es verdad». Con ese fin, Irène Némirovsky elimina cualquier intrusión del narrador en el relato, cualquier juicio sobre los personajes o tentativa explícita de dar un significado a sus peripecias, como en este pasaje relativo a Langelet, que la autora no conservará: «Felices o desgraciados, los acontecimientos extraordinarios no cambian el alma de un hombre, sino que la precisan, como un golpe de viento que se lleva las hojas muertas y deja al desnudo la forma de un árbol; sacan a la luz lo que permanecía en la oscuridad y empujan el espíritu en la dirección en que seguirá creciendo». 

Irène Némirovsky, que había cimentado su fama en su capacidad para analizar las oscilaciones de los estados anímicos y descubrir en ellas leyes psicológicas, parece optar ahora por un narrador que desaparece detrás de sus personajes. Un narrador que se limita a contar, como si no hubiera ninguna lección que extraer, como si los hechos relatados estuvieran destinados a seguir siendo incomprensibles.

Irène Némirovsky. Crédito: Harlingue - Viollet.

Irène Némirovsky. Crédito: Harlingue - Viollet.

9. Lo que merece pasar a la posteridad

Ésa es la piedra de toque definitiva, el criterio radical que motiva la búsqueda de una cierta densidad textual. Todos los episodios no significativos y varios personajes considerados secundarios son eliminados. Al margen de una lista que censa a los personajes, al ver que son muchos, Irène Némirovsky escribe: «¡Desde luego, qué locura!». Incluso se plantea suprimir los capítulos dedicados a Charlie Langelet, aunque acaba renunciando a hacerlo.

10. Némirovskiana, pero no demasiado

La autora acuñó este adjetivo en una nota sobre El vino de la soledad, en 1934: «Sería muy némirovskiano», [7] apunta, consciente de su propia «manera» y, también, disfrutando del placer de utilizarla plenamente para su novela más autobiográfica. Si se pretende aplicar ese calificativo a Suite francesa, habría que puntualizar que su última novela es, por supuesto, némirovskiana, pero no demasiado. En efecto, aunque numerosos aspectos de la obra puedan considerarse némirovskianos, parecen quedar en segundo plano frente a los elementos nuevos. Esta ruptura radical respecto al modelo novelesco que era el suyo es la consecuencia de una reflexión — que Irène Némirovsky comparte, por lo demás, con muchos de los escritores más importantes de su generación — sobre la forma de representar la «lava incandescente», como llama ella misma a la guerra y la derrota.

Por su parte, Irène Némirovsky se apoya, como ya hemos dicho, en dos textos de teóricos del modernismo inglés, Aspectos de la novela y The Craft of Fiction, elección no demasiado previsible en el panorama francés de la época, porque, en realidad, la circulación de dichos textos fue limitada. A partir de sus sugerencias, Irène Némirovsky acaba encontrando la fórmula de su obra maestra: la arquitectura compleja, la técnica del montaje cinematográfico, la adopción del punto de vista del personaje, el empleo de la ironía y la búsqueda de densidad textual son los elementos que permiten la representación de un mundo sumido en el caos y gobernado por leyes incomprensibles, y la puesta en escena de su epopeya sin gloria, de su feria de las cobardías.

Resulta, pues, evidente que, si Suite francesa ocupa un lugar excepcional en la producción de su autora, no se debe tan sólo a las complejas vicisitudes de su composición y, décadas después, de su publicación. Esta novela da fe de la pasión con que ella intenta crear una nueva forma de escritura. Tanto la última versión de Tempestad en junio, publicada ahora por primera vez, como las notas de trabajo de Dolce y Cautividad muestran a las claras hasta qué punto se empeñó en ese nuevo proyecto. Irène Némirovsky cree totalmente en él y pone el alma en hacerlo realidad. Con una lucidez asombrosa, comprendió que con esa novela se jugaba el todo por el todo. Y, convencida de que ganaría la apuesta, en los últimos instantes que pudo dedicar a su trabajo, escribió con su habitual ironía: «¡Nunca habrá habido nada con tanta clase!».

NOTAS A PIE DE TEXTO:

1. Todas las referencias a las anotaciones de la autora han sido extraídas del manuscrito de Suite francesa, de los diarios de trabajo de la época o de borradores. Estos documentos se conservan en el Institut Mémoires de l’édition contemporaine (IMEC, Caen) y llevan las signaturas 78NMR/2/I (Manuscrito de Suite française), 273ALM/3000/2 (Diario de trabajo 1940-1941) y 273ALM/3000/I2 (Suite française, Cautividad), páginas no numeradas. Las anotaciones relativas a las partes por escribir, en especial, a Cautividad, están incluidas en un anexo a esta edición titulado «Notas de trabajo sobre Dolce y Cautividad».

2. Consciente de que existía una versión posterior de la novela, en 2004 Denise Epstein optó por publicar la versión del manuscrito principalmente porque sospechaba de una intervención de su padre en la segunda (cf. D. Epstein, Vivre et survivre, Denoël, París, 2008, pp. 54-55). Sin embargo, tanto los borradores manuscritos que muestran el paso de una versión a otra como las numerosas anotaciones manuscritas sobre el mecanoscrito confirman que la última versión de la novela que nos ha llegado puede atribuirse en su totalidad a Irène Némirovsky (cf. Teresa Lussone, «Une versión inconnue de Suite française», Romantische Zeitschrift für Literaturgeschichte, n.º 39, 2015, pp. 165-179; id., «Un roman sans "chichis". Illusion comique et réalité tragique dans la deuxième version de Suite française», Approches, n.º 180, 2019, pp. 89-103; «À l’écoute des critiques. Écriture et réécritures de Suite française d'Irène Némirovsky: du manuscrit à la version inédite», de próxima publicación en las Presses universitaires de Burdeos.

3. Irène Némirovsky, «Autour de la querelle du théatre et du cinéma», Paris-Soir, 24 de marzo de 1934, reproducido en Approches, n.º 180, 2019, pp. 163-167.

4. Y. Baudelle, «"L’assiette à bouillie de bonne-maman" y el "râtelier de rechange de papa". Ironie et comique dans Suite française», Roman 20-50, n.º 54, 2012, pp. 109-123.

5. «La impresión de un mundo, una sociedad, una época, ciertas formas de vida [...] Thackeray reúne a una muchedumbre de gente a la que conoce muy bien [...]; en realidad, la unidad se basa en una sola cosa: el hecho de que toda esa muchedumbre de hombres y mujeres es profunda y pintorescamente típica del mundo del que la ha tomado.» P. Lubbock, The Craft of Fiction, Londres, Jonathan Cape, 1960 [1921], p. 95.

6. Respecto a la relación de la autora con Roger Bréchard, caído en combate mientras defendía un pueblo de los Vosgos, cf. supra, O. Philipponnat, prólogo, p. 24.

7. Cita localizada por Elena Quaglia, cf. «Le style de genèse d'Irène Némirovsky», Approches, n.º 180, 2019, pp. 57-71.

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