Literatura

Sylvia Plath por Aixa de la Cruz: una terapia de choque

«La campana de cristal» fue publicada un mes antes de la muerte de su autora: treinta años tenía Sylvia Plath cuando su única novela —convertida ya en un clásico moderno— vio la luz; treinta también cuando, hace ahora seis décadas, se quitó la vida. Dejó como legado eterno a Esther, protagonista de la obra y álter ego de la escritora, una mujer enferma al descubrirse víctima de un mundo que amalgama y confina su identidad en el cajón del género. Aisladas ambas en una prisión invisible, respirando el aire viciado de una parcela vital sin escapatoria, Esther y Plath se asfixian. En el aniversario de su muerte, el 11 de febrero de 1963, rendimos tributo a la lucidez de la poeta estadounidense con este prólogo de Aixa de la Cruz (titulado «Una terapia de choque», es la carta de presentación de la edición a cargo de Random House), un texto en el que la escritora española imagina siempre a una Sylvia «colosal y retadora». Huimos de la leyenda negra de la escritora suicida y nos regocijamos en el ingenio y la ironía del mito perenne.

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En el aniversario de su muerte, resucitamos su lucidez con este pr\u00f3logo de Aixa de la Cruz.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, Sylvia Plath, La campana de cristal, Aixa de la Cruz","short_content":"<p>\u00abLa campana de cristal\u00bb fue publicada un mes antes de la muerte de su autora: treinta a\u00f1os ten\u00eda Sylvia Plath cuando su \u00fanica novela \u2014convertida ya en un cl\u00e1sico moderno\u2014 vio la luz; treinta tambi\u00e9n cuando, hace ahora seis d\u00e9cadas, se quit\u00f3 la vida. Dej\u00f3 como legado eterno a Esther, protagonista de la obra y \u00e1lter ego de la escritora, una mujer enferma al descubrirse v\u00edctima de un mundo que amalgama y confina su identidad en el caj\u00f3n del g\u00e9nero. Aisladas ambas en una prisi\u00f3n invisible, respirando el aire viciado de una parcela vital sin escapatoria, Esther y Plath se asfixian. En el aniversario de su muerte, el 11 de febrero de 1963, rendimos tributo a la lucidez de la poeta estadounidense con este pr\u00f3logo de Aixa de la Cruz (titulado \u00abUna terapia de choque\u00bb, es la carta de presentaci\u00f3n de la edici\u00f3n a cargo de Random House), un texto en el que la escritora espa\u00f1ola imagina siempre a una Sylvia \u00abcolosal y retadora\u00bb. Huimos de la leyenda negra de la escritora suicida y nos regocijamos en el ingenio y la iron\u00eda del mito perenne.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"einlj89\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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19 de junio de 1953 es una fecha marcada en los anales de la cr\u00f3nica negra estadounidense, la Guerra Fr\u00eda y el macarthismo. Poco despu\u00e9s de las ocho de la tarde, la prisi\u00f3n neoyorquina de Sing Sing \u2013pionera en el uso de la silla el\u00e9ctrica, que, en agosto de 1890, vivi\u00f3 su estreno mundial como m\u00e9todo de ajusticiamiento en dichas instalaciones\u2013 cumpli\u00f3 la orden de electrocutar al matrimonio de los Rosenberg, acusado de haber revelado\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/modules\/ph_simpleblog\/covers\/1008-thumb.jpg\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">secretos sobre la bomba at\u00f3mica<\/a><\/span> a los servicios sovi\u00e9ticos. El juicio se hab\u00eda iniciado dos a\u00f1os antes y, desde el principio, estuvo rodeado de pol\u00e9mica. Los datos que pod\u00edan haber filtrado no eran de gran valor y las pruebas, en todo caso, nunca fueron muy s\u00f3lidas \u2013sobre todo en lo que se refer\u00eda a la complicidad de la mujer, cuya imputaci\u00f3n se dio por hecho que buscaba forzar delaciones\u2013, pero hab\u00eda sed de venganza por las bajas en la guerra de Corea y nada pudo hacer la defensa para salvar a Julius e Ethel de la muerte que m\u00e1s aterra a Esther, la protagonista y alter-ego de Sylvia Plath en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37177-libro-la-campana-de-cristal-9788439736349\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>La campana de cristal<\/em><\/span><\/a>, que comienza con las siguientes l\u00edneas:\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0tnos0y\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Fue un verano raro, t\u00f3rrido, el verano en que electrocutaron a los Rosenberg, y yo no sab\u00eda qu\u00e9 hab\u00eda ido a hacer a Nueva York. Soy est\u00fapida con esto de las ejecuciones. La idea de que te puedan electrocutar me asquea, y en los peri\u00f3dicos no se le\u00eda otra cosa: los titulares desencajados me acechaban desde todas las esquinas por la calle y en todas las bocas del metro hediondas, con un tufo rancio a cacahuetes. No ten\u00eda nada que ver conmigo, pero no me quitaba de la cabeza qu\u00e9 se sentir\u00eda, cuando te queman viva por dentro.<\/p><p>Cre\u00eda que deb\u00eda de ser lo peor del mundo.<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"g18aiam\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El arranque de la novela nos sit\u00faa en un lugar, un tiempo y un clima opresivo muy concretos a trav\u00e9s de sus alusiones al caso de los Rosenberg. La narradora se recuerda obsesionada con los titulares que monopolizaron los peri\u00f3dicos de aquel verano del 53, incapaz de quitarse de la cabeza \u00abqu\u00e9 se sentir\u00eda, cuando te queman viva por dentro\u00bb, y esta fijaci\u00f3n es pr\u00e1cticamente una profec\u00eda, porque, durante su internamiento psiqui\u00e1trico en la segunda mitad del libro, Esther vivir\u00e1 una experiencia asimilable a la de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ethel_y_Julius_Rosenberg\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ethel Rosenberg<\/a><\/span>. Despu\u00e9s de todo, como cualquier paciente que se haya sometido a una terapia de electroshocks, la presunta esp\u00eda supo lo que se siente al ser quemada por dentro en repetidas ocasiones. Julius muri\u00f3 a la primera descarga, pero, seg\u00fan atestiguan las cr\u00f3nicas de la \u00e9poca, ella soport\u00f3 los altos voltajes en al menos tres ocasiones. Tan menuda, parec\u00eda f\u00e1cil de matar, pero la colocaci\u00f3n de los electrodos no fue la correcta. A pesar de que hubo un experto en electroterapia, es decir, un experto en hist\u00e9ricas, en el comit\u00e9 que dise\u00f1\u00f3 el prototipo de la silla el\u00e9ctrica a finales del siglo XIX, esta, como tantas otras cosas, no estaba hecha a la medida de una mujer y fall\u00f3 en su cometido de proveer a Ethel de una muerte \u00abm\u00e1s humana\u00bb que la de los m\u00e9todos que la precedieron. Por no poder, ni siquiera pudo asegurarle un trato igual de justo que el que recibi\u00f3 su marido. Fue condenada con menos pruebas y ejecutada con mayor violencia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"iq5mtn9\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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poco que nos adentremos en sus posibles significados, el caso de los Rosenberg se revela como un punto de partida excelente para descifrar <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37177-libro-la-campana-de-cristal-9788439736349\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>La campana de cristal<\/em><\/span><\/a> y, teniendo en cuenta el car\u00e1cter autobiogr\u00e1fico de la novela, las batallas internas que marcaron la vida de Sylvia Plath y gran parte de su obra. Para empezar, nos ofrece un ejemplo de lo m\u00e1s foucaultiano sobre las conexiones que se dan entre el sistema m\u00e9dico-psiqui\u00e1trico y el jur\u00eddico-punitivo. Al contraponer las historias de Ethel y Esther, la silla el\u00e9ctrica y la m\u00e1quina de electroshocks, <em>La campana de cristal<\/em> sit\u00faa a la condenada a muerte y a la maniacodepresiva en los dos extremos de una misma l\u00ednea continua e insin\u00faa paralelismos entre las torturas a las que ambas fueron sometidas. Sin querer adelantar acontecimientos, los m\u00e9dicos masculinos no salen bien parados en esta novela. Se subraya <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el trato fr\u00edo y deshumanizante al que someten a sus pacientes<\/a><\/span>, ya sea en el paritorio o en el psiqui\u00e1trico, donde los cuerpos de las mujeres son exhibidos e invadidos como si el objetivo fuera subrayar su falta de autonom\u00eda, recordarles que no se pertenecen a s\u00ed mismas. Por otro lado, la menci\u00f3n al caso de los Rosenberg introduce una dimensi\u00f3n pol\u00edtica en esta historia de marcado car\u00e1cter autobiogr\u00e1fico, oblig\u00e1ndonos a leer este relato sobre <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/924-sylvia-plath\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">l<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/924-sylvia-plath\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a depresi\u00f3n de Sylvia Plath<\/a><\/span>, tantas veces narrada y espectacularizada como el drama individual de la poeta maldita, como la manifestaci\u00f3n de algo que no se puede reducir a lo anecd\u00f3tico porque es estructural y es colectivo. A estas alturas, resulta dif\u00edcil, si no imposible, pensar en nuestra autora sin pensar en su suicidio \u2013el abandono de Ted Hughes, el fr\u00edo londinense, los ni\u00f1os encerrados en su cuarto, la cabeza metida en el horno...\u2013, pero no es lo mismo aproximarse a la obra de una autora a trav\u00e9s de su biograf\u00eda porque esta se ha vuelto un fetiche que hacerlo porque su biograf\u00eda se revela como el marco epistemol\u00f3gico ideal para entender todo un contexto 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Esther enferma porque es mujer, o porque la quieren mujer, solo mujer, cuando ella quiere ser muchas m\u00e1s cosas. Envidia y busca la feminidad llena de glamur que encarnan sus colegas de la revista para se\u00f1oritas donde la han becado, pero sus planes de futuro no pasan por la academia de secretarias sino por el taller literario. Sue\u00f1a con el matrimonio y la maternidad, pero teme que sean el final del trayecto, el pozo oscuro que ya engull\u00f3 a su madre, quien encarna un modelo que le resulta tan insatisfactorio como el de las acad\u00e9micas solteronas que pululan por el campus de su universidad de \u00e9lite. \u00bfAcaso han de ser incompatibles el amor y el \u00e9xito profesional? Caracteriz\u00e1ndola con cierta malicia, nuestra protagonista parece querer hornear bizcochos con una mano y escribir versos con la otra, sin renunciar a nada, pero es que, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 tendr\u00eda que hacerlo? A su alrededor, los hombres <em>se comen su tarta y la conservan<\/em>, tienen fama y familia, carrera e hijos. Ella solo pide un trato equitativo. Lo da por hecho, m\u00e1s bien. 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novela de formaci\u00f3n que es, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37177-libro-la-campana-de-cristal-9788439736349\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>La campana de cristal<\/em><\/span><\/a> relata el paso de la adolescencia a la juventud de su protagonista, su p\u00e9rdida de la inocencia y, en este caso, dicha p\u00e9rdida est\u00e1 muy ligada al descubrimiento de que, como insinuaba el desigual destino de los Rosenberg, la democracia se asienta sobre un doble rasero que se esfuerza en pasar desapercibido. A medida que avanzan las p\u00e1ginas, Esther comprende que no es solo la silla el\u00e9ctrica la que no est\u00e1 hecha a su medida, que hay correas que siempre le quedar\u00e1n m\u00e1s holgadas o estrechas \u2013sobre todo m\u00e1s estrechas\u2013 que a un hombre, y es aqu\u00ed, en esta equivalencia que traza Sylvia Plath entre adquirir conciencia sobre el patriarcado y acceder a la edad adulta, donde el texto trasciende los exotismos est\u00e9ticos de los a\u00f1os cincuenta, viaja al presente como una corriente el\u00e9ctrica y nos interpela de t\u00fa a t\u00fa, sin mediaciones. Porque somos muchas las que estamos en disposici\u00f3n de narrar nuestro paso de la infancia a la madurez del mismo modo, a trav\u00e9s del descubrimiento, siempre paulatino y siempre traum\u00e1tico, de las opresiones que nos atraviesan.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37177-libro-la-campana-de-cristal-9788439736349\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Esta reedici\u00f3n de <em>La campana de cristal<\/em><\/a><\/span> llega a nuestras librer\u00edas en un momento muy significativo, en pleno reflujo de la m\u00e1s reciente oleada feminista que ha azotado nuestras cos-tas. Venimos de los hashtags testimoniales, del <a href=\\\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/search?q=%23MeToo&src=typed_query\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">#MeToo<\/span><\/a> y del <a href=\\\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/search?q=%23cu%C3%A9ntalo&src=typed_query&f=top\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">#cu\u00e9ntalo<\/span><\/a>, de las huelgas multitudinarias del 8M y de las intens\u00edsimas conversaciones tanto p\u00fablicas como privadas en torno a la violencia sexual y el consentimiento que suscit\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Caso_de_La_Manada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el juicio contra La Manada<\/a><\/span>. Hemos visto lo que sucede cuando una mujer empu\u00f1a la primera persona del singular y cuenta su historia; hemos experimentado el potencial pol\u00edtico del \u00abyo\u00bb, y esto se ha visto reflejado en el mundo editorial, que atraviesa un momento de enorme apertura hacia las voces femeninas. Sin embargo, conviene recordar que, hasta hace muy poco, novelas como esta que nos ocupa, escritas, protagonizadas y narradas por mujeres que refieren aspectos de su vida \u00edntima con un estilo confesional, eran tildadas en su mayor\u00eda de subproductos, etiquetadas despectivamente como <em>chicklit,<\/em> y sistem\u00e1ticamente relegadas de un canon en el que los hombres, por su parte, s\u00ed pod\u00edan referir su experiencia cotidiana porque esta siempre ha sido considerada universal.<\/p><p>No en vano, la propia Sylvia Plath decidi\u00f3 publicar <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37177-libro-la-campana-de-cristal-9788439736349\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>La campana de cristal<\/em><\/span><\/a> bajo el seud\u00f3nimo de Victoria Lucas, en parte por el contenido claramente autobiogr\u00e1fico de la trama \u2013de la que apenas cambi\u00f3 los nombres de personas y lugares y en la que su entorno m\u00e1s cercano no queda muy bien retratado\u2013, en parte porque tem\u00eda que desprestigiara su labor como poeta. Pero Plath escribi\u00f3 esta novela durante el mismo periodo de creatividad febril previo a su muerte en el que alumbr\u00f3 sus mejores versos \u2013aquellos recogidos en el volumen Ariel, que se public\u00f3 p\u00f3stumamente en 1965\u2013, y nada tiene que envidiarles. La escritora de treinta a\u00f1os que se sienta a recordar en prosa la crisis que casi acab\u00f3 con su vida a los veinte tiene la misma iron\u00eda c\u00e1ustica que encontramos en \u00abLady Lazarus\u00bb \u2013\u00abDying \/ Is an art, like everything else. \/ I do it exceptionally well\u00bb\u2013, la misma rabia e intenci\u00f3n que aparecen en \u00abDaddy\u00bb \u2013\u00abEvery woman adores a Fascist, \/ The boot in the face, the brute \/ Brute heart of a brute like you\u00bb\u2013, y recurre a los mismos temas, hurga en las mismas heridas. Al fin y al cabo, el verano neoyorquino del a\u00f1o 53, aquel en el que ejecutaron a los Rosenberg, regresa y se abre paso en el fr\u00edo invierno londinense del 62 desde el que la autora rememor\u00f3 por escrito los acontecimientos aqu\u00ed narrados, porque la historia se 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escribi\u00f3 esta novela reci\u00e9n separada de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ted_Hughes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su marido, que se hab\u00eda fugado con una nueva amante<\/a><\/span> dej\u00e1ndola a cargo de sus dos hijos en condiciones cercanas a la pobreza. Estaba experimentando con renovada fuerza el desencanto que la golpe\u00f3 por primera vez durante el periodo que cubre en <em>La campana de cristal.<\/em> Por aquel entonces, con apenas veinte a\u00f1os, hab\u00eda dejado escrito en sus diarios que ten\u00eda \u00abcelos de los hombres\u00bb, \u00abuna envidia sutil y peligrosa capaz de corroer, me temo, cualquier relaci\u00f3n\u00bb, pero se desdijo al enamorarse de Ted Hughes, junto a quien intent\u00f3 ser la poeta y la mujer del poeta, genio y musa, objeto y sujeto. Fue ingenua y aspir\u00f3 a una relaci\u00f3n entre iguales en el seno de una instituci\u00f3n \u2013la heterosexualidad, el matrimonio\u2013 que se defin\u00eda por la desigualdad. De nuevo, lo quiso tener todo, resisti\u00e9ndose a elegir, y la contradicci\u00f3n la fue tensando como un potro de tortura.\u00a0<\/p><p>En sus \u00faltimos meses,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/nombres-propios\/tal-dia-como-hoy-sylvia-plath\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sylvia Plath<\/a><\/span> volvi\u00f3 a vivir en la campana de cristal, en esa prisi\u00f3n invisible en cuyo interior, \u00abvac\u00eda y detenida como un beb\u00e9 muerto, el mundo mismo es la pesadilla\u00bb, pero le quedaron, no obstante, la lucidez para identificar el origen de su tragedia y las palabras precisas para se\u00f1alarla. Y eso es lo que nos lega: no las instrucciones m\u00e1gicas para resolver las trampas que le tendi\u00f3 un sistema que solo la conceb\u00eda amputada, sino las herramientas para nombrar la afecci\u00f3n y se\u00f1alar al enemigo. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/aixa-de-la-cruz-las-herederas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Aixa de la Cruz o c\u00f3mo curarse normalizando la anormalidad<\/span><\/a><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/anne-sexton-en-tres-poemas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abVive o muere pero no envenenes cada cosa\u2026\u00bb: Anne Sexton en tres poemas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/katherine-mansfield-ida-baker-cristina-domenech\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Katherine Mansfield e Ida Baker: un amor sin principio ni final<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><a 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10 minutos
Fotografía de Sylvia Plath sobre su tumba en el cementerio de Santo Tomás Apóstol, West Yorkshire, Inglaterra. Crédito: Getty Images.

Fotografía de Sylvia Plath sobre su tumba en el cementerio de Santo Tomás Apóstol, West Yorkshire, Inglaterra. Crédito: Getty Images.

El 19 de junio de 1953 es una fecha marcada en los anales de la crónica negra estadounidense, la Guerra Fría y el macarthismo. Poco después de las ocho de la tarde, la prisión neoyorquina de Sing Sing –pionera en el uso de la silla eléctrica, que, en agosto de 1890, vivió su estreno mundial como método de ajusticiamiento en dichas instalaciones– cumplió la orden de electrocutar al matrimonio de los Rosenberg, acusado de haber revelado secretos sobre la bomba atómica a los servicios soviéticos. El juicio se había iniciado dos años antes y, desde el principio, estuvo rodeado de polémica. Los datos que podían haber filtrado no eran de gran valor y las pruebas, en todo caso, nunca fueron muy sólidas –sobre todo en lo que se refería a la complicidad de la mujer, cuya imputación se dio por hecho que buscaba forzar delaciones–, pero había sed de venganza por las bajas en la guerra de Corea y nada pudo hacer la defensa para salvar a Julius e Ethel de la muerte que más aterra a Esther, la protagonista y alter-ego de Sylvia Plath en La campana de cristal, que comienza con las siguientes líneas: 

Fue un verano raro, tórrido, el verano en que electrocutaron a los Rosenberg, y yo no sabía qué había ido a hacer a Nueva York. Soy estúpida con esto de las ejecuciones. La idea de que te puedan electrocutar me asquea, y en los periódicos no se leía otra cosa: los titulares desencajados me acechaban desde todas las esquinas por la calle y en todas las bocas del metro hediondas, con un tufo rancio a cacahuetes. No tenía nada que ver conmigo, pero no me quitaba de la cabeza qué se sentiría, cuando te queman viva por dentro.

Creía que debía de ser lo peor del mundo.

El arranque de la novela nos sitúa en un lugar, un tiempo y un clima opresivo muy concretos a través de sus alusiones al caso de los Rosenberg. La narradora se recuerda obsesionada con los titulares que monopolizaron los periódicos de aquel verano del 53, incapaz de quitarse de la cabeza «qué se sentiría, cuando te queman viva por dentro», y esta fijación es prácticamente una profecía, porque, durante su internamiento psiquiátrico en la segunda mitad del libro, Esther vivirá una experiencia asimilable a la de Ethel Rosenberg. Después de todo, como cualquier paciente que se haya sometido a una terapia de electroshocks, la presunta espía supo lo que se siente al ser quemada por dentro en repetidas ocasiones. Julius murió a la primera descarga, pero, según atestiguan las crónicas de la época, ella soportó los altos voltajes en al menos tres ocasiones. Tan menuda, parecía fácil de matar, pero la colocación de los electrodos no fue la correcta. A pesar de que hubo un experto en electroterapia, es decir, un experto en histéricas, en el comité que diseñó el prototipo de la silla eléctrica a finales del siglo XIX, esta, como tantas otras cosas, no estaba hecha a la medida de una mujer y falló en su cometido de proveer a Ethel de una muerte «más humana» que la de los métodos que la precedieron. Por no poder, ni siquiera pudo asegurarle un trato igual de justo que el que recibió su marido. Fue condenada con menos pruebas y ejecutada con mayor violencia.

A poco que nos adentremos en sus posibles significados, el caso de los Rosenberg se revela como un punto de partida excelente para descifrar La campana de cristal y, teniendo en cuenta el carácter autobiográfico de la novela, las batallas internas que marcaron la vida de Sylvia Plath y gran parte de su obra. Para empezar, nos ofrece un ejemplo de lo más foucaultiano sobre las conexiones que se dan entre el sistema médico-psiquiátrico y el jurídico-punitivo. Al contraponer las historias de Ethel y Esther, la silla eléctrica y la máquina de electroshocks, La campana de cristal sitúa a la condenada a muerte y a la maniacodepresiva en los dos extremos de una misma línea continua e insinúa paralelismos entre las torturas a las que ambas fueron sometidas. Sin querer adelantar acontecimientos, los médicos masculinos no salen bien parados en esta novela. Se subraya el trato frío y deshumanizante al que someten a sus pacientes, ya sea en el paritorio o en el psiquiátrico, donde los cuerpos de las mujeres son exhibidos e invadidos como si el objetivo fuera subrayar su falta de autonomía, recordarles que no se pertenecen a sí mismas. Por otro lado, la mención al caso de los Rosenberg introduce una dimensión política en esta historia de marcado carácter autobiográfico, obligándonos a leer este relato sobre la depresión de Sylvia Plath, tantas veces narrada y espectacularizada como el drama individual de la poeta maldita, como la manifestación de algo que no se puede reducir a lo anecdótico porque es estructural y es colectivo. A estas alturas, resulta difícil, si no imposible, pensar en nuestra autora sin pensar en su suicidio –el abandono de Ted Hughes, el frío londinense, los niños encerrados en su cuarto, la cabeza metida en el horno...–, pero no es lo mismo aproximarse a la obra de una autora a través de su biografía porque esta se ha vuelto un fetiche que hacerlo porque su biografía se revela como el marco epistemológico ideal para entender todo un contexto histórico. 

Si algo deja claro La campana de cristal es que la crisis mental que sufre su protagonista obedece a presiones sociales y culturales muy precisas. Esther enferma porque es mujer, o porque la quieren mujer, solo mujer, cuando ella quiere ser muchas más cosas. Envidia y busca la feminidad llena de glamur que encarnan sus colegas de la revista para señoritas donde la han becado, pero sus planes de futuro no pasan por la academia de secretarias sino por el taller literario. Sueña con el matrimonio y la maternidad, pero teme que sean el final del trayecto, el pozo oscuro que ya engulló a su madre, quien encarna un modelo que le resulta tan insatisfactorio como el de las académicas solteronas que pululan por el campus de su universidad de élite. ¿Acaso han de ser incompatibles el amor y el éxito profesional? Caracterizándola con cierta malicia, nuestra protagonista parece querer hornear bizcochos con una mano y escribir versos con la otra, sin renunciar a nada, pero es que, ¿por qué tendría que hacerlo? A su alrededor, los hombres se comen su tarta y la conservan, tienen fama y familia, carrera e hijos. Ella solo pide un trato equitativo. Lo da por hecho, más bien. Hasta que la realidad la confronta con la diferencia –con su diferencia– a través de la doble vara de medir que esgrimen su madre y su novio en lo que respecta a la sexualidad, y es entonces cuando llegan el desencanto y la caída en los infiernos. 

Sylvia Plath decidió publicar La campana de cristal bajo el seudónimo de Victoria Lucas, en parte por el contenido claramente autobiográfico de la trama, en parte porque temía que desprestigiara su labor como poeta. Pero Plath escribió esta novela durante el mismo periodo de creatividad febril previo a su muerte en el que alumbró sus mejores versos, y nada tiene que envidiarles.

Como novela de formación que es, La campana de cristal relata el paso de la adolescencia a la juventud de su protagonista, su pérdida de la inocencia y, en este caso, dicha pérdida está muy ligada al descubrimiento de que, como insinuaba el desigual destino de los Rosenberg, la democracia se asienta sobre un doble rasero que se esfuerza en pasar desapercibido. A medida que avanzan las páginas, Esther comprende que no es solo la silla eléctrica la que no está hecha a su medida, que hay correas que siempre le quedarán más holgadas o estrechas –sobre todo más estrechas– que a un hombre, y es aquí, en esta equivalencia que traza Sylvia Plath entre adquirir conciencia sobre el patriarcado y acceder a la edad adulta, donde el texto trasciende los exotismos estéticos de los años cincuenta, viaja al presente como una corriente eléctrica y nos interpela de tú a tú, sin mediaciones. Porque somos muchas las que estamos en disposición de narrar nuestro paso de la infancia a la madurez del mismo modo, a través del descubrimiento, siempre paulatino y siempre traumático, de las opresiones que nos atraviesan.

Esta reedición de La campana de cristal llega a nuestras librerías en un momento muy significativo, en pleno reflujo de la más reciente oleada feminista que ha azotado nuestras cos-tas. Venimos de los hashtags testimoniales, del #MeToo y del #cuéntalo, de las huelgas multitudinarias del 8M y de las intensísimas conversaciones tanto públicas como privadas en torno a la violencia sexual y el consentimiento que suscitó el juicio contra La Manada. Hemos visto lo que sucede cuando una mujer empuña la primera persona del singular y cuenta su historia; hemos experimentado el potencial político del «yo», y esto se ha visto reflejado en el mundo editorial, que atraviesa un momento de enorme apertura hacia las voces femeninas. Sin embargo, conviene recordar que, hasta hace muy poco, novelas como esta que nos ocupa, escritas, protagonizadas y narradas por mujeres que refieren aspectos de su vida íntima con un estilo confesional, eran tildadas en su mayoría de subproductos, etiquetadas despectivamente como chicklit, y sistemáticamente relegadas de un canon en el que los hombres, por su parte, sí podían referir su experiencia cotidiana porque esta siempre ha sido considerada universal.

No en vano, la propia Sylvia Plath decidió publicar La campana de cristal bajo el seudónimo de Victoria Lucas, en parte por el contenido claramente autobiográfico de la trama –de la que apenas cambió los nombres de personas y lugares y en la que su entorno más cercano no queda muy bien retratado–, en parte porque temía que desprestigiara su labor como poeta. Pero Plath escribió esta novela durante el mismo periodo de creatividad febril previo a su muerte en el que alumbró sus mejores versos –aquellos recogidos en el volumen Ariel, que se publicó póstumamente en 1965–, y nada tiene que envidiarles. La escritora de treinta años que se sienta a recordar en prosa la crisis que casi acabó con su vida a los veinte tiene la misma ironía cáustica que encontramos en «Lady Lazarus» –«Dying / Is an art, like everything else. / I do it exceptionally well»–, la misma rabia e intención que aparecen en «Daddy» –«Every woman adores a Fascist, / The boot in the face, the brute / Brute heart of a brute like you»–, y recurre a los mismos temas, hurga en las mismas heridas. Al fin y al cabo, el verano neoyorquino del año 53, aquel en el que ejecutaron a los Rosenberg, regresa y se abre paso en el frío invierno londinense del 62 desde el que la autora rememoró por escrito los acontecimientos aquí narrados, porque la historia se repite.

Sylvia Plath. Crédito: Getty Images.

Sylvia Plath. Crédito: Getty Images.

Plath escribió esta novela recién separada de su marido, que se había fugado con una nueva amante dejándola a cargo de sus dos hijos en condiciones cercanas a la pobreza. Estaba experimentando con renovada fuerza el desencanto que la golpeó por primera vez durante el periodo que cubre en La campana de cristal. Por aquel entonces, con apenas veinte años, había dejado escrito en sus diarios que tenía «celos de los hombres», «una envidia sutil y peligrosa capaz de corroer, me temo, cualquier relación», pero se desdijo al enamorarse de Ted Hughes, junto a quien intentó ser la poeta y la mujer del poeta, genio y musa, objeto y sujeto. Fue ingenua y aspiró a una relación entre iguales en el seno de una institución –la heterosexualidad, el matrimonio– que se definía por la desigualdad. De nuevo, lo quiso tener todo, resistiéndose a elegir, y la contradicción la fue tensando como un potro de tortura. 

En sus últimos meses, Sylvia Plath volvió a vivir en la campana de cristal, en esa prisión invisible en cuyo interior, «vacía y detenida como un bebé muerto, el mundo mismo es la pesadilla», pero le quedaron, no obstante, la lucidez para identificar el origen de su tragedia y las palabras precisas para señalarla. Y eso es lo que nos lega: no las instrucciones mágicas para resolver las trampas que le tendió un sistema que solo la concebía amputada, sino las herramientas para nombrar la afección y señalar al enemigo. Aunque este acto de valentía no le bastara para exorcizar sus demonios, comprobaréis que sí resulta un bálsamo de inteligencia y perspicacia para sus lectoras. Aunque su suicidio pueda oscurecer la estela que desprende su figura, hay mucho que aprender de la vida y de la mirada de Sylvia Plath, a quien siempre imagino colosal y retadora, una zombie que se ríe de las larvas que le asoman por las cuencas, una señorita que se come los pintalabios a mordiscos, una Lázaro que, a través de su obra, muere y resucita eternamente. Alejaos, por tanto, de la leyenda negra de la poeta suicida y sumergíos en un texto donde la ironía y el ingenio brillan por encima de la pesadumbre. 

Embrace hope all ye who enter here.

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