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Por qué nos dejamos arrastrar por algoritmos que generan adicción

¿Ibas a consultar algo rápido en el móvil y has terminado viendo Reels en Instagram durante más de dos horas? Cuando cenas en un restaurante, ¿eliges el segundo vino más barato de la carta? Si vas al cine, ¿te decantas por cierto tipo de películas que sabes con seguridad que te van a hacer reír (o llorar)? Es probable que la respuesta a todas estas preguntas sea sí. Y también es muy probable que pienses en que tomas estas decisiones porque quieres, con libertad. Sin embargo, no es así. Y esta situación se va a agravar enormemente a corto plazo tras la irrupción de las inteligencias artificiales. Porque... ¿hasta qué punto van a influir estas en nuestra manera de actuar, de relacionarnos, de vivir? El neurocientífico superventas Mariano Sigman y el emprendedor y tecnólogo Santiago Bilinkis arrojan (algo de) luz sobre estos interrogantes en el libro «Artificial» (Debate), un apasionante ensayo de cuyas páginas extraemos el siguiente texto, un capítulo revelador titulado (con cierta sorna) «La ilusión del libre albedrío».

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Mariano Sigman y Santiago Bilinkis arrojan luz sobre esta cuesti\u00f3n en el libro \u00abArtificial\u00bb, de cuyas p\u00e1ginas extraemos el siguiente texto.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, Mariano Sigman, Santiago Bilinkis, Inteligencia Artificial","short_content":"<p>\u00bfIbas a consultar algo r\u00e1pido en el m\u00f3vil y has terminado viendo Reels en Instagram durante m\u00e1s de dos horas? Cuando cenas en un restaurante, \u00bfeliges el segundo vino m\u00e1s barato de la carta? Si vas al cine, \u00bfte decantas por cierto tipo de pel\u00edculas que sabes con seguridad que te van a hacer re\u00edr (o llorar)? Es probable que la respuesta a todas estas preguntas sea s\u00ed. Y tambi\u00e9n es muy probable que pienses en que tomas estas decisiones porque quieres, con libertad. Sin embargo, no es as\u00ed. Y esta situaci\u00f3n se va a agravar enormemente a corto plazo tras la irrupci\u00f3n de las inteligencias artificiales. Porque... \u00bfhasta qu\u00e9 punto van a influir estas en nuestra manera de actuar, de relacionarnos, de vivir? El neurocient\u00edfico superventas Mariano Sigman y el emprendedor y tecn\u00f3logo Santiago Bilinkis arrojan (algo de) luz sobre estos interrogantes en el libro \u00abArtificial\u00bb (Debate), un apasionante ensayo de cuyas p\u00e1ginas extraemos el siguiente texto, un cap\u00edtulo revelador titulado (con cierta sorna) \u00abLa ilusi\u00f3n del libre 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de Terminator 2: El juicio final (1991). 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Estas extensiones del cuerpo nos permitieron ampliar nuestras capacidades y las empezamos a combinar en puzles sofisticados: el fuego calentaba el agua, el agua se convert\u00eda en vapor, el vapor en movimiento, y el movimiento <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-colson-whitehead\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">hac\u00eda que una locomotora avanzara<\/a><\/span>, que la aguja de una m\u00e1quina de coser o la plancha de una imprenta completaran su tarea. En el tramo m\u00e1s reciente de la historia humana, las herramientas empiezan a tener cables conductores por los que circulan haces de electrones capaces de producir tambi\u00e9n electricidad, y luego esos mismos haces circulan por circuitos \u00ednfimos en microchips capaces de realizar operaciones l\u00f3gicas. Ya el hierro de las herramientas ha quedado obsoleto. Ahora son m\u00e1quinas livianas, que no solo intervienen en aquellas actividades que involucran fuerza, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/marx-en-el-antropoceno-kohei-saito\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">sino tambi\u00e9n ideas<\/a><\/span>. Y luego sucede algo inusitado. Las m\u00e1quinas empiezan de manera muy rudimentaria a adquirir agencia, esto es, la capacidad de actuar de manera aut\u00f3noma para lograr una meta. Al l\u00e1piz nunca se le ocurri\u00f3 escribir algo por s\u00ed mismo, ni a la prensa pisar con m\u00e1s fuerza un racimo de uvas. Pero el tel\u00e9fono m\u00f3vil ya no funciona de manera pasiva sino que est\u00e1 programado para tomar sus propias decisiones.\u00a0<\/p><p>Utilizamos el m\u00f3vil para <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/carlos-zanon-instrucciones-para-salirse-de-un-grupo-de-whatsapp\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">mandar un WhatsApp<\/a><\/span> y hasta ah\u00ed se parece a una herramienta, sofisticada, pero convencional. Nos permite comunicar el mensaje que queremos. Pero entonces aparecen un mont\u00f3n de notificaciones que nunca solicitamos y nos desv\u00edan de nuestros objetivos iniciales. El aparato empieza a adquirir agencia, no por ser inteligente (no lo es), sino porque otros lo utilizan como mecanismo de manipulaci\u00f3n de nuestra conducta y pensamiento. El uso que le damos est\u00e1 influenciado por los intereses de un tercero, mediatizados a trav\u00e9s de algoritmos. La irrupci\u00f3n de la IA pone sobre la mesa el problema de qui\u00e9n toma las decisiones. Una bomba es atroz pero la lanza una persona, no decide lanzarse sola. 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ya un tiempo que hemos perdido parte de nuestra autonom\u00eda, de decidir nosotros lo que queremos con libertad. Somos un poco artificiales y nos dejamos arrastrar por algoritmos que invaden lo m\u00e1s profundo del deseo y la motivaci\u00f3n, y generan adicci\u00f3n. Si bien vamos por el mundo convencidos de que nosotros somos quienes determinamos nuestras preferencias y anhelos, en realidad muchas de las cosas que deseamos reflejan ideas que nos han implantado. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/steve-jobs-anuncio-primer-macintosh\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abMuchas veces, la gente no sabe lo que quiere hasta que se lo ense\u00f1as\u00bb, dijo una vez Steve Jobs<\/a><\/span>. La industria de la publicidad y del marketing lleva d\u00e9cadas manipulando a las personas sin que se den cuenta: establece asociaciones entre colores y formas para generar sensaciones de frescura, salud, belleza, placer, etc. Pongamos un ejemplo simple: cuando nos ofrecen en un restaurante una largu\u00edsima carta de vinos que apenas conocemos, \u00bfcon qu\u00e9 criterio elegimos? F\u00e1cil: la gran mayor\u00eda de la gente opta por el segundo vino m\u00e1s barato. La decisi\u00f3n se apoya en un mecanismo inconsciente, tan invisible como recurrente: ahorrar lo m\u00e1s posible sin ser un taca\u00f1o evidente. Muchos hosteleros saben esto y ponen el vino que prefieren vender, o el que menos les cuesta, como el segundo de la lista. 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de esta posibilidad, hemos aprendido a desconfiar de los anuncios y otros m\u00e9todos evidentes de condicionar nuestros criterios. Pero todav\u00eda no sospechamos de las herramientas porque, despu\u00e9s de todo, siempre las hemos controlado nosotros. Tomamos un l\u00e1piz, hacemos un par de figuras, las borramos para mejorarlas, las hacemos nuevamente. El proceso sigue hasta que no tenemos m\u00e1s ganas de dibujar. Y entonces, simple y llanamente, nos detenemos. Dejamos el l\u00e1piz y pasamos a otra cosa. Esta es la expresi\u00f3n m\u00e1s simple de nuestro sentido de agencia. Cuando queremos dibujar, dibujamos; cuando queremos parar, paramos. En cambio, cuando queremos comer dos o tres patatas fritas y terminamos comi\u00e9ndonos el paquete entero, sentimos que algo se ha descontrolado y que no hemos podido evitarlo. Lo que se perdi\u00f3 en el proceso es el sentido de agencia. Nuestra inteligencia es bastante vers\u00e1til pero tambi\u00e9n est\u00e1 repleta de puntos d\u00e9biles, que son muy notorios cuando entra en juego la manipulaci\u00f3n del deseo y la voluntad.\u00a0<\/p><p>Antes de la aparici\u00f3n del smartphone, la industria del entretenimiento, muy vinculada con el deseo, descubri\u00f3 que todos nos re\u00edmos y lloramos m\u00e1s o menos por lo mismo. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/raymond-chandler-la-noche-de-los-oscar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">En Hollywood, epicentro de la industria del cine<\/a><\/span>, se descubri\u00f3 hace mucho una estructura narrativa que es eficaz para evocar todo un repertorio de emociones. El mero hecho de que hagan re\u00edr, o llorar, en el mismo instante a millones de personas de los m\u00e1s alejados rincones del mundo, muestra que aquello que consideramos m\u00e1s idiosincr\u00e1tico de nuestra condici\u00f3n se rige por un algoritmo com\u00fan y, quiz\u00e1, ni siquiera muy sofisticado. La industria de la comida, del entretenimiento, del tabaco y del juego, pero tambi\u00e9n otras (que de una manera u otra est\u00e1n vinculadas con los pecados capitales) aprovechan ya nuestras debilidades para<em> hackear<\/em> nuestra conducta y nuestras ideas. Somos m\u00e1s previsibles de lo que pensamos. 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d\u00e9biles.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"99ecqrx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/elon-musk-jeff-bezos-walter-isaacson\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Elon Musk contra Jeff Bezos: guerra entre los barones de la ciencia ficci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/steve-jobs-anuncio-primer-macintosh\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abPor qu\u00e9 1984 no ser\u00e1 como \\\"1984\\\"\u00bb: 40 a\u00f1os del primer Macintosh<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/capitalismo-jeannette-von-wolfersdorff\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La neuroqu\u00edmica del capitalismo: narcisismo, dopamina y testosterona<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/adrian-paenza-matematica-gerry-garbulsky\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Adri\u00e1n Paenza: la vida secreta de los n\u00fameros<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sandel-por-sandel-el-futuro-que-queremos-atrevete-a-pensar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sandel por Sandel: el futuro que 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10 minutos
Fotograma de Terminator 2: El juicio final (1991). En la popular saga protagonizada por Arnold Schwarzenegger, los humanos del futuro -año 2029, no queda tan lejos- están dominados por las máquinas. Crédito: Getty Images.

Fotograma de Terminator 2: El juicio final (1991). En la popular saga protagonizada por Arnold Schwarzenegger, los humanos del futuro -año 2029, no queda tan lejos- están dominados por las máquinas. Crédito: Getty Images.

Hace más de tres millones de años, los homínidos primitivos descubrieron que las piedras tenían distinta dureza y que, con el uso de sus manos, mucho más hábiles que la de otros animales, podían golpear una contra otra para darles forma. Podían usar esas piedras ya trabajadas como armas para conseguir alimento, como utensilios y como material de construcción para sus refugios. Muchos científicos sugieren que este proceso se encuentra en los cimientos de la cultura humana y del lenguaje. Podemos manipular, componer y construir jerarquías tanto de herramientas como de palabras. Ambas forman parte del bucle recursivo que hizo que explotase la capacidad humana de controlar su entorno.

Herramienta viene de «hierro»: martillos, sierras, lanzas, ruedas y espátulas se construían con ese material. Estas extensiones del cuerpo nos permitieron ampliar nuestras capacidades y las empezamos a combinar en puzles sofisticados: el fuego calentaba el agua, el agua se convertía en vapor, el vapor en movimiento, y el movimiento hacía que una locomotora avanzara, que la aguja de una máquina de coser o la plancha de una imprenta completaran su tarea. En el tramo más reciente de la historia humana, las herramientas empiezan a tener cables conductores por los que circulan haces de electrones capaces de producir también electricidad, y luego esos mismos haces circulan por circuitos ínfimos en microchips capaces de realizar operaciones lógicas. Ya el hierro de las herramientas ha quedado obsoleto. Ahora son máquinas livianas, que no solo intervienen en aquellas actividades que involucran fuerza, sino también ideas. Y luego sucede algo inusitado. Las máquinas empiezan de manera muy rudimentaria a adquirir agencia, esto es, la capacidad de actuar de manera autónoma para lograr una meta. Al lápiz nunca se le ocurrió escribir algo por sí mismo, ni a la prensa pisar con más fuerza un racimo de uvas. Pero el teléfono móvil ya no funciona de manera pasiva sino que está programado para tomar sus propias decisiones. 

Utilizamos el móvil para mandar un WhatsApp y hasta ahí se parece a una herramienta, sofisticada, pero convencional. Nos permite comunicar el mensaje que queremos. Pero entonces aparecen un montón de notificaciones que nunca solicitamos y nos desvían de nuestros objetivos iniciales. El aparato empieza a adquirir agencia, no por ser inteligente (no lo es), sino porque otros lo utilizan como mecanismo de manipulación de nuestra conducta y pensamiento. El uso que le damos está influenciado por los intereses de un tercero, mediatizados a través de algoritmos. La irrupción de la IA pone sobre la mesa el problema de quién toma las decisiones. Una bomba es atroz pero la lanza una persona, no decide lanzarse sola. En cambio hoy, gracias al profundo conocimiento que tienen de nosotros, las máquinas pueden elegir de manera muy precisa qué estímulo presentarnos para que altere nuestros pensamientos y conductas: íbamos a mandar un mensaje pero acabamos dos horas mirando videos en Instagram o TikTok. ¿Quién ha tomado esa decisión? 

Hace ya un tiempo que hemos perdido parte de nuestra autonomía, de decidir nosotros lo que queremos con libertad. Somos un poco artificiales y nos dejamos arrastrar por algoritmos que invaden lo más profundo del deseo y la motivación, y generan adicción. Si bien vamos por el mundo convencidos de que nosotros somos quienes determinamos nuestras preferencias y anhelos, en realidad muchas de las cosas que deseamos reflejan ideas que nos han implantado. «Muchas veces, la gente no sabe lo que quiere hasta que se lo enseñas», dijo una vez Steve Jobs. La industria de la publicidad y del marketing lleva décadas manipulando a las personas sin que se den cuenta: establece asociaciones entre colores y formas para generar sensaciones de frescura, salud, belleza, placer, etc. Pongamos un ejemplo simple: cuando nos ofrecen en un restaurante una larguísima carta de vinos que apenas conocemos, ¿con qué criterio elegimos? Fácil: la gran mayoría de la gente opta por el segundo vino más barato. La decisión se apoya en un mecanismo inconsciente, tan invisible como recurrente: ahorrar lo más posible sin ser un tacaño evidente. Muchos hosteleros saben esto y ponen el vino que prefieren vender, o el que menos les cuesta, como el segundo de la lista. Y así, poco a poco, vamos cayendo en la trampa de comprar lo peor por un valor mayor del que tiene.

Bill Gates, uno de los principales empresarios de la revolución de las microcomputadoras, en una imagen de 1983. Crédito: Getty Images.

Bill Gates, uno de los principales empresarios de la revolución de las microcomputadoras, en una imagen de 1983. Crédito: Getty Images.

Advertidos de esta posibilidad, hemos aprendido a desconfiar de los anuncios y otros métodos evidentes de condicionar nuestros criterios. Pero todavía no sospechamos de las herramientas porque, después de todo, siempre las hemos controlado nosotros. Tomamos un lápiz, hacemos un par de figuras, las borramos para mejorarlas, las hacemos nuevamente. El proceso sigue hasta que no tenemos más ganas de dibujar. Y entonces, simple y llanamente, nos detenemos. Dejamos el lápiz y pasamos a otra cosa. Esta es la expresión más simple de nuestro sentido de agencia. Cuando queremos dibujar, dibujamos; cuando queremos parar, paramos. En cambio, cuando queremos comer dos o tres patatas fritas y terminamos comiéndonos el paquete entero, sentimos que algo se ha descontrolado y que no hemos podido evitarlo. Lo que se perdió en el proceso es el sentido de agencia. Nuestra inteligencia es bastante versátil pero también está repleta de puntos débiles, que son muy notorios cuando entra en juego la manipulación del deseo y la voluntad. 

Antes de la aparición del smartphone, la industria del entretenimiento, muy vinculada con el deseo, descubrió que todos nos reímos y lloramos más o menos por lo mismo. En Hollywood, epicentro de la industria del cine, se descubrió hace mucho una estructura narrativa que es eficaz para evocar todo un repertorio de emociones. El mero hecho de que hagan reír, o llorar, en el mismo instante a millones de personas de los más alejados rincones del mundo, muestra que aquello que consideramos más idiosincrático de nuestra condición se rige por un algoritmo común y, quizá, ni siquiera muy sofisticado. La industria de la comida, del entretenimiento, del tabaco y del juego, pero también otras (que de una manera u otra están vinculadas con los pecados capitales) aprovechan ya nuestras debilidades para hackear nuestra conducta y nuestras ideas. Somos más previsibles de lo que pensamos. Conviene conocer bien estos puntos más vulnerables porque, como veremos, las IA encuentran y aprovechan extraordinariamente bien nuestros flancos más débiles.

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