Entrevistas

Javier Cercas sobre «Anatomía de un instante»: «Para los españoles, el golpe del 23F es una gran ficción colectiva»

Con motivo del 40 aniversario del golpe (el 23 de febrero de 2021), hablamos con el autor español sobre el modo que tiene nuestro pasado (no tan) reciente de condicionar nuestro día a día.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/20003-anatomia-de-un-instante\\\">Anatom\u00eda de un instante<\/a><\/em><\/span>, de Javier Cercas<\/strong>, es un relato vibrante, tenso y pormenorizado sobre aquel funesto 23 de febrero de 1981; un texto que empieza como una novela polic\u00edaca y acaba como una novela de terror. Aprovechando que se han cumplido 40 a\u00f1os desde aquel funesto d\u00eda, <strong>Miguel Aguilar entrevista a Cercas para <em>Lengua<\/em>.<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><strong><em>Lengua<\/em>: <em>Anatom\u00eda<\/em> nace de un fracaso, el de escribir una novela sobre el golpe. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 esa historia rechazaba la ficci\u00f3n?<\/strong><\/p><p><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4633-javier-cercas\\\"><strong>Javier Cercas:<\/strong><\/a>\u00a0Porque, para los espa\u00f1oles, el golpe del\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/231581-23f\\\">23 de febrero<\/a> de 1981 es una gran ficci\u00f3n colectiva, en el mismo sentido en el que lo es para los norteamericanos el asesinato de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/11545-jfk-caso-abierto-9788499922904\\\">Kennedy<\/a>. Cuando comprend\u00ed esto, despu\u00e9s de tres a\u00f1os trabajando en este libro, sumergido durante ese tiempo en un oc\u00e9ano de medias verdades, mentiras, hip\u00f3tesis descabelladas, teor\u00edas de la conspiraci\u00f3n, etc., decid\u00ed que no ten\u00eda ning\u00fan sentido escribir una ficci\u00f3n sobre otra ficci\u00f3n; que eso era redundante, literariamente irrelevante, y que lo que ten\u00eda sentido de verdad era restituir la realidad de los hechos, escribir una novela, s\u00ed, pero una novela cosida a la realidad: una novela sin ficci\u00f3n. Eso es lo que intenta ser <em>Anatom\u00eda<\/em> (y tambi\u00e9n un combate a muerte contra todas las trolas contadas sobre el golpe y sobre la Transici\u00f3n).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j1pos1r\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_spacer\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"10\"},\"space_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":50},\"space_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":50},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"spacer\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gwdv4to\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLa 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manera.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zzknrzx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong><em>Lengua<\/em>: Es un libro con tres protagonistas individuales, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/11405-adolfo-suarez-9788483068342\\\">Su\u00e1rez<\/a>,\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/economia-politica-y-actualidad\/13309-la-lucha-continua\\\">Carrillo<\/a> y Guti\u00e9rrez Mellado. M\u00e1s de diez a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, \u00bfc\u00f3mo ha cambiado tu visi\u00f3n de esos tres personajes?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>J. C.:<\/strong> La verdad es que no ha cambiado: para m\u00ed son tres personajes hist\u00f3ricos, pero tambi\u00e9n tres de mis personajes, como si me los hubiera inventado. Son, en cualquier caso, lo que llamo en el libro tres h\u00e9roes de la traici\u00f3n, tipos capaces de traicionar un error <span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>una vida educada y vivida en un marco mental totalitario<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>\u00a0para construir un acierto: la democracia espa\u00f1ola. Gracias a esa triple traici\u00f3n vivimos en libertad. 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El libro tambi\u00e9n tiene dos protagonistas colectivos subyacentes, la generaci\u00f3n de tu padre y la tuya, o dicho de otro modo, la que hizo la transici\u00f3n y la que disfrut\u00f3 de sus frutos y vivi\u00f3 con creciente incomodidad su herencia. Tu libro en parte supon\u00eda una reconciliaci\u00f3n entre ambas. \u00bfHabr\u00e1 que explicar ese per\u00edodo de pactos y cesiones mutuas a cada generaci\u00f3n para que la entiendan?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>J.C.:<\/strong>\u00a0 Absolutamente: eso es lo que intenta este libro. Hegel escribi\u00f3 que lo \u00fanico que se aprende de la historia es que no se aprende nada de la historia. Por desgracia, ten\u00eda raz\u00f3n. Los seres humanos somos tan est\u00fapidos que cometemos una y otra vez los mismos errores, como si la historia no sirviera para nada y cada generaci\u00f3n tuviera que volver a aprender de nuevo, sufri\u00e9ndolo en sus carnes, lo que ya aprendi\u00f3 la anterior, como si, por m\u00e1s brutal que sea, la experiencia de nuestros antepasados no nos sirviera para nada. La historia, que es la madre de la verdad (lo dijo <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/28626-miguel-de-cervantes\\\">Cervantes<\/a>), deber\u00eda ayudarnos a entender las cosas, a no incurrir de nuevo en los mismos errores, pero por lo visto no hay manera. Este libro intenta entender de verdad, a trav\u00e9s de un min\u00fasculo instante pre\u00f1ado de sentido, c\u00f3mo fue el cambio de la dictadura a la democracia en Espa\u00f1a, con toda su complejidad, para aprender de \u00e9l. Ojal\u00e1 sirva para eso (y para alguna cosa 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\u00bfQu\u00e9 pregunta le habr\u00edas hecho a Adolfo Su\u00e1rez si hubieras podido?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>J.C.:<\/strong> Ninguna. Me habr\u00eda limitado a darle las gracias.<\/p><p><strong><em>Lengua<\/em>: Tras sumergirte en esa etapa de tremenda crispaci\u00f3n, \u00bfqu\u00e9 lecciones te parecen aplicables para otros momentos de tensi\u00f3n como el actual?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>J. C.:<\/strong> Infinitas, literalmente. Que es mejor una paz mediocre que una buena guerra, por ejemplo. Que la \u00fanica forma de hacer algo \u00fatil con el futuro es tener el pasado siempre presente. Que la democracia es la cosa m\u00e1s fr\u00e1gil que existe. Que, en cuanto la das por hecha, ya la est\u00e1s poniendo en peligro.\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>Quien no est\u00e1 ocupado en nacer est\u00e1 ocupado en morir<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u00bb<\/span>, dice un verso de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/37267-bob-dylan-edicion-ampliada-9788416709588\\\">Bob Dylan<\/a>; la democracia es parecida: o mejora o empeora, o nace cada d\u00eda o muere sin remedio. Y que la democracia no es el Para\u00edso terrenal, pero s\u00ed el mejor instrumento que hemos encontrado de momento para que cada cual busque a su manera la peque\u00f1a y fugaz porci\u00f3n de Para\u00edso que le corresponde.<\/p><p><strong><em>Lengua<\/em>: \u00bfNos recomiendas cinco <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/11800-el-triunfo-de-la-democracia-en-espana-9788499929019\\\">libros sobre la transici\u00f3n<\/a>?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>J. 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5 min.

Crédito: Getty.

Por REDACCIÓN LENGUA



Anatomía de un instante, de Javier Cercas, es un relato vibrante, tenso y pormenorizado sobre aquel funesto 23 de febrero de 1981; un texto que empieza como una novela policíaca y acaba como una novela de terror. Aprovechando que se han cumplido 40 años desde aquel funesto día, Miguel Aguilar entrevista a Cercas para Lengua.

Lengua: Anatomía nace de un fracaso, el de escribir una novela sobre el golpe. ¿Por qué esa historia rechazaba la ficción?

Javier Cercas: Porque, para los españoles, el golpe del 23 de febrero de 1981 es una gran ficción colectiva, en el mismo sentido en el que lo es para los norteamericanos el asesinato de Kennedy. Cuando comprendí esto, después de tres años trabajando en este libro, sumergido durante ese tiempo en un océano de medias verdades, mentiras, hipótesis descabelladas, teorías de la conspiración, etc., decidí que no tenía ningún sentido escribir una ficción sobre otra ficción; que eso era redundante, literariamente irrelevante, y que lo que tenía sentido de verdad era restituir la realidad de los hechos, escribir una novela, sí, pero una novela cosida a la realidad: una novela sin ficción. Eso es lo que intenta ser Anatomía (y también un combate a muerte contra todas las trolas contadas sobre el golpe y sobre la Transición).

«La historia, que es la madre de la verdad (lo dijo Cervantes), debería ayudarnos a entender las cosas, a no incurrir de nuevo en los mismos errores, pero por lo visto no hay manera.»

Lengua: Es un libro con tres protagonistas individuales, SuárezCarrillo y Gutiérrez Mellado. Más de diez años después, ¿cómo ha cambiado tu visión de esos tres personajes?

J. C.: La verdad es que no ha cambiado: para mí son tres personajes históricos, pero también tres de mis personajes, como si me los hubiera inventado. Son, en cualquier caso, lo que llamo en el libro tres héroes de la traición, tipos capaces de traicionar un error una vida educada y vivida en un marco mental totalitario para construir un acierto: la democracia española. Gracias a esa triple traición vivimos en libertad. Lo cual significa que, aunque la lealtad sea un valor, hay momentos en la vida de los hombres, y de las colectividades, en que es más valiente, más honesta y más virtuosa la traición que la lealtad.

Lengua: El libro también tiene dos protagonistas colectivos subyacentes, la generación de tu padre y la tuya, o dicho de otro modo, la que hizo la transición y la que disfrutó de sus frutos y vivió con creciente incomodidad su herencia. Tu libro en parte suponía una reconciliación entre ambas. ¿Habrá que explicar ese período de pactos y cesiones mutuas a cada generación para que la entiendan?

J.C.:  Absolutamente: eso es lo que intenta este libro. Hegel escribió que lo único que se aprende de la historia es que no se aprende nada de la historia. Por desgracia, tenía razón. Los seres humanos somos tan estúpidos que cometemos una y otra vez los mismos errores, como si la historia no sirviera para nada y cada generación tuviera que volver a aprender de nuevo, sufriéndolo en sus carnes, lo que ya aprendió la anterior, como si, por más brutal que sea, la experiencia de nuestros antepasados no nos sirviera para nada. La historia, que es la madre de la verdad (lo dijo Cervantes), debería ayudarnos a entender las cosas, a no incurrir de nuevo en los mismos errores, pero por lo visto no hay manera. Este libro intenta entender de verdad, a través de un minúsculo instante preñado de sentido, cómo fue el cambio de la dictadura a la democracia en España, con toda su complejidad, para aprender de él. Ojalá sirva para eso (y para alguna cosa más).

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Lengua: ¿Qué pregunta le habrías hecho a Adolfo Suárez si hubieras podido?  

J.C.: Ninguna. Me habría limitado a darle las gracias.

Lengua: Tras sumergirte en esa etapa de tremenda crispación, ¿qué lecciones te parecen aplicables para otros momentos de tensión como el actual?

J. C.: Infinitas, literalmente. Que es mejor una paz mediocre que una buena guerra, por ejemplo. Que la única forma de hacer algo útil con el futuro es tener el pasado siempre presente. Que la democracia es la cosa más frágil que existe. Que, en cuanto la das por hecha, ya la estás poniendo en peligro. «Quien no está ocupado en nacer está ocupado en morir», dice un verso de Bob Dylan; la democracia es parecida: o mejora o empeora, o nace cada día o muere sin remedio. Y que la democracia no es el Paraíso terrenal, pero sí el mejor instrumento que hemos encontrado de momento para que cada cual busque a su manera la pequeña y fugaz porción de Paraíso que le corresponde.

Lengua: ¿Nos recomiendas cinco libros sobre la transición?

J. C.: Esta nos la saltamos, Miguel.

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