Literatura

Zamiatin por Margaret Atwood: la distopía que viene

Yevgueni Zamiatin soñaba con un ser humano libre, creativo y generoso; un ser humano capaz de transformar el mundo, pensamiento que le colocó en la diana de dos despotismos: primero, el zarista; después, el comunista. Autor de relatos, piezas teatrales y ensayos, dejó huella con «Nosotros», obra maestra del género distópico y fuente de inspiración de «1984» de George Orwell. Título clave de la ciencia ficción del siglo XX, el libro predijo los peores excesos del imperio soviético. Porque «Nosotros» se escribió en 1920, en un momento histórico muy concreto: el momento en que la utopía prometida por el comunismo empezaba a desvanecerse; el momento en que, la discrepancia con un autócrata equivalía a deslealtad a la revolución, los juicios farsa proliferaban y las liquidaciones estaban a la orden del día. ¿Cómo pudo Zamiatin ver el futuro con tanta claridad? Margaret Atwood, autora del prólogo de la reciente edición de «Nosotros» a cargo de Salamandra, texto escrito en 2020 y que reproducimos íntegro a continuación, cree que en realidad no lo vio: lo que sí vio Zamiatin fue el presente... y lo que acechaba entre sus sombras.

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Margaret Atwood cree que lo que vio fue el presente... y lo que acechaba entre sus sombras.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, Penguin Libros, Yevgueni Zamiatin, Nosotros, Margaret Atwood","short_content":"<p>Yevgueni Zamiatin so\u00f1aba con un ser humano libre, creativo y generoso; un ser humano capaz de transformar el mundo, pensamiento que le coloc\u00f3 en la diana de dos despotismos: primero, el zarista; despu\u00e9s, el comunista. Autor de relatos, piezas teatrales y ensayos, dej\u00f3 huella con \u00abNosotros\u00bb, obra maestra del g\u00e9nero dist\u00f3pico y fuente de inspiraci\u00f3n de \u00ab1984\u00bb de George Orwell. T\u00edtulo clave de la ciencia ficci\u00f3n del siglo XX, el libro predijo los peores excesos del imperio sovi\u00e9tico. Porque \u00abNosotros\u00bb se escribi\u00f3 en 1920, en un momento hist\u00f3rico muy concreto: el momento en que la utop\u00eda prometida por el comunismo empezaba a desvanecerse; el momento en que, la discrepancia con un aut\u00f3crata equival\u00eda a deslealtad a la revoluci\u00f3n, los juicios farsa proliferaban y las liquidaciones estaban a la orden del d\u00eda. \u00bfC\u00f3mo pudo Zamiatin ver el futuro con tanta claridad? Margaret Atwood, autora del pr\u00f3logo de la reciente edici\u00f3n de \u00abNosotros\u00bb a cargo de Salamandra, texto escrito en 2020 y que reproducimos \u00edntegro a continuaci\u00f3n, cree que en realidad no lo vio: lo que s\u00ed vio Zamiatin fue el presente... y lo que acechaba entre sus 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le\u00ed <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/ciencia-ficcion\/323608-ebook-nosotros-9788418363375\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Nosotros<\/em>, la extraordinaria novela de Zamiatin<\/a><\/span>, hasta los a\u00f1os noventa, mucho despu\u00e9s de haber escrito <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/38372-libro-el-cuento-de-la-criada-9788498389074\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El cuento de la criada<\/a><\/em>. \u00bfC\u00f3mo es posible que pasara por alto una de las grandes distop\u00edas del siglo xx, una obra que ejerci\u00f3 una influencia directa sobre el George Orwell de <em>1984,<\/em> quien a su vez ejerci\u00f3 una influencia directa sobre m\u00ed?\u00a0<\/p><p>Quiz\u00e1 porque yo era lectora de Orwell, pero no estudiosa suya, as\u00ed como lectora de ciencia ficci\u00f3n, pero no estudiosa del g\u00e9nero. Cuando finalmente llegu\u00e9 a <em>Nosotros,<\/em> me deslumbr\u00f3. Y ahora, tras releerla en la fresca e intensa traducci\u00f3n al ingl\u00e9s de Bela Shayevich, he sentido lo mismo.\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Nosotros<\/em> tiene muchos elementos que parecen prof\u00e9ticos: el intento de abolir al individuo fusionando a todos los ciudadanos con el Estado; la vigilancia de casi todas las acciones y pensamientos, en parte a trav\u00e9s de esas gigantescas y simp\u00e1ticas orejas rosadas que escuchan todo cuanto se dice; la \u00abliquidaci\u00f3n\u00bb de los disidentes \u2014en un escrito de Lenin de 1918, la \u00abliquidaci\u00f3n\u00bb es metaf\u00f3rica, pero en <em>Nosotros<\/em> es literal, ya que aquellos a quienes se liquida se transforman literalmente en l\u00edquido\u2014; la construcci\u00f3n de un muro fronterizo que no s\u00f3lo sirve para prevenir invasiones, sino para impedir que los ciudadanos puedan salir; la creaci\u00f3n de un Gran Hermano Benefactor sabio y omnisciente que en realidad podr\u00eda no ser m\u00e1s que una imagen o un simulacro: todos estos detalles presagiaban cosas que estaban por venir. Tambi\u00e9n el uso de letras y n\u00fameros en lugar de nombres: los campos de exterminio de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Hitler<\/a><\/span> a\u00fan no les hab\u00edan tatuado n\u00fameros a sus reclusos, y nosotros todav\u00eda no nos hab\u00edamos convertido en carne de algoritmo. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/revista-lengua\/podcast\/revista-lengua-podcast-de-stalin-a-putin-finlandia-y-la-sonrisa-del-tirano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Stalin<\/a><\/span> todav\u00eda no hab\u00eda instaurado el culto a su persona, faltaban d\u00e9cadas para el <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Muro de Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/span>, las escuchas electr\u00f3nicas no exist\u00edan, los juicios farsa y las purgas masivas de Stalin tardar\u00edan a\u00fan una d\u00e9cada en llegar. Sin embargo, en <em>Nosotros<\/em> distinguimos, claro como el agua, el plan general de las futuras dictaduras y de los capitalismos de vigilancia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"32289ph\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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escribi\u00f3 <em>Nosotros<\/em> entre 1920 y 1921, cuando todav\u00eda no hab\u00eda acabado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/svetlana-alexievich-premio-nobel-literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la guerra civil posterior a la Revoluci\u00f3n de Octubre<\/a><\/span> comandada por los bolcheviques. El propio Zamiatin, que hab\u00eda formado parte del movimiento antes de 1905, era un viejo bolchevique (grupo al que Stalin trat\u00f3 de liquidar en la d\u00e9cada de 1930 porque se aferraba a sus ideales democr\u00e1tico-comunistas originales, en lugar de bailar al son de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la autocracia del camarada Stalin<\/a><\/span>), pero ahora que los bolcheviques estaban ganando la guerra civil, a Zamiatin no le gustaba el cariz que estaban tomando las cosas. Las asambleas comunales originales se estaban convirtiendo en meros instrumentos de la poderosa \u00e9lite surgida con Lenin y m\u00e1s tarde consolidada con Stalin. \u00bfEra eso la igualdad? \u00bfEn eso consist\u00eda el florecimiento de los dones y talentos individuales que tan rom\u00e1nticamente hab\u00eda propuesto el partido a\u00f1os atr\u00e1s?\u00a0<\/p><p>En un ensayo de 1921 titulado \u00abTengo miedo\u00bb, escribe Zamiatin: \u00abLa verdadera literatura s\u00f3lo puede existir en manos, no de funcionarios diligentes y fiables, sino de locos, ermita\u00f1os, herejes, so\u00f1adores, rebeldes y esc\u00e9pticos\u00bb. En esto fue un hijo del movimiento rom\u00e1ntico, como lo fue la propia revoluci\u00f3n. Sin embargo, los \u00abfuncionarios diligentes fiables\u00bb, al ver por d\u00f3nde soplaba el viento leninista-estalinista, se aplicaron enseguida a censurar, emitir decretos sobre temas y estilos preferibles, y arrancar las malas hierbas de la heterodoxia. \u00c9sta es siempre una pr\u00e1ctica peligrosa, ya que en los totalitarismos las malas hierbas y las flores pueden intercambiar posiciones en un abrir y cerrar de ojos.\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Nosotros<\/em> puede interpretarse, en parte, como una utop\u00eda: el objetivo del Estado Unido es la felicidad universal, y, como a su juicio no es posible ser feliz y libre a la vez, la libertad debe desaparecer. Los \u00abderechos\u00bb por los que tanto hab\u00eda luchado la gente en el siglo XIX (y por los que tanto sigue luchando a\u00fan hoy) se consideran rid\u00edculos: si el Estado Unido tiene todo bajo control y act\u00faa en pro de la mayor felicidad posible para todo el mundo, \u00bfqui\u00e9n necesita 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novela de Zamiatin proviene de un largo linaje de utop\u00edas decimon\u00f3nicas que tambi\u00e9n propon\u00edan recetas para la felicidad universal. Se escribieron tantas utop\u00edas literarias en el siglo XIX que Gilbert y Sullivan hasta crearon una parodia oper\u00edstica titulada <em>Utop\u00eda, S.L. <\/em>Algunas de las m\u00e1s destacadas son <em>La raza venidera<\/em> de Bulwer-Lytton (en el subsuelo de Noruega vive una raza humana superior que posee una tecnolog\u00eda avanzada, alas inflables, privilegia la raz\u00f3n sobre la pasi\u00f3n y sus mujeres son m\u00e1s corpulentas y fuertes que los hombres);<em> Noticias de ninguna parte<\/em> de William Morris (novela socialista e igualitarista, con gui\u00f1os a las artes y oficios, ropajes art\u00edsticos y mujeres fascinantes al estilo prerrafaelita) y<em> La era de cristal<\/em> de W.H. Hudson (donde los personajes no s\u00f3lo poseen belleza y ropas art\u00edsticas, sino que, como los <em>shakers,<\/em> son felices gracias a que no sienten inter\u00e9s alguno por el sexo).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"62mbkja\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En un ensayo de 1921 titulado \u00abTengo miedo\u00bb, escribe Zamiatin: \u00abLa verdadera literatura s\u00f3lo puede existir en manos, no de funcionarios diligentes y fiables, sino de locos, ermita\u00f1os, herejes, so\u00f1adores, rebeldes y esc\u00e9pticos\u00bb. En esto fue un hijo del movimiento rom\u00e1ntico, como lo fue la propia revoluci\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qda5qos\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Los autores de finales del siglo XIX estaban obsesionados con \u00abel problema de la mujer\u00bb y \u00abla nueva mujer\u00bb, y no hab\u00eda utop\u00eda \u2014ni distop\u00eda\u2014 que se abstuviera de experimentar con las convenciones existentes en materia sexual. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Tampoco la URSS<\/a><\/span>. Sus primeros intentos de abolir la familia, criar a los ni\u00f1os de forma colectiva, permitir el divorcio instant\u00e1neo y, en algunas ciudades, estipular como delito el que una mujer se negase a tener relaciones sexuales con un comunista (\u00a1buen intento!) degeneraron en una farsa que s\u00f3lo ocasionaba caos y sufrimiento, tanto es as\u00ed que Stalin revirti\u00f3 de golpe esas medidas en los a\u00f1os treinta.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/216105-yevgueni-zamiatin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Zamiatin<\/a><\/span> escribi\u00f3 durante ese primer per\u00edodo de fermentaci\u00f3n, y es ese conjunto de actitudes y pol\u00edticas lo que satiriza en su novela. Aunque la gente vive en casas literalmente de cristal, donde todas sus acciones se ven de forma transparente, bajan las cortinas con recato para mantener relaciones sexuales, actividad que se reserva por anticipado sacando un billete rosa y que, con la normativa en la mano, debe quedar debidamente registrada por las se\u00f1oras que controlan los vest\u00edbulos de los edificios de apartamentos. 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igual que en <em>El tal\u00f3n de hierro,<\/em> la novela de Jack London de 1908 \u2014una distop\u00eda donde la gente espera un futuro ut\u00f3pico\u2014, o en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">1984<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> las fuerzas que promueven la disidencia en<em> Nosotros<\/em> son femeninas. 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Entra en escena I-330, una disidente de rasgos angulosos, individualista, bohemia y aficionada al alcohol que lo seduce en un nido de amor oculto y lo lleva a cuestionarse el Estado Unido. Contrasta acusadamente con O-90, una mujer curvil\u00ednea y complaciente a la que han prohibido tener hijos porque es demasiado baja, y que resulta ser la pareja sexual registrada de D. A O podemos interpretarla como un c\u00edrculo \u2014compleci\u00f3n y plenitud\u2014 o como un cero, un vac\u00edo: Zamiatin da pistas en ambos sentidos. 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se ha escrito sobre la diferencia entre las culturas del yo y las culturas del nosotros. En las culturas del yo, como la estadounidense, la individualidad y la decisi\u00f3n personal son casi una religi\u00f3n. No es casualidad. Estados Unidos es una creaci\u00f3n puritana, y lo importante en el protestantismo es el alma individual frente a Dios, no la pertenencia a una Iglesia universal. Los puritanos eran muy dados a escribir diarios, en los que registraban todas y cada una de sus peripecias espirituales: hay que tener una opini\u00f3n muy elevada de tu propia alma para hacer eso. En las escuelas de escritura norteamericanas hay un mantra que siempre se repite: \u00abEncuentra tu voz\u00bb, es decir, tu singularidad. Lo de la \u00ablibertad de expresi\u00f3n\u00bb se entiende como que uno puede decir lo que quiera.\u00a0<\/p><p>En cambio, en las culturas del nosotros, \u00bfpara qu\u00e9 hace falta encontrar la propia voz? Lo que tiene valor es la pertenencia a un grupo: hay que actuar en inter\u00e9s de la armon\u00eda social. La \u00ablibertad de expresi\u00f3n\u00bb significa que uno puede decir lo que quiera, pero lo que quiera estar\u00e1 naturalmente limitado por los efectos que pueda provocar en los dem\u00e1s. As\u00ed pues, \u00bfqui\u00e9n debe tener la \u00faltima palabra? El \u00abnosotros\u00bb. Ahora bien, \u00bfen qu\u00e9 momento el \u00abnosotros\u00bb se transforma en una turba? Cuando D explica que todo el mundo sale a pasear al comp\u00e1s, \u00bfestamos ante un sue\u00f1o o una pesadilla? \u00bfEn qu\u00e9 instante ese \u00abnosotros\u00bb armonioso y unido se convierte en un mitin nazi? \u00c9ste es el fuego cruzado cultural en el que nos hallamos hoy en d\u00eda.\u00a0<\/p><p>Todo ser humano es ambas cosas: un yo especial, discreto, y un nosotros, parte de una familia, de un pa\u00eds, de una cultura. En el mejor de los mundos, el nosotros \u2014el grupo\u2014 valora al yo por su particularidad, y el yo se conoce a s\u00ed mismo a trav\u00e9s de sus relaciones con los dem\u00e1s. Cuando ese equilibrio se entiende y se respeta \u2014o eso nos gusta creer\u2014, no tiene por qu\u00e9 haber conflicto.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero el Estado Unido ha roto el equilibrio: ha intentado suprimir el yo, que no obstante se empe\u00f1a en resistir. De ah\u00ed las tribulaciones del pobre D-503. Las discusiones que D mantiene consigo mismo son las discusiones de Zamiatin con el incipiente conformismo y la opresi\u00f3n de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">los primeros a\u00f1os de la URSS<\/a><\/span>. \u00bfQu\u00e9 hab\u00eda sido de aquella maravillosa visi\u00f3n que propugnaban las utop\u00edas del siglo XIX y hasta el propio comunismo? \u00bfQu\u00e9 hab\u00eda salido mal?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gcj3ev1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>Nosotros<\/em> se escribi\u00f3 en un momento hist\u00f3rico muy concreto: el momento en que la utop\u00eda prometida por el comunismo empezaba a desvanecerse en la distop\u00eda; el momento en que, en nombre de la felicidad general, la herej\u00eda supon\u00eda un delito de pensamiento, la discrepancia con un aut\u00f3crata equival\u00eda a deslealtad a la revoluci\u00f3n, los juicios farsa proliferaban y las liquidaciones estaban a la orden del d\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vnsv7ty\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cuando Orwell escribi\u00f3 <em>1984<\/em><\/a><\/span>, las purgas y liquidaciones de Stalin ya se hab\u00edan producido, Hitler hab\u00eda llegado y se hab\u00eda ido, y se sab\u00eda hasta qu\u00e9 punto era posible humillar y desfigurar a una persona mediante torturas, por eso su visi\u00f3n del mundo es mucho m\u00e1s oscura que la de Zamiatin. Las dos hero\u00ednas de Zamiatin son incorruptibles, como las de Jack London, mientras que la Julia de Orwell capitula y traiciona a Winston casi de inmediato. El S-4711 de Zamiatin es un agente del servicio secreto, pero su n\u00famero delata su alter ego: 4711 es el nombre de un perfume creado en la ciudad alemana de Colonia, que en el a\u00f1o 1288 protagoniz\u00f3 una exitosa revuelta democr\u00e1tica contra las autoridades de la Iglesia y el Estado, y se convirti\u00f3 en ciudad imperial libre. S\u00ed, S-4711 es en realidad un disidente favorable a la revuelta. En cambio, en <em>1984,<\/em> O'Brien finge ser un disidente, pero en realidad es un miembro de la polic\u00eda estatal.<\/p><p>Zamiatin se aferra a la posibilidad de escapar: al otro lado del Muro hay un mundo natural habitado por \u00abb\u00e1rbaros\u00bb libres que van cubiertos con... \u00bfpodr\u00edan ser pieles? Para Orwell, nadie puede escapar del mundo de <em>1984,<\/em> aunque hace la concesi\u00f3n de un futuro lejano en el que esa sociedad represiva ya no existe.\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Nosotros<\/em> se escribi\u00f3 en un momento hist\u00f3rico muy concreto: el momento en que la utop\u00eda prometida por el comunismo empezaba a desvanecerse en la distop\u00eda; el momento en que, en nombre de la felicidad general, la herej\u00eda supon\u00eda un delito de pensamiento, la discrepancia con un aut\u00f3crata equival\u00eda a deslealtad a la revoluci\u00f3n, los juicios farsa proliferaban y las liquidaciones estaban a la orden del d\u00eda. \u00bfC\u00f3mo pudo Zamiatin ver el futuro con tanta claridad? No lo vio, por supuesto. Lo que vio fue el presente y lo que acechaba entre sus sombras.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abLas acciones de los hombres presagian ciertos fines, y si perseveran, \u00e9stos pueden volverse inevitables\u00bb, dice <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/nombres-propios\/los-motivos-reales-de-dickens-para-escribir-cancion-de-navidad\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ebenezer Scrooge en la <em>Canci\u00f3n de Navidad<\/em> de Dickens<\/a><\/span>. \u00abSin embargo, si cambian de rumbo, cambiar\u00e1n tambi\u00e9n los fines\u00bb. <em>Nosotros<\/em> era una advertencia para sus coet\u00e1neos, una advertencia de la que nadie hizo caso porque nadie pudo o\u00edrla: los \u00abfuncionarios diligentes y fiables\u00bb y la censura se encargaron de ello. El rumbo no cambi\u00f3. Millones de personas perecieron.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfEs tambi\u00e9n una advertencia para nosotros, para el presente? Y si lo es, \u00bfde qu\u00e9 clase de advertencia se trata? \u00bfEstamos dispuestos a escuchar?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"v4ut8r4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/margaret-atwood-soy-una-mala-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Margaret Atwood: \u00bfSoy una mala feminista?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La improbable g\u00e9nesis de \u00ab1984\u00bb, la obra magna de George Orwell<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cuando las puertas se abrieron: a 32 a\u00f1os de la ca\u00edda del muro de Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Igort: el dibujante de la sombra rusa<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">George Orwell sobre \u00abMein Kampf\u00bb: Hitler o el m\u00e1rtir Prometeo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/svetlana-alexievich-premio-nobel-literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Svetlana Alexi\u00e9vich: la persona es m\u00e1s que la guerra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"uwvnwpi\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Nos vigilan. Crédito: Getty Images.

Nos vigilan. Crédito: Getty Images.

No leí Nosotros, la extraordinaria novela de Zamiatin, hasta los años noventa, mucho después de haber escrito El cuento de la criada. ¿Cómo es posible que pasara por alto una de las grandes distopías del siglo xx, una obra que ejerció una influencia directa sobre el George Orwell de 1984, quien a su vez ejerció una influencia directa sobre mí? 

Quizá porque yo era lectora de Orwell, pero no estudiosa suya, así como lectora de ciencia ficción, pero no estudiosa del género. Cuando finalmente llegué a Nosotros, me deslumbró. Y ahora, tras releerla en la fresca e intensa traducción al inglés de Bela Shayevich, he sentido lo mismo. 

Nosotros tiene muchos elementos que parecen proféticos: el intento de abolir al individuo fusionando a todos los ciudadanos con el Estado; la vigilancia de casi todas las acciones y pensamientos, en parte a través de esas gigantescas y simpáticas orejas rosadas que escuchan todo cuanto se dice; la «liquidación» de los disidentes —en un escrito de Lenin de 1918, la «liquidación» es metafórica, pero en Nosotros es literal, ya que aquellos a quienes se liquida se transforman literalmente en líquido—; la construcción de un muro fronterizo que no sólo sirve para prevenir invasiones, sino para impedir que los ciudadanos puedan salir; la creación de un Gran Hermano Benefactor sabio y omnisciente que en realidad podría no ser más que una imagen o un simulacro: todos estos detalles presagiaban cosas que estaban por venir. También el uso de letras y números en lugar de nombres: los campos de exterminio de Hitler aún no les habían tatuado números a sus reclusos, y nosotros todavía no nos habíamos convertido en carne de algoritmo. Stalin todavía no había instaurado el culto a su persona, faltaban décadas para el Muro de Berlín, las escuchas electrónicas no existían, los juicios farsa y las purgas masivas de Stalin tardarían aún una década en llegar. Sin embargo, en Nosotros distinguimos, claro como el agua, el plan general de las futuras dictaduras y de los capitalismos de vigilancia.

Zamiatin escribió Nosotros entre 1920 y 1921, cuando todavía no había acabado la guerra civil posterior a la Revolución de Octubre comandada por los bolcheviques. El propio Zamiatin, que había formado parte del movimiento antes de 1905, era un viejo bolchevique (grupo al que Stalin trató de liquidar en la década de 1930 porque se aferraba a sus ideales democrático-comunistas originales, en lugar de bailar al son de la autocracia del camarada Stalin), pero ahora que los bolcheviques estaban ganando la guerra civil, a Zamiatin no le gustaba el cariz que estaban tomando las cosas. Las asambleas comunales originales se estaban convirtiendo en meros instrumentos de la poderosa élite surgida con Lenin y más tarde consolidada con Stalin. ¿Era eso la igualdad? ¿En eso consistía el florecimiento de los dones y talentos individuales que tan románticamente había propuesto el partido años atrás? 

En un ensayo de 1921 titulado «Tengo miedo», escribe Zamiatin: «La verdadera literatura sólo puede existir en manos, no de funcionarios diligentes y fiables, sino de locos, ermitaños, herejes, soñadores, rebeldes y escépticos». En esto fue un hijo del movimiento romántico, como lo fue la propia revolución. Sin embargo, los «funcionarios diligentes fiables», al ver por dónde soplaba el viento leninista-estalinista, se aplicaron enseguida a censurar, emitir decretos sobre temas y estilos preferibles, y arrancar las malas hierbas de la heterodoxia. Ésta es siempre una práctica peligrosa, ya que en los totalitarismos las malas hierbas y las flores pueden intercambiar posiciones en un abrir y cerrar de ojos. 

Nosotros puede interpretarse, en parte, como una utopía: el objetivo del Estado Unido es la felicidad universal, y, como a su juicio no es posible ser feliz y libre a la vez, la libertad debe desaparecer. Los «derechos» por los que tanto había luchado la gente en el siglo XIX (y por los que tanto sigue luchando aún hoy) se consideran ridículos: si el Estado Unido tiene todo bajo control y actúa en pro de la mayor felicidad posible para todo el mundo, ¿quién necesita derechos?

La novela de Zamiatin proviene de un largo linaje de utopías decimonónicas que también proponían recetas para la felicidad universal. Se escribieron tantas utopías literarias en el siglo XIX que Gilbert y Sullivan hasta crearon una parodia operística titulada Utopía, S.L. Algunas de las más destacadas son La raza venidera de Bulwer-Lytton (en el subsuelo de Noruega vive una raza humana superior que posee una tecnología avanzada, alas inflables, privilegia la razón sobre la pasión y sus mujeres son más corpulentas y fuertes que los hombres); Noticias de ninguna parte de William Morris (novela socialista e igualitarista, con guiños a las artes y oficios, ropajes artísticos y mujeres fascinantes al estilo prerrafaelita) y La era de cristal de W.H. Hudson (donde los personajes no sólo poseen belleza y ropas artísticas, sino que, como los shakers, son felices gracias a que no sienten interés alguno por el sexo).

En un ensayo de 1921 titulado «Tengo miedo», escribe Zamiatin: «La verdadera literatura sólo puede existir en manos, no de funcionarios diligentes y fiables, sino de locos, ermitaños, herejes, soñadores, rebeldes y escépticos». En esto fue un hijo del movimiento romántico, como lo fue la propia revolución.

Los autores de finales del siglo XIX estaban obsesionados con «el problema de la mujer» y «la nueva mujer», y no había utopía —ni distopía— que se abstuviera de experimentar con las convenciones existentes en materia sexual. Tampoco la URSS. Sus primeros intentos de abolir la familia, criar a los niños de forma colectiva, permitir el divorcio instantáneo y, en algunas ciudades, estipular como delito el que una mujer se negase a tener relaciones sexuales con un comunista (¡buen intento!) degeneraron en una farsa que sólo ocasionaba caos y sufrimiento, tanto es así que Stalin revirtió de golpe esas medidas en los años treinta. 

Pero Zamiatin escribió durante ese primer período de fermentación, y es ese conjunto de actitudes y políticas lo que satiriza en su novela. Aunque la gente vive en casas literalmente de cristal, donde todas sus acciones se ven de forma transparente, bajan las cortinas con recato para mantener relaciones sexuales, actividad que se reserva por anticipado sacando un billete rosa y que, con la normativa en la mano, debe quedar debidamente registrada por las señoras que controlan los vestíbulos de los edificios de apartamentos. Sin embargo, aunque todo el mundo practica el sexo, sólo las mujeres que cumplen ciertos requisitos físicos pueden tener hijos: y es que la eugenesia se consideraba «progresista» por entonces. 

Yevgueni Zamiatin. Crédito: Wikimedia Commons.

Yevgueni Zamiatin. Crédito: Wikimedia Commons.

Al igual que en El talón de hierro, la novela de Jack London de 1908 —una distopía donde la gente espera un futuro utópico—, o en 1984, las fuerzas que promueven la disidencia en Nosotros son femeninas. D-503, el protagonista masculino, empieza siendo un miembro convencido del Estado Unido que se dispone a enviar un cohete al universo con el objetivo de compartir la receta para la felicidad perfecta con otros mundos desconocidos. Los personajes distópicos son propensos a escribir diarios, y D-503 escribe el suyo con las miras puestas en el universo. Pero enseguida la trama se complica, al igual que la prosa de D. ¿Habrá estado leyendo alguna de las morbosas obras de Edgar Allan Poe? ¿O a los románticos góticos alemanes? ¿O a Baudelaire? Es posible. O quizá sea su autor quien los ha leído. 

La causa de este trastorno emocional es el sexo. ¡Si D pudiera ceñirse a las citas sexuales programadas y a los billetes rosados! Pero no puede. Entra en escena I-330, una disidente de rasgos angulosos, individualista, bohemia y aficionada al alcohol que lo seduce en un nido de amor oculto y lo lleva a cuestionarse el Estado Unido. Contrasta acusadamente con O-90, una mujer curvilínea y complaciente a la que han prohibido tener hijos porque es demasiado baja, y que resulta ser la pareja sexual registrada de D. A O podemos interpretarla como un círculo —compleción y plenitud— o como un cero, un vacío: Zamiatin da pistas en ambos sentidos. Al principio pensamos que O-90 es un ser nulo, pero cuando se queda embarazada a pesar del veto oficial, nos sorprende.

Margaret Atwood en una imagen de septiembre de 2019 durante la promoción de Los testamentos, secuela de El cuento de la criada. Crédito: Getty Images.

Margaret Atwood en una imagen de septiembre de 2019 durante la promoción de Los testamentos, secuela de El cuento de la criada. Crédito: Getty Images.

Mucho se ha escrito sobre la diferencia entre las culturas del yo y las culturas del nosotros. En las culturas del yo, como la estadounidense, la individualidad y la decisión personal son casi una religión. No es casualidad. Estados Unidos es una creación puritana, y lo importante en el protestantismo es el alma individual frente a Dios, no la pertenencia a una Iglesia universal. Los puritanos eran muy dados a escribir diarios, en los que registraban todas y cada una de sus peripecias espirituales: hay que tener una opinión muy elevada de tu propia alma para hacer eso. En las escuelas de escritura norteamericanas hay un mantra que siempre se repite: «Encuentra tu voz», es decir, tu singularidad. Lo de la «libertad de expresión» se entiende como que uno puede decir lo que quiera. 

En cambio, en las culturas del nosotros, ¿para qué hace falta encontrar la propia voz? Lo que tiene valor es la pertenencia a un grupo: hay que actuar en interés de la armonía social. La «libertad de expresión» significa que uno puede decir lo que quiera, pero lo que quiera estará naturalmente limitado por los efectos que pueda provocar en los demás. Así pues, ¿quién debe tener la última palabra? El «nosotros». Ahora bien, ¿en qué momento el «nosotros» se transforma en una turba? Cuando D explica que todo el mundo sale a pasear al compás, ¿estamos ante un sueño o una pesadilla? ¿En qué instante ese «nosotros» armonioso y unido se convierte en un mitin nazi? Éste es el fuego cruzado cultural en el que nos hallamos hoy en día. 

Todo ser humano es ambas cosas: un yo especial, discreto, y un nosotros, parte de una familia, de un país, de una cultura. En el mejor de los mundos, el nosotros —el grupo— valora al yo por su particularidad, y el yo se conoce a sí mismo a través de sus relaciones con los demás. Cuando ese equilibrio se entiende y se respeta —o eso nos gusta creer—, no tiene por qué haber conflicto. 

Pero el Estado Unido ha roto el equilibrio: ha intentado suprimir el yo, que no obstante se empeña en resistir. De ahí las tribulaciones del pobre D-503. Las discusiones que D mantiene consigo mismo son las discusiones de Zamiatin con el incipiente conformismo y la opresión de los primeros años de la URSS. ¿Qué había sido de aquella maravillosa visión que propugnaban las utopías del siglo XIX y hasta el propio comunismo? ¿Qué había salido mal?

Nosotros se escribió en un momento histórico muy concreto: el momento en que la utopía prometida por el comunismo empezaba a desvanecerse en la distopía; el momento en que, en nombre de la felicidad general, la herejía suponía un delito de pensamiento, la discrepancia con un autócrata equivalía a deslealtad a la revolución, los juicios farsa proliferaban y las liquidaciones estaban a la orden del día.

Cuando Orwell escribió 1984, las purgas y liquidaciones de Stalin ya se habían producido, Hitler había llegado y se había ido, y se sabía hasta qué punto era posible humillar y desfigurar a una persona mediante torturas, por eso su visión del mundo es mucho más oscura que la de Zamiatin. Las dos heroínas de Zamiatin son incorruptibles, como las de Jack London, mientras que la Julia de Orwell capitula y traiciona a Winston casi de inmediato. El S-4711 de Zamiatin es un agente del servicio secreto, pero su número delata su alter ego: 4711 es el nombre de un perfume creado en la ciudad alemana de Colonia, que en el año 1288 protagonizó una exitosa revuelta democrática contra las autoridades de la Iglesia y el Estado, y se convirtió en ciudad imperial libre. Sí, S-4711 es en realidad un disidente favorable a la revuelta. En cambio, en 1984, O'Brien finge ser un disidente, pero en realidad es un miembro de la policía estatal.

Zamiatin se aferra a la posibilidad de escapar: al otro lado del Muro hay un mundo natural habitado por «bárbaros» libres que van cubiertos con... ¿podrían ser pieles? Para Orwell, nadie puede escapar del mundo de 1984, aunque hace la concesión de un futuro lejano en el que esa sociedad represiva ya no existe. 

Nosotros se escribió en un momento histórico muy concreto: el momento en que la utopía prometida por el comunismo empezaba a desvanecerse en la distopía; el momento en que, en nombre de la felicidad general, la herejía suponía un delito de pensamiento, la discrepancia con un autócrata equivalía a deslealtad a la revolución, los juicios farsa proliferaban y las liquidaciones estaban a la orden del día. ¿Cómo pudo Zamiatin ver el futuro con tanta claridad? No lo vio, por supuesto. Lo que vio fue el presente y lo que acechaba entre sus sombras. 

«Las acciones de los hombres presagian ciertos fines, y si perseveran, éstos pueden volverse inevitables», dice Ebenezer Scrooge en la Canción de Navidad de Dickens. «Sin embargo, si cambian de rumbo, cambiarán también los fines». Nosotros era una advertencia para sus coetáneos, una advertencia de la que nadie hizo caso porque nadie pudo oírla: los «funcionarios diligentes y fiables» y la censura se encargaron de ello. El rumbo no cambió. Millones de personas perecieron. 

¿Es también una advertencia para nosotros, para el presente? Y si lo es, ¿de qué clase de advertencia se trata? ¿Estamos dispuestos a escuchar?

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