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Elon Musk contra Jeff Bezos: guerra entre los barones de la ciencia ficción

Ideas rompedoras (los coches de futuro), polémicas de alcance global (comprar Twitter para ponerlo patas arriba) y sueños… ¿inalcanzables? (la exploración espacial privada, nada menos). Pero también acoso escolar, malos tratos en casa, inseguridades, miedos y crisis existenciales. «Elon Musk» (Debate), uno de los más anticipados acontecimientos editoriales de este 2023, es un retrato fascinante de un visionario que está cambiando el mundo, pero también es un acercamiento íntimo a un tipo perseguido por sus propios demonios. Escrita por Walter Isaacson, autor del aclamado superventas «Steve Jobs», esta biografía busca arrojar luz sobre una de las personalidades más magnéticas del planeta. Durante dos años, Isaacson le acompañó —a él y a sus amigos y familiares y otras personas de su entorno— para crear un relato tan asombroso como perturbador: en las siguientes líneas, por ejemplo, el autor se centra en la relación que mantienen Musk y otro de los grandes visionarios de nuestros días, Jeff Bezos, fundador de Amazon y hoy una suerte de archienemigo de Musk. Cenas de cortesía que se tuercen, favores que se devuelven a medias, disputas por una parcela en Cabo Cañaveral, patentes que vienen y van… Ante ustedes, dos colosos enfrentados por un lugar en la historia.

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Jeff Bezos, el en\u00e9rgico milmillonario de Amazon de risa escandalosa y entusiasmo infantil, persigue sus pasiones, tiene la capacidad de mostrarse a la vez euf\u00f3rico y met\u00f3dico. Como Musk, en su infancia era un adicto a la ciencia ficci\u00f3n que se merendaba los estantes de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/fundacion-isaac-asimov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">los libros de Isaac Asimov<\/a><\/span> y Robert Heinlein de su biblioteca local. En julio de 1969, con cinco a\u00f1os, vio la retransmisi\u00f3n televisiva de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/11758-libro-el-primer-hombre-9788499928258\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la misi\u00f3n del Apolo 11<\/a><\/span>, que acab\u00f3 con Neil Armstrong caminando por la superficie lunar. Dice que para \u00e9l fue un \u00abmomento trascendental\u00bb. M\u00e1s tarde financiar\u00eda una serie de misiones para recuperar el motor del cohete Apolo 11 del oc\u00e9ano Atl\u00e1ntico, y lo instal\u00f3 en una urna en el sal\u00f3n de su casa de Washington D. C.\u00a0<\/p><p>Su entusiasmo por el espacio lo convirti\u00f3 en uno de esos fans ac\u00e9rrimos de <em>Star Trek<\/em>, de la que se sabe todos y cada uno de los episodios. Al acabar el instituto como el alumno con las mejores notas, dio un discurso en el que habl\u00f3 de colonizar planetas, levantar hoteles espaciales y salvar nuestro mundo encontrando otros sitios donde construir las f\u00e1bricas. \u00abEl espacio, la \u00faltima frontera, \u00a1buscadme all\u00ed!\u00bb, conclu\u00eda. En 2000, despu\u00e9s de convertir a Amazon en el minorista dominante en todo el mundo, Bezos lanz\u00f3 discretamente <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.blueorigin.com\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">una empresa llamada Blue Origin<\/a><\/span>, por el planeta azul en el que han tenido su origen los humanos. Igual que Musk, estaba centrado en la idea de construir cohetes reutilizables. \u00ab\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 la situaci\u00f3n en 2000 es distinta a la de 1960? \u2014pregunta\u2014. Lo que es diferente son los sensores digitales, las c\u00e1maras y el software. La capacidad de aterrizar en vertical es el tipo de problema que puede resolverse con tecnolog\u00edas que no exist\u00edan en 1960\u00bb.<\/p><p>Como Musk, se embarc\u00f3 en sus proyectos espaciales m\u00e1s como un misionero que como un mercenario. Hay formas m\u00e1s sencillas de hacer dinero. La civilizaci\u00f3n humana, pensaba, agotar\u00e1 pronto los recursos de nuestro peque\u00f1o planeta. Eso nos enfrentar\u00e1 a una decisi\u00f3n: aceptar un no crecimiento o expandirnos a otros lugares m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la Tierra. \u00abNo creo que la estasis sea compatible con la libertad \u2014dice\u2014. Solo podemos resolver ese problema de una \u00fanica manera: traslad\u00e1ndonos a otras partes del sistema 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conocieron en 2004, cuando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.businessinsider.es\/foto-muestra-musk-bezos-comienzo-juntos-antes-ser-rivales-834681\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bezos acept\u00f3 una invitaci\u00f3n de Musk<\/a><\/span> para conocer SpaceX. Despu\u00e9s, le sorprendi\u00f3 recibir un correo relativamente seco de Musk expresando su malestar porque Bezos no hab\u00eda correspondido invit\u00e1ndole a su vez a Seattle para visitar la f\u00e1brica de Blue Origin, as\u00ed que Bezos lo hizo al instante. Musk acudi\u00f3 con Justine [por entonces su mujer], dio una vuelta por las instalaciones y despu\u00e9s cen\u00f3 con Bezos y su mujer, MacKenzie. Musk no par\u00f3 de darle consejos a Bezos, que expresaba con su vehemencia habitual. Le advirti\u00f3 de que estaba tomando el camino equivocado con una idea: \u00abT\u00edo, eso ya lo hemos intentado nosotros y result\u00f3 ser una idiotez, as\u00ed que te aviso, no cometas la estupidez que cometimos nosotros\u00bb. Bezos dice que recuerda haber tenido la impresi\u00f3n de que Musk estaba un poco demasiado seguro de s\u00ed mismo, teniendo en cuenta que a\u00fan no hab\u00eda conseguido lanzar ning\u00fan cohete. Al a\u00f1o siguiente, Musk le pidi\u00f3 a Bezos que Amazon hiciera una rese\u00f1a del nuevo libro de Justine, un <em>thriller<\/em> urbano de terror sobre unos seres h\u00edbridos entre demonio y humano. Bezos le explic\u00f3 que \u00e9l no le dec\u00eda a Amazon lo que ten\u00eda que rese\u00f1ar, pero que publicar\u00eda personalmente un comentario como cliente. 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Complejo 39\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>A partir de 2011, SpaceX consigui\u00f3 una serie de contratos de la NASA para construir unos cohetes que pudieran transportar seres humanos hasta la Estaci\u00f3n Espacial Internacional, tarea que se hab\u00eda vuelto crucial por la retirada del transbordador espacial. Para llevar a buen fin esa misi\u00f3n, necesitaba ampliar sus instalaciones del Complejo n\u00famero 40 de Cabo Ca\u00f1averal, y Musk puso los ojos en el alquiler de las instalaciones de lanzamiento con m\u00e1s historia que all\u00ed hab\u00eda, el Complejo 39.\u00a0<\/p><p>La plataforma 39 hab\u00eda sido el principal escenario de los sue\u00f1os de la era espacial estadounidense, grabada a fuego en la memoria de una generaci\u00f3n televisiva que conten\u00eda colectivamente el aliento cuando la cuenta atr\u00e1s llegaba a \u00abDiez, nueve, ocho\u2026\u00bb. La misi\u00f3n lunar de Neil Armstrong que Jeff Bezos vio de ni\u00f1o hab\u00eda despegado de la plataforma 39 en 1969, igual que la \u00faltima misi\u00f3n tripulada a la Luna, en 1972. Tambi\u00e9n despegaron de all\u00ed la primera misi\u00f3n del transbordador espacial, en 1981, y la \u00faltima, en 2011.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero en 2013, con el programa del transbordador espacial congelado y finalizadas las aspiraciones espaciales de Estados Unidos entre sollozos, el complejo de lanzamiento 39 se fue llenando de herrumbre y en la fosa deflectora crec\u00edan las enredaderas. La NASA estaba deseando alquilarlo. El cliente m\u00e1s evidente era Musk, cuyos cohetes Falcon 9 ya hab\u00edan despegado en misiones de carga desde el cercano Complejo 40, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/podcast\/revista-lengua-podcast-barack-obama-por-ben-rhodes-el-legado-de-un-presidente-en-palabras-de-un-testigo-excepcional\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el que visit\u00f3 Obama<\/a><\/span>, pero cuando la licitaci\u00f3n sali\u00f3 a subasta, Jeff Bezos \u2014por razones tanto sentimentales como pr\u00e1cticas\u2014 decidi\u00f3 competir por ella.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando la NASA acab\u00f3 concedi\u00e9ndole la licitaci\u00f3n a SpaceX, Bezos recurri\u00f3. Musk se puso furioso y declar\u00f3 que era rid\u00edculo que Blue Origin recurriera el fallo \u00abcuando no han conseguido poner en \u00f3rbita ni un mondadientes\u00bb. Ridiculiz\u00f3 los cohetes de Bezos, se\u00f1alando que lo \u00fanico que pod\u00edan hacer era dar un saltito hasta el borde del espacio y volver a caer; carec\u00edan de la mucho mayor propulsi\u00f3n que se necesitaba para librarse de la gravedad terrestre y alcanzar la \u00f3rbita. \u00abSi de la forma que sea, en el marco de los pr\u00f3ximos cinco a\u00f1os, aparecen con un veh\u00edculo cualificado que cumpla los est\u00e1ndares de la certificaci\u00f3n de calificaci\u00f3n humana de la NASA y pueda acoplarse a la Estaci\u00f3n Espacial, que es para lo que debe servir el Complejo 39, cederemos encantados espacio a sus necesidades \u2014dijo Musk\u2014. Honestamente, me parece que tenemos m\u00e1s posibilidades de descubrir un baile de unicornios en la fosa deflectora\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hab\u00eda estallado la guerra entre los barones de la ciencia ficci\u00f3n. Un empleado de SpaceX compr\u00f3 docenas de unicornios inflables y los fotografi\u00f3 en la fosa deflectora del complejo.<\/p><p>Finalmente, Bezos pudo alquilar un complejo cercano de Cabo Ca\u00f1averal, la plataforma 36, que hab\u00eda sido el origen de misiones a Marte y Venus. Por tanto, la competici\u00f3n de los infantiles millonarios estaba destinada a continuar. La transferencia a manos privadas de aquellos consagrados complejos de lanzamiento representaba, tanto simb\u00f3licamente como en la pr\u00e1ctica, la entrega de la antorcha de la exploraci\u00f3n espacial <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/marilyn-monroe-blonde-joyce-carol-oates-netflix\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">que hab\u00eda encendido John F. Kennedy<\/a><\/span> de las manos del Gobierno a las del sector privado: de las de una NASA en tiempos gloriosa y hoy escler\u00f3tica a las de una nueva raza de emprendedores y pioneros con una 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reutilizables\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Tanto Musk como Bezos ten\u00edan una visi\u00f3n de lo que har\u00eda que los viajes espaciales fueran factibles: cohetes que pudieran reutilizarse. Bezos estaba centrado en crear los sensores y el software necesarios para guiar el cohete hacia un aterrizaje suave en tierra. Pero esa era solo una parte del reto. La mayor dificultad resid\u00eda en poner todas aquellas herramientas en un cohete que siguiera siendo lo bastante ligero, y cuyos motores tuvieran la potencia suficiente, para alcanzar la \u00f3rbita. Musk estaba dedicado obsesivamente a este problema de f\u00edsica. Le gustaba considerar, medio en broma, la idea de que los terr\u00edcolas vivimos en una especie de simulaci\u00f3n creada por unos seres supremos con sentido del humor. En Marte y en la Luna decidieron que la gravedad fuera tan d\u00e9bil que poner algo en \u00f3rbita es relativamente sencillo. Pero en la Tierra, la gravedad parece perversamente calibrada para que sea casi imposible.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como si fuera un monta\u00f1ero seleccionando el contenido de su mochila para reducirlo al m\u00ednimo, Musk estaba obsesionado con reducir el peso de sus cohetes. Eso tiene un efecto multiplicador: la reducci\u00f3n de peso \u2014por la eliminaci\u00f3n de una parte, por usar un material m\u00e1s ligero o por hacer soldaduras m\u00e1s sencillas\u2014 redunda en la reducci\u00f3n del combustible que se necesita, lo que a su vez reduce la cantidad de masa que tienen que levantar los motores. Cuando recorr\u00eda las l\u00edneas de montaje de SpaceX, Musk se deten\u00eda en cada etapa, se quedaba mirando en silencio y retaba al equipo a eliminar y recortar alguna parte. En casi todas las conversaciones que manten\u00edan insist\u00eda de forma machacona en el mismo mensaje: \u00abUn cohete cien por cien reutilizable \u2014les recordaba repetidamente\u2014 es lo que determina ser una civilizaci\u00f3n uniplanetaria o multiplanetaria\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>En 2014, Musk llev\u00f3 aquel mensaje a la cena de gala anual del centenario Explorers Club de Nueva York, donde le otorgaron el Premio del Presidente. Comparti\u00f3 escenario con Bezos, que acept\u00f3 un galard\u00f3n por la labor de su equipo en la recuperaci\u00f3n del motor de la nave espacial Apolo 11. La cena inclu\u00eda una serie de platos dise\u00f1ados para seducir a aventureros con creces: escorpiones, fresas rebozadas en larvas, pene de toro agridulce, Martini con ojo de cabra y caimanes enteros fileteados al momento.\u00a0<\/p><p>Musk fue presentado mediante un v\u00eddeo que mostraba sus exitosos lanzamientos. \u00abHan sido muy amables al no mostrar nuestros tres primeros intentos \u2014dijo\u2014. Alg\u00fan d\u00eda deber\u00edamos poner las tomas falsas\u00bb. Despu\u00e9s pronunci\u00f3 su serm\u00f3n acerca de la necesidad de fabricar un cohete que fuera completamente reutilizable. \u00abEso ser\u00e1 lo que nos permita establecer la vida en Marte \u2014dijo\u2014. Nuestro pr\u00f3ximo lanzamiento ser\u00e1 un cohete que, por primera vez, tenga patas de aterrizaje\u00bb. Alg\u00fan d\u00eda, los cohetes reutilizables podr\u00edan hacer que el coste de llevar una persona a Marte se redujera hasta quinientos mil d\u00f3lares. La mayor\u00eda de la gente no har\u00e1 ese viaje, admiti\u00f3, \u00abpero creo que en esta sala hay gente que s\u00ed lo har\u00eda\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Bezos aplaudi\u00f3, pero en ese momento estaba planeando sigilosamente un ataque inesperado. Blue Origin y \u00e9l hab\u00edan presentado una patente con el t\u00edtulo de \u00abAterrizaje marino para veh\u00edculos espaciales\u00bb, que pocas semanas despu\u00e9s de la cena le fue concedida. Las diez p\u00e1ginas del informe de la solicitud describen \u00abm\u00e9todos para aterrizar y recuperar una etapa de propulsi\u00f3n y\/u otras porciones de la misma en una plataforma marina\u00bb. Musk se puso l\u00edvido de c\u00f3lera. La idea de aterrizar sobre barcos en el mar \u00abes algo de lo que lleva habl\u00e1ndose como desde hace medio siglo \u2014dijo\u2014. Aparece en las pel\u00edculas de ficci\u00f3n, aparece en m\u00faltiples propuestas, hay much\u00edsimos precedentes, es una locura. 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espacio.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ssi0hfm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/walter-isaacson-el-codigo-de-la-vida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Walter Isaacson: gen\u00e9tica, covid y el futuro de la humanidad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sandel-por-sandel-el-futuro-que-queremos-atrevete-a-pensar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sandel por Sandel: el futuro que queremos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/oppenheimer-y-su-banda-de-hijos-de-puta-el-dia-en-que-la-ciencia-devino-muerte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Oppenheimer y su banda de \u00abhijos de puta\u00bb: el d\u00eda en que la ciencia devino muerte<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/robert-oppenheimer-christopher-nolan-prometeo-americano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Oppenheimer por Nolan: manual para (no) destruir el mundo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/cuando-valerie-solanas-disparo-a-andy-warhol\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cuando Valerie Solanas dispar\u00f3 a Andy Warhol: cronolog\u00eda de un intento de 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15 minutos
Elon Musk en San Francisco, en julio de 1994. Crédito: cortesía de Maye Musk.

Elon Musk en San Francisco, en julio de 1994. Crédito: cortesía de Maye Musk.

Cuando Jeff Bezos, el enérgico milmillonario de Amazon de risa escandalosa y entusiasmo infantil, persigue sus pasiones, tiene la capacidad de mostrarse a la vez eufórico y metódico. Como Musk, en su infancia era un adicto a la ciencia ficción que se merendaba los estantes de los libros de Isaac Asimov y Robert Heinlein de su biblioteca local. En julio de 1969, con cinco años, vio la retransmisión televisiva de la misión del Apolo 11, que acabó con Neil Armstrong caminando por la superficie lunar. Dice que para él fue un «momento trascendental». Más tarde financiaría una serie de misiones para recuperar el motor del cohete Apolo 11 del océano Atlántico, y lo instaló en una urna en el salón de su casa de Washington D. C. 

Su entusiasmo por el espacio lo convirtió en uno de esos fans acérrimos de Star Trek, de la que se sabe todos y cada uno de los episodios. Al acabar el instituto como el alumno con las mejores notas, dio un discurso en el que habló de colonizar planetas, levantar hoteles espaciales y salvar nuestro mundo encontrando otros sitios donde construir las fábricas. «El espacio, la última frontera, ¡buscadme allí!», concluía. En 2000, después de convertir a Amazon en el minorista dominante en todo el mundo, Bezos lanzó discretamente una empresa llamada Blue Origin, por el planeta azul en el que han tenido su origen los humanos. Igual que Musk, estaba centrado en la idea de construir cohetes reutilizables. «¿Por qué la situación en 2000 es distinta a la de 1960? —pregunta—. Lo que es diferente son los sensores digitales, las cámaras y el software. La capacidad de aterrizar en vertical es el tipo de problema que puede resolverse con tecnologías que no existían en 1960».

Como Musk, se embarcó en sus proyectos espaciales más como un misionero que como un mercenario. Hay formas más sencillas de hacer dinero. La civilización humana, pensaba, agotará pronto los recursos de nuestro pequeño planeta. Eso nos enfrentará a una decisión: aceptar un no crecimiento o expandirnos a otros lugares más allá de la Tierra. «No creo que la estasis sea compatible con la libertad —dice—. Solo podemos resolver ese problema de una única manera: trasladándonos a otras partes del sistema solar».

Se conocieron en 2004, cuando Bezos aceptó una invitación de Musk para conocer SpaceX. Después, le sorprendió recibir un correo relativamente seco de Musk expresando su malestar porque Bezos no había correspondido invitándole a su vez a Seattle para visitar la fábrica de Blue Origin, así que Bezos lo hizo al instante. Musk acudió con Justine [por entonces su mujer], dio una vuelta por las instalaciones y después cenó con Bezos y su mujer, MacKenzie. Musk no paró de darle consejos a Bezos, que expresaba con su vehemencia habitual. Le advirtió de que estaba tomando el camino equivocado con una idea: «Tío, eso ya lo hemos intentado nosotros y resultó ser una idiotez, así que te aviso, no cometas la estupidez que cometimos nosotros». Bezos dice que recuerda haber tenido la impresión de que Musk estaba un poco demasiado seguro de sí mismo, teniendo en cuenta que aún no había conseguido lanzar ningún cohete. Al año siguiente, Musk le pidió a Bezos que Amazon hiciera una reseña del nuevo libro de Justine, un thriller urbano de terror sobre unos seres híbridos entre demonio y humano. Bezos le explicó que él no le decía a Amazon lo que tenía que reseñar, pero que publicaría personalmente un comentario como cliente. Musk le contestó de una manera brusca, pero Bezos de todos modos posteó un comentario amable.

Elon Musk en la sala de control del Falcon 1. Crédito: cortesía de Hans Koenigsmann.

Elon Musk en la sala de control del Falcon 1. Crédito: cortesía de Hans Koenigsmann.

El Complejo 39 

A partir de 2011, SpaceX consiguió una serie de contratos de la NASA para construir unos cohetes que pudieran transportar seres humanos hasta la Estación Espacial Internacional, tarea que se había vuelto crucial por la retirada del transbordador espacial. Para llevar a buen fin esa misión, necesitaba ampliar sus instalaciones del Complejo número 40 de Cabo Cañaveral, y Musk puso los ojos en el alquiler de las instalaciones de lanzamiento con más historia que allí había, el Complejo 39. 

La plataforma 39 había sido el principal escenario de los sueños de la era espacial estadounidense, grabada a fuego en la memoria de una generación televisiva que contenía colectivamente el aliento cuando la cuenta atrás llegaba a «Diez, nueve, ocho…». La misión lunar de Neil Armstrong que Jeff Bezos vio de niño había despegado de la plataforma 39 en 1969, igual que la última misión tripulada a la Luna, en 1972. También despegaron de allí la primera misión del transbordador espacial, en 1981, y la última, en 2011. 

Pero en 2013, con el programa del transbordador espacial congelado y finalizadas las aspiraciones espaciales de Estados Unidos entre sollozos, el complejo de lanzamiento 39 se fue llenando de herrumbre y en la fosa deflectora crecían las enredaderas. La NASA estaba deseando alquilarlo. El cliente más evidente era Musk, cuyos cohetes Falcon 9 ya habían despegado en misiones de carga desde el cercano Complejo 40, el que visitó Obama, pero cuando la licitación salió a subasta, Jeff Bezos —por razones tanto sentimentales como prácticas— decidió competir por ella. 

Cuando la NASA acabó concediéndole la licitación a SpaceX, Bezos recurrió. Musk se puso furioso y declaró que era ridículo que Blue Origin recurriera el fallo «cuando no han conseguido poner en órbita ni un mondadientes». Ridiculizó los cohetes de Bezos, señalando que lo único que podían hacer era dar un saltito hasta el borde del espacio y volver a caer; carecían de la mucho mayor propulsión que se necesitaba para librarse de la gravedad terrestre y alcanzar la órbita. «Si de la forma que sea, en el marco de los próximos cinco años, aparecen con un vehículo cualificado que cumpla los estándares de la certificación de calificación humana de la NASA y pueda acoplarse a la Estación Espacial, que es para lo que debe servir el Complejo 39, cederemos encantados espacio a sus necesidades —dijo Musk—. Honestamente, me parece que tenemos más posibilidades de descubrir un baile de unicornios en la fosa deflectora». 

Había estallado la guerra entre los barones de la ciencia ficción. Un empleado de SpaceX compró docenas de unicornios inflables y los fotografió en la fosa deflectora del complejo.

Finalmente, Bezos pudo alquilar un complejo cercano de Cabo Cañaveral, la plataforma 36, que había sido el origen de misiones a Marte y Venus. Por tanto, la competición de los infantiles millonarios estaba destinada a continuar. La transferencia a manos privadas de aquellos consagrados complejos de lanzamiento representaba, tanto simbólicamente como en la práctica, la entrega de la antorcha de la exploración espacial que había encendido John F. Kennedy de las manos del Gobierno a las del sector privado: de las de una NASA en tiempos gloriosa y hoy esclerótica a las de una nueva raza de emprendedores y pioneros con una misión.

Elon Musk en una imagen de archivo. Crédito: cortesía de Maye Musk.

Elon Musk en una imagen de archivo. Crédito: cortesía de Maye Musk.

Cohetes reutilizables 

Tanto Musk como Bezos tenían una visión de lo que haría que los viajes espaciales fueran factibles: cohetes que pudieran reutilizarse. Bezos estaba centrado en crear los sensores y el software necesarios para guiar el cohete hacia un aterrizaje suave en tierra. Pero esa era solo una parte del reto. La mayor dificultad residía en poner todas aquellas herramientas en un cohete que siguiera siendo lo bastante ligero, y cuyos motores tuvieran la potencia suficiente, para alcanzar la órbita. Musk estaba dedicado obsesivamente a este problema de física. Le gustaba considerar, medio en broma, la idea de que los terrícolas vivimos en una especie de simulación creada por unos seres supremos con sentido del humor. En Marte y en la Luna decidieron que la gravedad fuera tan débil que poner algo en órbita es relativamente sencillo. Pero en la Tierra, la gravedad parece perversamente calibrada para que sea casi imposible. 

Como si fuera un montañero seleccionando el contenido de su mochila para reducirlo al mínimo, Musk estaba obsesionado con reducir el peso de sus cohetes. Eso tiene un efecto multiplicador: la reducción de peso —por la eliminación de una parte, por usar un material más ligero o por hacer soldaduras más sencillas— redunda en la reducción del combustible que se necesita, lo que a su vez reduce la cantidad de masa que tienen que levantar los motores. Cuando recorría las líneas de montaje de SpaceX, Musk se detenía en cada etapa, se quedaba mirando en silencio y retaba al equipo a eliminar y recortar alguna parte. En casi todas las conversaciones que mantenían insistía de forma machacona en el mismo mensaje: «Un cohete cien por cien reutilizable —les recordaba repetidamente— es lo que determina ser una civilización uniplanetaria o multiplanetaria». 

En 2014, Musk llevó aquel mensaje a la cena de gala anual del centenario Explorers Club de Nueva York, donde le otorgaron el Premio del Presidente. Compartió escenario con Bezos, que aceptó un galardón por la labor de su equipo en la recuperación del motor de la nave espacial Apolo 11. La cena incluía una serie de platos diseñados para seducir a aventureros con creces: escorpiones, fresas rebozadas en larvas, pene de toro agridulce, Martini con ojo de cabra y caimanes enteros fileteados al momento. 

Musk fue presentado mediante un vídeo que mostraba sus exitosos lanzamientos. «Han sido muy amables al no mostrar nuestros tres primeros intentos —dijo—. Algún día deberíamos poner las tomas falsas». Después pronunció su sermón acerca de la necesidad de fabricar un cohete que fuera completamente reutilizable. «Eso será lo que nos permita establecer la vida en Marte —dijo—. Nuestro próximo lanzamiento será un cohete que, por primera vez, tenga patas de aterrizaje». Algún día, los cohetes reutilizables podrían hacer que el coste de llevar una persona a Marte se redujera hasta quinientos mil dólares. La mayoría de la gente no hará ese viaje, admitió, «pero creo que en esta sala hay gente que sí lo haría». 

Bezos aplaudió, pero en ese momento estaba planeando sigilosamente un ataque inesperado. Blue Origin y él habían presentado una patente con el título de «Aterrizaje marino para vehículos espaciales», que pocas semanas después de la cena le fue concedida. Las diez páginas del informe de la solicitud describen «métodos para aterrizar y recuperar una etapa de propulsión y/u otras porciones de la misma en una plataforma marina». Musk se puso lívido de cólera. La idea de aterrizar sobre barcos en el mar «es algo de lo que lleva hablándose como desde hace medio siglo —dijo—. Aparece en las películas de ficción, aparece en múltiples propuestas, hay muchísimos precedentes, es una locura. Desear patentar algo de lo que la gente lleva hablando cincuenta años es obviamente ridículo». 

El año siguiente, después de que SpaceX presentara una demanda, Bezos accedió a cancelar la patente, pero la disputa intensificó la rivalidad entre los dos empresarios del espacio.

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