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E.M. Cioran por Luna Miguel: un pesimismo alucinado

«¿Con qué cuerpo hay que leer a un escritor insomne? ¿Se puede gozar de su literatura desde la comodidad de un lecho? ¿Hay que apresar su sufrimiento? ¿Debemos devorar a Cioran hasta la somatización de su malestar? No lo sé. Lo único que tengo claro, porque mi cuerpo así lo ha sufrido, es que para poder escribir líneas han sido necesarias las fatigosísimas caminatas nocturnas por algunas orinosas calles de una gran ciudad del Mediterráneo (...)». Con estas palabras apura Luna Miguel el prólogo que firma en la reciente edición de «La tentación de existir» (colección Clásicos Radicales de Taurus), un libro clave en la obra de E.M. Cioran, una colección de ensayos con los que este autor de culto se enfrentó con lucidez a la soledad, la locura y la muerte: aunque a simple vista parece un hombre severo, hastiado y encerrado en su nihilismo, su energía y sus contradicciones resultan profundas, poderosas y muy estimulantes. En esta fabulosa introducción, Luna Miguel nos enseña todas las caras del apátrida que marcó el pensamiento filosófico del siglo XX.

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Con estas palabras apura Luna Miguel el pr\u00f3logo que firma en la reciente edici\u00f3n de \u00abLa tentaci\u00f3n de existir\u00bb (colecci\u00f3n Cl\u00e1sicos Radicales de Taurus), un libro clave en la obra de E.M. Cioran, una colecci\u00f3n de ensayos con los que este autor de culto se enfrent\u00f3 con lucidez a la soledad, la locura y la muerte: aunque a simple vista parece un hombre severo, hastiado y encerrado en su nihilismo, su energ\u00eda y sus contradicciones resultan profundas, poderosas y muy estimulantes. 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Cioran circa 1950. 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Cioran circa 1950. 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trata de un ejercicio que requiere de una inmensa paciencia. Me refiero al de emular el pulso y el nervio propios de un insomne. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/borges-y-bioy-casares-alias\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span> lo consigui\u00f3 con un poema: \u00abEl universo de esta noche tiene la vastedad \/ del olvido y la precisi\u00f3n de la fiebre\u00bb. Se refer\u00eda a ese trastorno del sue\u00f1o que algunas veces llevaba a los integrantes de su doliente secta a la cima de la desesperaci\u00f3n, y otras a una llanura l\u00facida, propicia para la conversaci\u00f3n con uno mismo, es decir, para la infinita elucubraci\u00f3n de teor\u00edas, de im\u00e1genes y de ideas. Una precisi\u00f3n febril, s\u00ed. Una vastedad tan incalculable como la de los recuerdos de los muertos.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>En las primeras p\u00e1ginas de un ensayo dedicado al \u00abmal dormir\u00bb, el historiador David Jim\u00e9nez Torres propone una descripci\u00f3n diferente para la sucesi\u00f3n de palabras acumuladas en el cerebro de un insomne:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8x4awhu\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>la floraci\u00f3n de pensamientos y recuerdos parece suceder porque s\u00ed. Las palabras e im\u00e1genes van apareciendo como fuegos artificiales que surgen de un mismo sitio pero que, al final, siguen trayectorias independientes. Un pensamiento asciende, estalla y se desvanece; luego le toca al siguiente, luego al siguiente, y as\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"30\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"722bo8e\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Parece como si las ideas de quien no duerme tuvieran su propio camino. Uno ajeno al del cuerpo que las medita. Parece como si en la imaginaci\u00f3n de los insomnes el torrente de pensamientos tuviera la textura de una arena movediza. O de una alucinaci\u00f3n. Y las ideas no cuesta apresarlas porque sean particularmente veloces y esquivas sino m\u00e1s bien porque sus densidades son robustas. Como peces fofos y lentos de un estanque japon\u00e9s. La madera de la ca\u00f1a cede: comienza a astillarse. La seda, \u00bfaguantar\u00e1? La idea naciente, \u00bfnos hundir\u00e1 con ella?<\/p><p>\u00a0*\u00a0<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/la-muerte-de-pizarnik\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abNo quiero ir nada m\u00e1s que hasta el fondo\u00bb, escribi\u00f3 Alejandra Pizarnik<\/a><\/span> sobre la pizarra que decoraba su zulo, la noche insomne que precedi\u00f3 a su hundimiento suicida. Vasta vastedad. Como si los versos tambi\u00e9n marcaran su propio camino, ajenos, aunque hermanados, a los planes y a los designios del organismo en el que fueron forjados. Qu\u00e9 cansancio. Cu\u00e1nto dolor. \u00bfO acaso es posible prever de qu\u00e9 manera influir\u00e1 el sue\u00f1o \u2014en este caso, su ausencia\u2014 en la capacidad de quienes escriben? Que el sue\u00f1o, junto al deseo y junto a la muerte, es el tema predilecto de poetas y fil\u00f3sofos ya lo sabemos. Lo que a veces nos falta es el por qu\u00e9. De acuerdo con Delmore Schwartz es en los sue\u00f1os donde comienzan las responsabilidades del ser humano. Ya sea por el exceso o por la falta de los mismos, su esencia no es s\u00f3lo tem\u00e1tica, sino an\u00edmica, est\u00e9tica, formal.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"80906o8\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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lo largo de su vida, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6159-em-cioran\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Emil Cioran<\/a><\/span> ensay\u00f3 muchas respuestas a todas las preguntas que el insomnio nos ha procurado. Para \u00e9l, \u00abla manera de hacer de un escritor est\u00e1 condicionada fisiol\u00f3gicamente; posee un ritmo propio, constrictivo e irreductible\u00bb. Ser\u00e1 que Cioran conoc\u00eda bien a las poetas de la desesperaci\u00f3n. Muy al comienzo de sus cuadernos \u00edntimos de finales de la d\u00e9cada de los cincuenta, confes\u00f3 que desde hac\u00eda meses viv\u00eda todos sus momentos de angustia en compa\u00f1\u00eda de Emily Dickinson. La poeta de Amherst hab\u00eda versificado en m\u00e1s de una ocasi\u00f3n a prop\u00f3sito de \u00ablos enemigos del dormir\u00bb. Algunos a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Alejandra-Pizarnik-Cristina-Pina-Patricia-Venti-Luna-Miguel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">al saber de la poes\u00eda y del historial cl\u00ednico de Alejandra Pizarnik<\/a><\/span> a trav\u00e9s de un intercambio epistolar con Alina Diacon\u00fa, Cioran escribi\u00f3 lo siguiente: \u00abCu\u00e1ntas veces me habr\u00e9 cruzado con esa desconocida que arrastraba una desesperaci\u00f3n que yo comprendo bien\u00bb. Resulta que Emil Cioran y la poeta argentina compartieron barrio parisino durante un tiempo. Y tambi\u00e9n resulta que no hay texto cr\u00edtico, conferencia o documental a prop\u00f3sito del pensador franco-rumano en el que no se destaquen sus largos paseos hasta el alba. \u00bfSe cruzar\u00edan, alguna vez, esas dos almas desesperadas? Regodearse en esa casualidad tambi\u00e9n responde a la alucinaci\u00f3n. La escena est\u00e1 bien clara: el sonido de las suelas de los zapatos de Emil Cioran contra el asfalto de Par\u00eds, o antes el de M\u00fanich, o antes el de Bucarest, o primeramente el del suelo empedrado de Sibiu; ciudades que pate\u00f3 por no tener d\u00f3nde caer desfallecido; calles oscuras en las que, de tanto pensar con la precisi\u00f3n de la fiebre y la aleatoriedad de los fuegos artificiales, deambul\u00f3 y se hundi\u00f3 hasta convertirse en lo que m\u00e1s tem\u00eda: un escritor condenado al ritmo de su 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robot de un enemigo del dormir: la pregunta por la eternidad; la obsesi\u00f3n por la palabra exacta; el pulimiento del estilo; el no saber qu\u00e9 es noche y qu\u00e9 es d\u00eda; el hablar con uno mismo como \u00fanico sistema; la t\u00e9cnica de la infinitud; el leve gusto por el sufrimiento; el recrearse en la inmortalidad; el desear, sin embargo, la muerte; el regocijo de saberse solo, de no necesitar a nadie, de no necesitarse ni siquiera a uno mismo; la paciencia; la entereza; la autocienciaficci\u00f3n; el juego de tentarse a existir.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>Y entonces, \u00bfcon qu\u00e9 postura hay que leer a un escritor insomne? \u00bfSe puede gozar de su literatura desde la comodidad de una cama o con el dulce vaiv\u00e9n de una siestecilla? \u00bfHay que solidarizarse con su sufrimiento? \u00bfDebemos devorar su ideario hasta la somatizaci\u00f3n de su disgusto? Somatizar: transformar problemas ps\u00edquicos en s\u00edntomas org\u00e1nicos de manera involuntaria, de acuerdo con la Real Academia de la Lengua. No es descabellado asumirlo as\u00ed. Si entendemos la literatura y la filosof\u00eda como dos problemas ps\u00edquicos, que venga entonces a chocarse su esencia contra nuestra fisiolog\u00eda. Que la destroce. Que nos atraviese como un dios er\u00f3tico. As\u00ed es. Famoso y enrevesado es el aforismo de Jacques Lacan, para quien amar es dar lo que no se tiene a quien no es, y de la misma manera podr\u00edamos decir que para Emil Cioran escribir es dar lo que no se tiene \u2014pues imaginar es mentir, esto es, generar im\u00e1genes desde la nada\u2014 a quien no lo necesita \u2014porque el lector ideal no existe, y el texto, corrigiendo la f\u00f3rmula c\u00e9lebre de Wolfgang Iser, s\u00f3lo es un generador de afectos\u2014. 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es que Emil Cioran odiaba los fanatismos literarios \u2014s\u00f3lo hay que acercarse a sus lamentos ante el devenir medi\u00e1tico de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/454-albert-camus\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Albert Camus<\/a><\/span>, o de Jean-Paul Sartre, o hasta de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/400-jorge-luis-borges\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span>, a quien dese\u00f3 \u00absoledad\u00bb, pues el exceso de atenci\u00f3n destruir\u00eda a los genios\u2014. As\u00ed que para ser consecuentes con su lucha, deber\u00edamos odiarlo a \u00e9l. Pero es que tambi\u00e9n ocurre que Emil Cioran detestaba la obediencia, la consecuencia, la adulaci\u00f3n. Lo cual, ir\u00f3nicamente, nos devolver\u00eda el derecho a decir que lo amamos, que queremos contagiarnos de sus alucinaciones, que por \u00e9l nos someter\u00edamos a la secta del insomnio sin dudarlo, con tal de seguir degustando sus impresiones sobre el valor de la vida, sobre los sinsabores de la pol\u00edtica europea o sobre la negaci\u00f3n de la fama. \u00c9l, que sab\u00eda tanto de lo eterno, porque lo experimentaba en sus carnes cada noche de vigilia, estaba convencido de que todo escritor debe negarse a la celebridad. Quiz\u00e1 por eso el erudito Jos\u00e9 Mar\u00eda Bellido Morillas dice en sus clases de YouTube que leer a Cioran es toparse con un cl\u00e1sico, ya que en su escritura, a pesar de las alusiones a problem\u00e1ticas culturales o pol\u00edticas que le fueron coet\u00e1neas, no cabe el mundo moderno. \u00bfY qu\u00e9 hay m\u00e1s moderno, m\u00e1s actual, m\u00e1s contempor\u00e1neo que lo que contra todo pron\u00f3stico resiste al tiempo? \u00a1Otra vez la iron\u00eda! Lo de las contradicciones de Emil Cioran ya es pura sorna.\u00a0<\/p><p>*<\/p><p>Busquemos otra palabra en el diccionario: tentaci\u00f3n. Instigaci\u00f3n o est\u00edmulo que induce el deseo de algo. O, lo que es m\u00e1s divertido, solicitaci\u00f3n al pecado inducida por el demonio. Debe de haber algo demon\u00edaco en la falta de sue\u00f1o. Como una invitaci\u00f3n a mirar la vida desde otra vida. \u00bfCu\u00e1ntas vidas tiene el que no duerme? \u00bfCu\u00e1nto tiempo vive? \u00bfAcaso sus a\u00f1os se multiplican? Ser\u00e1 por eso que Emil Cioran alcanz\u00f3 tan pronto las cualidades propias de un cl\u00e1sico can\u00f3nico, por haber vivido doblemente. Por haber multiplicado su tiempo de pensar.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>Quien ha vivido mucho sabe que todo es c\u00edclico: el tiempo es estanco, lento, s\u00f3lido, pero vuelve, y se retuerce, y es por eso que se escapa. Emil Cioran tambi\u00e9n escribi\u00f3 sobre esta cuesti\u00f3n. Buena parte de sus elucubraciones las copi\u00f3 de sus referentes, o m\u00e1s bien las retorci\u00f3, las dej\u00f3 escapar, las volvi\u00f3 a pescar, oprimi\u00f3 los peces densos del estanque con sus manos. Una tentaci\u00f3n que aprendi\u00f3 del \u00abingenuo\u00bb <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4763-friedrich-nietzsche\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Friedrich Nietzsche<\/a><\/span>: la de que nosotros amamos la vida no porque estemos acostumbrados a vivir, sino porque estamos habituados a amar. Una tentaci\u00f3n que aprendi\u00f3 de su adorada <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/969-emily-dickinson\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Emily Dickinson<\/a><\/span>: que la vida es un funeral perpetuo del esp\u00edritu. Otra tentaci\u00f3n que aprendi\u00f3 de su papa\u00edto Arthur Schopenhauer: que mientras la historia muestra que en cada momento suceden cosas distintas, \u00abla filosof\u00eda se esfuerza por hacernos entender que en todo tiempo fue, es y ser\u00e1 lo mismo\u00bb. Antes de continuar tirando de este hilo de pensamiento, habr\u00eda que advertir que s\u00f3lo a alguien que haya vivido tantas vidas como Cioran se le ocurrir\u00eda equiparar la tentaci\u00f3n de los fil\u00f3sofos con la tentaci\u00f3n de la poetas. 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s\u00ed. Retomando el hilo del tiempo. En 1963 se public\u00f3 una de las novelas consideradas como fundacionales del mal llamado realismo m\u00e1gico. Se trata de <em>Los recuerdos del porvenir<\/em>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">de Elena Garro<\/a><\/span>. El libro est\u00e1 situado en una comarca inventada por ella, la de Ixtepec, y los personajes que la pueblan ponen cuerpo a algunas historias reales sobre las guerras cristeras de los a\u00f1os veinte en M\u00e9xico. Lo que algunos consideran m\u00e1gico en esta fabulaci\u00f3n es que su narrador es el propio pueblo. Es la tierra la que habla. Son la comarca y el espacio los que, con una voz masculina, analizan con miles de ojos y de bocas lo que sintieron ayer y hoy los habitantes de Ixtepec. En ese original ejercicio de narraci\u00f3n, Garro escribe lo siguiente sobre su idea del paso del tiempo cuando quien lo contempla es un \u00bfser? tan vasto y pausado, tan ajeno a las horas humanas del sue\u00f1o como lo es la tierra:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"guq9ysv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En esos d\u00edas era yo tan desdichado que mis horas se acumulaban informes y mi memoria se hab\u00eda convertido en sensaciones. La desdicha como el dolor f\u00edsico iguala los minutos. Los d\u00edas se convierten en el mismo d\u00eda, los actos en el mismo acto y las personas en un solo personaje in\u00fatil. El mundo pierde su variedad, la luz se aniquila y los milagros quedan abolidos. La inercia de esos d\u00edas repetidos me guardaba quieto, contemplando la fuga in\u00fatil de mis horas y esperando el milagro que se obstinaba en no producirse. El porvenir era la repetici\u00f3n del pasado. Inm\u00f3vil, me dejaba devorar por la sed que ro\u00eda mis esquinas. Para romper los d\u00edas petrificados s\u00f3lo me quedaba el espejismo ineficaz de la violencia, y la crueldad se ejerc\u00eda con furor sobre las mujeres, los perros callejeros y los indios. Como en las tragedias, viv\u00edamos dentro de un tiempo quieto y los personajes sucumb\u00edan presos en ese instante detenido. Era en vano que hicieran gestos cada vez m\u00e1s sangrientos. Hab\u00edamos abolido al tiempo.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"30\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"f2ae985\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>M\u00e1s que una realidad m\u00e1gica, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/revista-lengua\/podcast\/revista-lengua-podcast-el-gato-un-cuento-inedito-de-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">lo que Elena Garro nos cuenta<\/a><\/span> es un letargo alucinado. La magia, como los dioses m\u00e1s populares, viene siempre de fuera, es un tercero incontrolable. La alucinaci\u00f3n, sin embargo, viene de dentro. La expulsa nuestro organismo. Convive con nuestras c\u00e9lulas. Entonces, si lo que escrib\u00eda Garro era algo m\u00e1s parecido a un realismo alucinado \u2014hemos de estar atentas a su visceralidad, a su respeto hacia las creencias ajenas\u2014, podr\u00edamos afirmar tambi\u00e9n que lo que practic\u00f3 Emil Cioran fue un pesimismo alucinado, y no olvidarnos as\u00ed de su fisicidad, ni de su latir, ni tampoco de su entrega carnal a los designios del pensamiento fatalista.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>L\u00f3gico. Es l\u00f3gico que los enemigos del sue\u00f1o, los abanderados del mal dormir, los condenados a la vasta vastedad de la vida c\u00edclica se obsesionen con la escritura. \u00a1La vida es absurda! \u00a1Entregu\u00e9monos a la narraci\u00f3n \u00edntima de la misma! \u00a1Hagamos eternos nuestros pensamientos a trav\u00e9s de la poes\u00eda! O dej\u00e9monos de tonter\u00edas. Emil Cioran tonte\u00f3 en demasiadas ocasiones con el ideal deformado de ser poeta, pero luego prefiri\u00f3 atrapar el tiempo a trav\u00e9s de una escritura ordenada y directa. Su estilo atrae desde esa falsa sensaci\u00f3n de oscuridad, pero sobre todo por la certera sensaci\u00f3n de lucidez. El profesor Carlos Javier Gonz\u00e1lez Serrano ha advertido infinidad de veces sobre las cualidades que nos enganchan y nos excitan de la prosa de Cioran. La principal: su extravagante optimismo. \u00c9l no era un pesimista al uso, dice Gonz\u00e1lez Serrano, porque, muy en el fondo de sus tentaciones aprendidas, super\u00f3 la idea del mundo malo, ara\u00f1\u00f3 las costras del infierno en vida y \u00abnormaliz\u00f3 el abismo\u00bb, sin hero\u00edsmos ni enso\u00f1aciones, sino simplemente desde una pulcra 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compatriota:\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0t95ol0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Desde su postura de autoridad sobre la muerte [\u2026] le resultaba muy dif\u00edcil ver c\u00f3mo se iban viniendo abajo las rutinas del cuerpo y hacer que las vieran los dem\u00e1s. Agrandaba a trav\u00e9s de las palabras lo que uno habr\u00eda preferido asumir sin m\u00e1s. \u00c9l lo se\u00f1alaba sin quejarse. Antes de pasar a cualquier otro tema de conversaci\u00f3n, ten\u00edas que haberte enterado bien de que estabas ante un hombre cuyas piernas se arrastraban en lugar de moverse bien, cuyas manos derramaban el l\u00edquido en lugar de verterlo en la copa, cuya boca dejaba caer pedazos de comida en lugar de tragarlos. Cioran insist\u00eda en ello, porque buscaba que se mirase con cierta delicadeza de la \u00fanica forma en que la delicadeza es leg\u00edtima: cuando se aborda de frente aquello que requiere ser tratado con delicadeza.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"30\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6mh6zik\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>M\u00fcller recuerda as\u00ed su primer encuentro con el pensador, y desde el comienzo resalta c\u00f3mo en su caso lo m\u00e1s honesto era retratar el mundo tal cual \u2014sin olvidar sus incalculables bondades\u2014, el cuerpo humano decr\u00e9pito tal cual \u2014puesto que la eternidad ser\u00eda inviable sin el parpadeo del esp\u00edritu\u2014, el arrepentimiento tal cual \u2014ya que una de las grandes virtudes de Cioran, seg\u00fan M\u00fcller, vendr\u00eda de haber corregido su fanatismo nacionalista, fascismo incipiente, errores de una juventud convulsa en la Ruman\u00eda natal\u2014. Sin embargo, y a pesar de que \u00e9l se consideraba ap\u00e1trida, para <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/572-herta-muller\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Herta M\u00fcller<\/a><\/span> hay algo de sus or\u00edgenes a lo que nunca pudo escapar. Cioran era hijo de un sacerdote rumano, esto es, hijo de un hombre cuyo trabajo era acompa\u00f1ar a la p\u00e9rdida y a la muerte. Todo se repite. El tiempo est\u00e1 abolido. Vasta vastedad la de las vidas que acaban. Emil Cioran, perdonado por Dios \u00abpor ser rumano\u00bb, no escap\u00f3 sin embargo a los oficios de su sangre. Incluso si estamos de acuerdo con la idea de Gonz\u00e1lez serrano sobre su \u00abextravagante optimismo\u00bb, hay quien todav\u00eda lo llama \u00abel fil\u00f3sofo de la muerte\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>Hay otro epitafio m\u00edtico para despedir al no-poeta. Al no-durmiente. Al no-fil\u00f3sofo de la muerte. Se trata del que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/diario\/1995\/06\/21\/cultura\/803685610_850215.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">en 1995 public\u00f3 Fernando Savater en <em>El Pa\u00eds<\/em><\/a><\/span>, y que Simone Bou\u00e9, la compa\u00f1era de vida de Emil Cioran, cit\u00f3 en el pr\u00f3logo a los cuadernos \u00edntimos que ella misma recogi\u00f3, mecanografi\u00f3 y amorosamente edit\u00f3 tras la muerte de su querido: \u00abAdonde ahora vas tienes que bajar solo\u00bb. Si la advertencia de Savater es bella es porque adem\u00e1s es redundante. Bajar a la muerte en soledad, si nos ponemos a imaginar ese acto como si fu\u00e9semos nosotros mismos pesimistas o realistas de la alucinaci\u00f3n, no deber\u00eda ser tan distinto de aquellos m\u00edticos paseos en los que los zapatos de Cioran se arrastraban por la nocturnidad, sosteniendo en las venas de las sienes tal acumulaci\u00f3n de ideas. Es f\u00e1cil ver la sombra de Emil Cioran caminando escaleras abajo. Es f\u00e1cil admirar su silueta de cabellos blancos y despeinados, paso a paso, desdobl\u00e1ndose en una conversaci\u00f3n infinita como las que asaltaban a Maurice Blanchot. Para el intelectual franc\u00e9s, el pensamiento m\u00e1s puro s\u00f3lo pod\u00eda generarse en ese convertirse en otro maldito yo, en esa fragmentaci\u00f3n y en esa duplicidad del conversar con uno mismo. Alg\u00fan d\u00eda nosotros tambi\u00e9n dejaremos este mundo, pero en las calles de Par\u00eds el espectro de Emil Cioran seguir\u00e1 paseando hacia un \u00ababajo\u00bb infinito. La alucinaci\u00f3n de \u00e9l hablando consigo mismo. Su destino ha quedado escrito: rebosa tentaci\u00f3n de existir.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>Somos v\u00edctimas del sentido de la vida. Lo escribi\u00f3 Emil Cioran en el que tal vez sea su libro m\u00e1s le\u00eddo hoy, a pesar de que los meses siguientes a su publicaci\u00f3n original, en 1952, no vendiera ni doscientos m\u00edseros ejemplares, Silogismos de amargura. Sabiendo de la pasi\u00f3n de Cioran hacia el silencio y de su rechazo a la fama, este dato no es triste, sino m\u00e1s bien magn\u00edfico. En <em>Silogismos de amargura<\/em>, Cioran escupi\u00f3 aforismos, formas muy breves con las que debati\u00f3 sobre los que empezaban a ser sus temas fundamentales: el suicidio, la religi\u00f3n, la literatura. Fue cuatro a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde cuando public\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/filosofia\/322680-libro-la-tentacion-de-existir-9788430626205\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La tentaci\u00f3n de existir<\/a><\/em><\/span>, el tercero de sus libros escritos directamente en franc\u00e9s, y el que supuso la consagraci\u00f3n de las grandes l\u00edneas de pensamiento del autor. Recuperando un formato de largos p\u00e1rrafos como el de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/filosofia\/28581-ebook-breviario-de-podredumbre-9788430617012\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Breviario de podredumbre<\/a><\/em><\/span>, pero con la precisi\u00f3n y la autenticidad desarrolladas con sus silogismos, <em>La tentaci\u00f3n de existir<\/em> es el libro que despliega todas las preocupaciones pasadas y futuras de la obra entera de Cioran. El libro que forja su estilo y el que da rienda suelta a su pesimismo alucinado. Aqu\u00ed defiende su exilio como virtud para la libertad de la creaci\u00f3n y del pensamiento. Aunque de Ruman\u00eda ya le hab\u00eda separado la lengua, ahora aboga por una lejan\u00eda total de los or\u00edgenes, como si la vida s\u00f3lo pudiera forjarse tras la expulsi\u00f3n de un para\u00edso. Aqu\u00ed demuestra tambi\u00e9n sus conocimientos de la tradici\u00f3n filos\u00f3fica, materia con la que muchas veces dijo no tener nada que ver. Su repaso al pensamiento espa\u00f1ol y ruso es una muestra de su humor y de su cabroner\u00eda, pero tambi\u00e9n de su necesidad de separar la literatura y la filosof\u00eda de las pol\u00edticas nacionales m\u00e1s est\u00e9riles. Aqu\u00ed se nos habla de la muerte. Y si para Albert Camus el \u00fanico tema esencial de la filosof\u00eda era el suicidio, podr\u00edamos asegurar que para Cioran tal afirmaci\u00f3n no deja de ser una vulgaridad. En una de las escasas entrevistas en v\u00eddeo que nos quedan de \u00e9l, lo expres\u00f3 con claridad: si tuvo una vida larga fue precisamente porque la opci\u00f3n del suicidio siempre estuvo de fondo. El verdadero tema de la literatura, tal vez, ser\u00eda el de qu\u00e9 hacer con la vasta vastedad de tiempo que nos queda hasta el final de nuestros d\u00edas. Por eso aqu\u00ed, en <em>La tentaci\u00f3n de existir<\/em>, se nos demuestra que tal vez nacer no es del todo un inconveniente. Gracias a haber nacido podemos escribir. Aqu\u00ed se nos habla de la escritura, porque si de verdad hay algo que importa en este libro es el trabajo literario. Tanto la vida como la muerte pueden sobrellevarse gracias a la imaginaci\u00f3n. A esa que nace de las conversaciones infinitas. A esa que viene de la contemplaci\u00f3n del buen mundo. En el cap\u00edtulo \u00abEl estilo como aventura\u00bb podemos intuir todo lo que le importaba a Emil Cioran sobre la literatura. En esas p\u00e1ginas desgrana el canon occidental, y adem\u00e1s establece las normas que aquellos que decidamos leerle deber\u00edamos seguir, o m\u00e1s bien conocer, o simplemente apreciar para poder gozar del tiempo detenido de sus l\u00edneas. Al final de dicho cap\u00edtulo, argumenta: \u00absi hay una relaci\u00f3n entre el ritmo fisiol\u00f3gico y la manera de escribir de un escritor, con mayor raz\u00f3n la hay entre su universo temporal y su estilo\u00bb, y con esa frase el pesimista alucinado da amplitud a eso que Walt Whitman cant\u00f3 mucho antes: \u00abEsto no es un libro. Quien lo toca est\u00e1 tocando a un hombre\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>*\u00a0<\/p><p>Y entonces, una vez m\u00e1s, \u00bfcon qu\u00e9 cuerpo hay que leer a un escritor insomne? \u00bfSe puede gozar de su literatura desde la comodidad de un lecho? \u00bfHay que apresar su sufrimiento? \u00bfDebemos devorar a Cioran hasta la somatizaci\u00f3n de su malestar? No lo s\u00e9. Lo \u00fanico que tengo claro, porque mi cuerpo as\u00ed lo ha sufrido, es que para poder escribir estas l\u00edneas han sido necesarias las fatigos\u00edsimas caminatas nocturnas por algunas orinosas calles de una gran ciudad del Mediterr\u00e1neo, con una imposici\u00f3n muy clara instalada en el fondo de la mente: la de salir a las dos de la madrugada cada una de las noches previas a los d\u00edas previstos para la relectura y la investigaci\u00f3n alrededor de <em>La tentaci\u00f3n de existir<\/em>, y no regresar a casa hasta pr\u00e1cticamente el amanecer. Era lo m\u00e1s justo. Era la \u00fanica manera de acercarse a un libro como este. El trabajo del no-sue\u00f1o para leer a Cioran no es aqu\u00ed un capricho para fingir el estilo bello de su prologuista, sino m\u00e1s bien una consecuencia l\u00f3gica ante el aprendizaje del cioranismo. Era una obligaci\u00f3n. Era un reto. Era un ejercicio que requer\u00eda de una inmensa paciencia. Por eso invito a quien quiera leer hoy este libro a que aparque el sue\u00f1o. Que se deje llevar. Las ojeras no importan mucho en comparaci\u00f3n con el gozo de la vigilia autoimpuesta. Cansancio. Fuegos artificiales. Fiebre. Tentada a existir m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del sue\u00f1o. Una vasta vastedad. \u00bfAplaudimos a quien se atreva?\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8qqqonm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/joan-didion-california\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">California seg\u00fan Joan Didion: el lado oscuro del sue\u00f1o americano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sergio-ramirez-la-lengua-que-es-mi-patria\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La lengua, que es mi patria<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Alejandra-Pizarnik-Cristina-Pina-Patricia-Venti-Luna-Miguel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEl castellano no es lo mismo despu\u00e9s de la poes\u00eda de Pizarnik\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/la-muerte-de-pizarnik\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La muerte de Pizarnik por la propia Pizarnik: \u00abEscribir es darle sentido al sufrimiento\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/borges-y-bioy-casares-alias\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Borges y Bioy Casares: la bestia equil\u00e1tera<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/alejandra-pizarnik-ana-mushell-luna-miguel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pizarnik por Ana M\u00fcshell y Luna Miguel: \u00abAlejandra, escucha: te quieren\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hp3yrm5\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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20 minutos
E.M. Cioran circa 1950. Crédito: Getty Images.

E.M. Cioran circa 1950. Crédito: Getty Images.

Se trata de un ejercicio que requiere de una inmensa paciencia. Me refiero al de emular el pulso y el nervio propios de un insomne. Jorge Luis Borges lo consiguió con un poema: «El universo de esta noche tiene la vastedad / del olvido y la precisión de la fiebre». Se refería a ese trastorno del sueño que algunas veces llevaba a los integrantes de su doliente secta a la cima de la desesperación, y otras a una llanura lúcida, propicia para la conversación con uno mismo, es decir, para la infinita elucubración de teorías, de imágenes y de ideas. Una precisión febril, sí. Una vastedad tan incalculable como la de los recuerdos de los muertos. 

En las primeras páginas de un ensayo dedicado al «mal dormir», el historiador David Jiménez Torres propone una descripción diferente para la sucesión de palabras acumuladas en el cerebro de un insomne:

la floración de pensamientos y recuerdos parece suceder porque sí. Las palabras e imágenes van apareciendo como fuegos artificiales que surgen de un mismo sitio pero que, al final, siguen trayectorias independientes. Un pensamiento asciende, estalla y se desvanece; luego le toca al siguiente, luego al siguiente, y así. 

Parece como si las ideas de quien no duerme tuvieran su propio camino. Uno ajeno al del cuerpo que las medita. Parece como si en la imaginación de los insomnes el torrente de pensamientos tuviera la textura de una arena movediza. O de una alucinación. Y las ideas no cuesta apresarlas porque sean particularmente veloces y esquivas sino más bien porque sus densidades son robustas. Como peces fofos y lentos de un estanque japonés. La madera de la caña cede: comienza a astillarse. La seda, ¿aguantará? La idea naciente, ¿nos hundirá con ella?

 * 

«No quiero ir nada más que hasta el fondo», escribió Alejandra Pizarnik sobre la pizarra que decoraba su zulo, la noche insomne que precedió a su hundimiento suicida. Vasta vastedad. Como si los versos también marcaran su propio camino, ajenos, aunque hermanados, a los planes y a los designios del organismo en el que fueron forjados. Qué cansancio. Cuánto dolor. ¿O acaso es posible prever de qué manera influirá el sueño —en este caso, su ausencia— en la capacidad de quienes escriben? Que el sueño, junto al deseo y junto a la muerte, es el tema predilecto de poetas y filósofos ya lo sabemos. Lo que a veces nos falta es el por qué. De acuerdo con Delmore Schwartz es en los sueños donde comienzan las responsabilidades del ser humano. Ya sea por el exceso o por la falta de los mismos, su esencia no es sólo temática, sino anímica, estética, formal. 

A lo largo de su vida, Emil Cioran ensayó muchas respuestas a todas las preguntas que el insomnio nos ha procurado. Para él, «la manera de hacer de un escritor está condicionada fisiológicamente; posee un ritmo propio, constrictivo e irreductible». Será que Cioran conocía bien a las poetas de la desesperación. Muy al comienzo de sus cuadernos íntimos de finales de la década de los cincuenta, confesó que desde hacía meses vivía todos sus momentos de angustia en compañía de Emily Dickinson. La poeta de Amherst había versificado en más de una ocasión a propósito de «los enemigos del dormir». Algunos años más tarde, al saber de la poesía y del historial clínico de Alejandra Pizarnik a través de un intercambio epistolar con Alina Diaconú, Cioran escribió lo siguiente: «Cuántas veces me habré cruzado con esa desconocida que arrastraba una desesperación que yo comprendo bien». Resulta que Emil Cioran y la poeta argentina compartieron barrio parisino durante un tiempo. Y también resulta que no hay texto crítico, conferencia o documental a propósito del pensador franco-rumano en el que no se destaquen sus largos paseos hasta el alba. ¿Se cruzarían, alguna vez, esas dos almas desesperadas? Regodearse en esa casualidad también responde a la alucinación. La escena está bien clara: el sonido de las suelas de los zapatos de Emil Cioran contra el asfalto de París, o antes el de Múnich, o antes el de Bucarest, o primeramente el del suelo empedrado de Sibiu; ciudades que pateó por no tener dónde caer desfallecido; calles oscuras en las que, de tanto pensar con la precisión de la fiebre y la aleatoriedad de los fuegos artificiales, deambuló y se hundió hasta convertirse en lo que más temía: un escritor condenado al ritmo de su fisiología.

 * 

Retrato robot de un enemigo del dormir: la pregunta por la eternidad; la obsesión por la palabra exacta; el pulimiento del estilo; el no saber qué es noche y qué es día; el hablar con uno mismo como único sistema; la técnica de la infinitud; el leve gusto por el sufrimiento; el recrearse en la inmortalidad; el desear, sin embargo, la muerte; el regocijo de saberse solo, de no necesitar a nadie, de no necesitarse ni siquiera a uno mismo; la paciencia; la entereza; la autocienciaficción; el juego de tentarse a existir. 

Y entonces, ¿con qué postura hay que leer a un escritor insomne? ¿Se puede gozar de su literatura desde la comodidad de una cama o con el dulce vaivén de una siestecilla? ¿Hay que solidarizarse con su sufrimiento? ¿Debemos devorar su ideario hasta la somatización de su disgusto? Somatizar: transformar problemas psíquicos en síntomas orgánicos de manera involuntaria, de acuerdo con la Real Academia de la Lengua. No es descabellado asumirlo así. Si entendemos la literatura y la filosofía como dos problemas psíquicos, que venga entonces a chocarse su esencia contra nuestra fisiología. Que la destroce. Que nos atraviese como un dios erótico. Así es. Famoso y enrevesado es el aforismo de Jacques Lacan, para quien amar es dar lo que no se tiene a quien no es, y de la misma manera podríamos decir que para Emil Cioran escribir es dar lo que no se tiene —pues imaginar es mentir, esto es, generar imágenes desde la nada— a quien no lo necesita —porque el lector ideal no existe, y el texto, corrigiendo la fórmula célebre de Wolfgang Iser, sólo es un generador de afectos—. Para leer a un escritor insomne, para leer, específicamente, a Emil Cioran, la postura sólo puede ser una: deslumbramiento, contagio, sumisión.

E.M. Cioran en una imagen de 1986. Crédito: Getty Images.

E.M. Cioran en una imagen de 1986. Crédito: Getty Images.

Pero es que Emil Cioran odiaba los fanatismos literarios —sólo hay que acercarse a sus lamentos ante el devenir mediático de Albert Camus, o de Jean-Paul Sartre, o hasta de Jorge Luis Borges, a quien deseó «soledad», pues el exceso de atención destruiría a los genios—. Así que para ser consecuentes con su lucha, deberíamos odiarlo a él. Pero es que también ocurre que Emil Cioran detestaba la obediencia, la consecuencia, la adulación. Lo cual, irónicamente, nos devolvería el derecho a decir que lo amamos, que queremos contagiarnos de sus alucinaciones, que por él nos someteríamos a la secta del insomnio sin dudarlo, con tal de seguir degustando sus impresiones sobre el valor de la vida, sobre los sinsabores de la política europea o sobre la negación de la fama. Él, que sabía tanto de lo eterno, porque lo experimentaba en sus carnes cada noche de vigilia, estaba convencido de que todo escritor debe negarse a la celebridad. Quizá por eso el erudito José María Bellido Morillas dice en sus clases de YouTube que leer a Cioran es toparse con un clásico, ya que en su escritura, a pesar de las alusiones a problemáticas culturales o políticas que le fueron coetáneas, no cabe el mundo moderno. ¿Y qué hay más moderno, más actual, más contemporáneo que lo que contra todo pronóstico resiste al tiempo? ¡Otra vez la ironía! Lo de las contradicciones de Emil Cioran ya es pura sorna. 

*

Busquemos otra palabra en el diccionario: tentación. Instigación o estímulo que induce el deseo de algo. O, lo que es más divertido, solicitación al pecado inducida por el demonio. Debe de haber algo demoníaco en la falta de sueño. Como una invitación a mirar la vida desde otra vida. ¿Cuántas vidas tiene el que no duerme? ¿Cuánto tiempo vive? ¿Acaso sus años se multiplican? Será por eso que Emil Cioran alcanzó tan pronto las cualidades propias de un clásico canónico, por haber vivido doblemente. Por haber multiplicado su tiempo de pensar. 

Quien ha vivido mucho sabe que todo es cíclico: el tiempo es estanco, lento, sólido, pero vuelve, y se retuerce, y es por eso que se escapa. Emil Cioran también escribió sobre esta cuestión. Buena parte de sus elucubraciones las copió de sus referentes, o más bien las retorció, las dejó escapar, las volvió a pescar, oprimió los peces densos del estanque con sus manos. Una tentación que aprendió del «ingenuo» Friedrich Nietzsche: la de que nosotros amamos la vida no porque estemos acostumbrados a vivir, sino porque estamos habituados a amar. Una tentación que aprendió de su adorada Emily Dickinson: que la vida es un funeral perpetuo del espíritu. Otra tentación que aprendió de su papaíto Arthur Schopenhauer: que mientras la historia muestra que en cada momento suceden cosas distintas, «la filosofía se esfuerza por hacernos entender que en todo tiempo fue, es y será lo mismo». Antes de continuar tirando de este hilo de pensamiento, habría que advertir que sólo a alguien que haya vivido tantas vidas como Cioran se le ocurriría equiparar la tentación de los filósofos con la tentación de la poetas. Se celebra. 

E.M. Cioran circa 1977. Crédito: Getty Images.

E.M. Cioran circa 1977. Crédito: Getty Images.

Ahora sí. Retomando el hilo del tiempo. En 1963 se publicó una de las novelas consideradas como fundacionales del mal llamado realismo mágico. Se trata de Los recuerdos del porvenir, de Elena Garro. El libro está situado en una comarca inventada por ella, la de Ixtepec, y los personajes que la pueblan ponen cuerpo a algunas historias reales sobre las guerras cristeras de los años veinte en México. Lo que algunos consideran mágico en esta fabulación es que su narrador es el propio pueblo. Es la tierra la que habla. Son la comarca y el espacio los que, con una voz masculina, analizan con miles de ojos y de bocas lo que sintieron ayer y hoy los habitantes de Ixtepec. En ese original ejercicio de narración, Garro escribe lo siguiente sobre su idea del paso del tiempo cuando quien lo contempla es un ¿ser? tan vasto y pausado, tan ajeno a las horas humanas del sueño como lo es la tierra:

En esos días era yo tan desdichado que mis horas se acumulaban informes y mi memoria se había convertido en sensaciones. La desdicha como el dolor físico iguala los minutos. Los días se convierten en el mismo día, los actos en el mismo acto y las personas en un solo personaje inútil. El mundo pierde su variedad, la luz se aniquila y los milagros quedan abolidos. La inercia de esos días repetidos me guardaba quieto, contemplando la fuga inútil de mis horas y esperando el milagro que se obstinaba en no producirse. El porvenir era la repetición del pasado. Inmóvil, me dejaba devorar por la sed que roía mis esquinas. Para romper los días petrificados sólo me quedaba el espejismo ineficaz de la violencia, y la crueldad se ejercía con furor sobre las mujeres, los perros callejeros y los indios. Como en las tragedias, vivíamos dentro de un tiempo quieto y los personajes sucumbían presos en ese instante detenido. Era en vano que hicieran gestos cada vez más sangrientos. Habíamos abolido al tiempo. 

Más que una realidad mágica, lo que Elena Garro nos cuenta es un letargo alucinado. La magia, como los dioses más populares, viene siempre de fuera, es un tercero incontrolable. La alucinación, sin embargo, viene de dentro. La expulsa nuestro organismo. Convive con nuestras células. Entonces, si lo que escribía Garro era algo más parecido a un realismo alucinado —hemos de estar atentas a su visceralidad, a su respeto hacia las creencias ajenas—, podríamos afirmar también que lo que practicó Emil Cioran fue un pesimismo alucinado, y no olvidarnos así de su fisicidad, ni de su latir, ni tampoco de su entrega carnal a los designios del pensamiento fatalista. 

Lógico. Es lógico que los enemigos del sueño, los abanderados del mal dormir, los condenados a la vasta vastedad de la vida cíclica se obsesionen con la escritura. ¡La vida es absurda! ¡Entreguémonos a la narración íntima de la misma! ¡Hagamos eternos nuestros pensamientos a través de la poesía! O dejémonos de tonterías. Emil Cioran tonteó en demasiadas ocasiones con el ideal deformado de ser poeta, pero luego prefirió atrapar el tiempo a través de una escritura ordenada y directa. Su estilo atrae desde esa falsa sensación de oscuridad, pero sobre todo por la certera sensación de lucidez. El profesor Carlos Javier González Serrano ha advertido infinidad de veces sobre las cualidades que nos enganchan y nos excitan de la prosa de Cioran. La principal: su extravagante optimismo. Él no era un pesimista al uso, dice González Serrano, porque, muy en el fondo de sus tentaciones aprendidas, superó la idea del mundo malo, arañó las costras del infierno en vida y «normalizó el abismo», sin heroísmos ni ensoñaciones, sino simplemente desde una pulcra honestidad.

Emil Cioran, Eugène Ionesco y Mircea Eliade en la Place Fürstenberg de París, en 1977. Crédito: Getty Images.

Emil Cioran, Eugène Ionesco y Mircea Eliade en la Place Fürstenberg de París, en 1977. Crédito: Getty Images.

En Siempre la misma nieve y siempre el mismo tío, la novelista Herta Müller, que comparte orígenes con Cioran, escribió lo siguiente como epitafio para su compatriota: 

Desde su postura de autoridad sobre la muerte […] le resultaba muy difícil ver cómo se iban viniendo abajo las rutinas del cuerpo y hacer que las vieran los demás. Agrandaba a través de las palabras lo que uno habría preferido asumir sin más. Él lo señalaba sin quejarse. Antes de pasar a cualquier otro tema de conversación, tenías que haberte enterado bien de que estabas ante un hombre cuyas piernas se arrastraban en lugar de moverse bien, cuyas manos derramaban el líquido en lugar de verterlo en la copa, cuya boca dejaba caer pedazos de comida en lugar de tragarlos. Cioran insistía en ello, porque buscaba que se mirase con cierta delicadeza de la única forma en que la delicadeza es legítima: cuando se aborda de frente aquello que requiere ser tratado con delicadeza. 

Müller recuerda así su primer encuentro con el pensador, y desde el comienzo resalta cómo en su caso lo más honesto era retratar el mundo tal cual —sin olvidar sus incalculables bondades—, el cuerpo humano decrépito tal cual —puesto que la eternidad sería inviable sin el parpadeo del espíritu—, el arrepentimiento tal cual —ya que una de las grandes virtudes de Cioran, según Müller, vendría de haber corregido su fanatismo nacionalista, fascismo incipiente, errores de una juventud convulsa en la Rumanía natal—. Sin embargo, y a pesar de que él se consideraba apátrida, para Herta Müller hay algo de sus orígenes a lo que nunca pudo escapar. Cioran era hijo de un sacerdote rumano, esto es, hijo de un hombre cuyo trabajo era acompañar a la pérdida y a la muerte. Todo se repite. El tiempo está abolido. Vasta vastedad la de las vidas que acaban. Emil Cioran, perdonado por Dios «por ser rumano», no escapó sin embargo a los oficios de su sangre. Incluso si estamos de acuerdo con la idea de González serrano sobre su «extravagante optimismo», hay quien todavía lo llama «el filósofo de la muerte». 

Hay otro epitafio mítico para despedir al no-poeta. Al no-durmiente. Al no-filósofo de la muerte. Se trata del que en 1995 publicó Fernando Savater en El País, y que Simone Boué, la compañera de vida de Emil Cioran, citó en el prólogo a los cuadernos íntimos que ella misma recogió, mecanografió y amorosamente editó tras la muerte de su querido: «Adonde ahora vas tienes que bajar solo». Si la advertencia de Savater es bella es porque además es redundante. Bajar a la muerte en soledad, si nos ponemos a imaginar ese acto como si fuésemos nosotros mismos pesimistas o realistas de la alucinación, no debería ser tan distinto de aquellos míticos paseos en los que los zapatos de Cioran se arrastraban por la nocturnidad, sosteniendo en las venas de las sienes tal acumulación de ideas. Es fácil ver la sombra de Emil Cioran caminando escaleras abajo. Es fácil admirar su silueta de cabellos blancos y despeinados, paso a paso, desdoblándose en una conversación infinita como las que asaltaban a Maurice Blanchot. Para el intelectual francés, el pensamiento más puro sólo podía generarse en ese convertirse en otro maldito yo, en esa fragmentación y en esa duplicidad del conversar con uno mismo. Algún día nosotros también dejaremos este mundo, pero en las calles de París el espectro de Emil Cioran seguirá paseando hacia un «abajo» infinito. La alucinación de él hablando consigo mismo. Su destino ha quedado escrito: rebosa tentación de existir. 

Somos víctimas del sentido de la vida. Lo escribió Emil Cioran en el que tal vez sea su libro más leído hoy, a pesar de que los meses siguientes a su publicación original, en 1952, no vendiera ni doscientos míseros ejemplares, Silogismos de amargura. Sabiendo de la pasión de Cioran hacia el silencio y de su rechazo a la fama, este dato no es triste, sino más bien magnífico. En Silogismos de amargura, Cioran escupió aforismos, formas muy breves con las que debatió sobre los que empezaban a ser sus temas fundamentales: el suicidio, la religión, la literatura. Fue cuatro años más tarde cuando publicó La tentación de existir, el tercero de sus libros escritos directamente en francés, y el que supuso la consagración de las grandes líneas de pensamiento del autor. Recuperando un formato de largos párrafos como el de Breviario de podredumbre, pero con la precisión y la autenticidad desarrolladas con sus silogismos, La tentación de existir es el libro que despliega todas las preocupaciones pasadas y futuras de la obra entera de Cioran. El libro que forja su estilo y el que da rienda suelta a su pesimismo alucinado. Aquí defiende su exilio como virtud para la libertad de la creación y del pensamiento. Aunque de Rumanía ya le había separado la lengua, ahora aboga por una lejanía total de los orígenes, como si la vida sólo pudiera forjarse tras la expulsión de un paraíso. Aquí demuestra también sus conocimientos de la tradición filosófica, materia con la que muchas veces dijo no tener nada que ver. Su repaso al pensamiento español y ruso es una muestra de su humor y de su cabronería, pero también de su necesidad de separar la literatura y la filosofía de las políticas nacionales más estériles. Aquí se nos habla de la muerte. Y si para Albert Camus el único tema esencial de la filosofía era el suicidio, podríamos asegurar que para Cioran tal afirmación no deja de ser una vulgaridad. En una de las escasas entrevistas en vídeo que nos quedan de él, lo expresó con claridad: si tuvo una vida larga fue precisamente porque la opción del suicidio siempre estuvo de fondo. El verdadero tema de la literatura, tal vez, sería el de qué hacer con la vasta vastedad de tiempo que nos queda hasta el final de nuestros días. Por eso aquí, en La tentación de existir, se nos demuestra que tal vez nacer no es del todo un inconveniente. Gracias a haber nacido podemos escribir. Aquí se nos habla de la escritura, porque si de verdad hay algo que importa en este libro es el trabajo literario. Tanto la vida como la muerte pueden sobrellevarse gracias a la imaginación. A esa que nace de las conversaciones infinitas. A esa que viene de la contemplación del buen mundo. En el capítulo «El estilo como aventura» podemos intuir todo lo que le importaba a Emil Cioran sobre la literatura. En esas páginas desgrana el canon occidental, y además establece las normas que aquellos que decidamos leerle deberíamos seguir, o más bien conocer, o simplemente apreciar para poder gozar del tiempo detenido de sus líneas. Al final de dicho capítulo, argumenta: «si hay una relación entre el ritmo fisiológico y la manera de escribir de un escritor, con mayor razón la hay entre su universo temporal y su estilo», y con esa frase el pesimista alucinado da amplitud a eso que Walt Whitman cantó mucho antes: «Esto no es un libro. Quien lo toca está tocando a un hombre». 

Y entonces, una vez más, ¿con qué cuerpo hay que leer a un escritor insomne? ¿Se puede gozar de su literatura desde la comodidad de un lecho? ¿Hay que apresar su sufrimiento? ¿Debemos devorar a Cioran hasta la somatización de su malestar? No lo sé. Lo único que tengo claro, porque mi cuerpo así lo ha sufrido, es que para poder escribir estas líneas han sido necesarias las fatigosísimas caminatas nocturnas por algunas orinosas calles de una gran ciudad del Mediterráneo, con una imposición muy clara instalada en el fondo de la mente: la de salir a las dos de la madrugada cada una de las noches previas a los días previstos para la relectura y la investigación alrededor de La tentación de existir, y no regresar a casa hasta prácticamente el amanecer. Era lo más justo. Era la única manera de acercarse a un libro como este. El trabajo del no-sueño para leer a Cioran no es aquí un capricho para fingir el estilo bello de su prologuista, sino más bien una consecuencia lógica ante el aprendizaje del cioranismo. Era una obligación. Era un reto. Era un ejercicio que requería de una inmensa paciencia. Por eso invito a quien quiera leer hoy este libro a que aparque el sueño. Que se deje llevar. Las ojeras no importan mucho en comparación con el gozo de la vigilia autoimpuesta. Cansancio. Fuegos artificiales. Fiebre. Tentada a existir más allá del sueño. Una vasta vastedad. ¿Aplaudimos a quien se atreva? 

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