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Mandela, presidente electo: el inicio del fin del «apartheid»

«La mayor gloria no es no caer nunca, sino levantarse siempre». Tras pasar 27 años en prisión acusado de conspirar para derrocar al gobierno de Sudáfrica (conformado por descendientes de colonos blancos que dictaban leyes que establecían la segregación racial), Nelson Mandela fue liberado en 1990 y tan solo necesito cuatro años para convertirse en el primer presidente negro de su país (también fue el primero en resultar elegido por sufragio universal). Al mando del ejecutivo, Mandela se dedicó a desmontar la estructura social y política heredada del «apartheid» combatiendo el racismo institucionalizado, la pobreza, la desigualdad social y promoviendo la reconciliación social. Cuando se cumplen 30 años de la toma de posesión de Mandela al frente del renovado gobierno sudafricano (el 10 de mayo de 1994), en LENGUA publicamos un extracto de «El largo camino hacia la libertad» (Aguilar) en el que el propio Mandela narra cómo vivió aquellas semanas de incertidumbre, cambios e ilusión.

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Durante los \u00faltimos d\u00edas hab\u00eda sufrido el agradable asedio de dignatarios y l\u00edderes mundiales que ven\u00edan a presentarme sus respetos antes de la investidura. La ceremonia de toma de posesi\u00f3n ser\u00eda la mayor reuni\u00f3n de l\u00edderes internacionales jam\u00e1s vista en el territorio de Sud\u00e1frica.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Los actos se celebraron en el precioso anfiteatro de arenisca de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Union_Buildings\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Union Buildings<\/a><\/span>, los edificios de la administraci\u00f3n en Pretoria. Durante d\u00e9cadas aquella hab\u00eda sido la sede de la supremac\u00eda blanca. 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A lo largo de la primera d\u00e9cada del siglo XX, poco despu\u00e9s de la amarga <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Segunda_guerra_b%C3%B3er\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">guerra anglo-b\u00f3er<\/a><\/span> y antes de que yo hubiera nacido, los pueblos blancos de Sud\u00e1frica hab\u00edan resuelto sus diferencias y erigido un sistema de dominaci\u00f3n racial sobre los pueblos de piel oscura de su propia tierra. La estructura que crearon fue la base de una de las sociedades m\u00e1s duras e inhumanas que el mundo haya conocido. 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pol\u00edtica del <em>apartheid<\/em> cre\u00f3 una herida profunda y duradera en mi pa\u00eds y mi gente. Todos nosotros necesitaremos muchos a\u00f1os, o generaciones, para recuperarnos de ese profundo dolor. 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Dieron lugar a hombres de tan extraordinario coraje, sabidur\u00eda y generosidad, que es posible que jam\u00e1s vuelva a haber nadie como ellos. Quiz\u00e1 sea necesario llegar a niveles de ignominia como los que hab\u00edamos padecido para que surjan personalidades tan sublimes. En el subsuelo de mi pa\u00eds hay una gran riqueza en minerales y gemas, pero siempre he sabido que su principal riqueza es el pueblo, m\u00e1s valioso y resplandeciente que el m\u00e1s puro de los diamantes.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Fue de aquellos compa\u00f1eros de lucha de quien aprend\u00ed el significado de la palabra valor. Una y otra vez he tenido ocasi\u00f3n de ver c\u00f3mo hombres y mujeres arriesgaban y entregaban sus vidas por una idea. Les he visto soportar toda clase de agresiones y torturas sin ceder ni un \u00e1pice, haciendo gala de una fuerza y una tenacidad m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de todo lo imaginable. 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El hombre valiente no es el que no siente miedo, sino el que es capaz de conquistarlo.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hnf388t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Cuando sal\u00ed de la c\u00e1rcel \u00e9sa era mi misi\u00f3n: liberar tanto al oprimido como al opresor. Hay quien dice que ese objetivo ya ha sido alcanzado, pero s\u00e9 que no es as\u00ed. La verdad es que a\u00fan no somos libres; s\u00f3lo hemos logrado la libertad de ser libres, el derecho a no ser oprimidos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kip9jl7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Jam\u00e1s perd\u00ed la esperanza de que se produjera esta gran transformaci\u00f3n. No s\u00f3lo por los grandes h\u00e9roes que ya he citado, sino por la valent\u00eda de los hombres y mujeres corrientes de mi pa\u00eds. Siempre he sabido que en el fondo del coraz\u00f3n de todos los seres humanos hay misericordia y generosidad. Nadie nace odiando a otra persona por el color de su piel, su procedencia o su religi\u00f3n. El odio se aprende, y si es posible aprender a odiar, es posible aprender a amar, ya que el amor surge con mayor naturalidad en el coraz\u00f3n del hombre que el odio. Incluso en los momentos m\u00e1s duros de mi encarcelamiento, cuando mis camaradas y yo nos encontr\u00e1bamos en situaciones l\u00edmite, alcanzaba a distinguir un \u00e1pice de humanidad en alguno de los guardianes, quiz\u00e1 tan s\u00f3lo durante un segundo, pero lo suficiente para reconfortarme y animarme a seguir adelante. La bondad del hombre es una llama que puede quedar oculta, pero que nunca se extingue.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Nos lanzamos a la lucha con los ojos bien abiertos, sin dejarnos llevar por el espejismo de que el camino que hab\u00edamos emprendido fuera a resultar f\u00e1cil. Cuando era joven y me un\u00ed al <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Congreso_Nacional_Africano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Congreso Nacional Africano<\/a><\/span> vi el precio que tuvieron que pagar por sus convicciones mis camaradas. Fue muy alto. Por lo que a m\u00ed respecta, jam\u00e1s he lamentado mi compromiso con la lucha y siempre he estado dispuesto a hacer frente a las calamidades que me afectaban personalmente. Pero mi familia pag\u00f3 un precio terrible, quiz\u00e1s excesivo, por mi compromiso.\u00a0<\/p><p>En la vida, todo hombre tiene dos tipos de obligaciones igualmente importantes: las que le reclama su familia, sus padres, su esposa y sus hijos; y las que contrae con su pueblo, su comunidad y su pa\u00eds. En una sociedad civilizada y tolerante, todo hombre puede cumplir con esas obligaciones con arreglo a sus propias inclinaciones y capacidades. Pero en un pa\u00eds como Sud\u00e1frica era imposible para un hombre de mi procedencia y color hacer honor a ambas obligaciones. En Sud\u00e1frica, un hombre de color que intentara vivir como un ser humano era castigado y aislado. En Sud\u00e1frica, todo hombre que intentara cumplir con sus deberes para con su pueblo quedaba inevitablemente desarraigado de su familia y su hogar y se ve\u00eda obligado a vivir una vida aparte, una existencia en la oscuridad de la clandestinidad y la rebeli\u00f3n. En un principio, no eleg\u00ed poner a mi pueblo por encima de mi familia, pero al intentar servir al primero descubr\u00ed que eso me imped\u00eda hacer honor a mis obligaciones como hijo, hermano, padre y esposo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>As\u00ed pues, asum\u00ed el compromiso con mi pueblo, con los millones de sudafricanos a los que jam\u00e1s llegar\u00eda a conocer, a expensas de la gente que mejor conoc\u00eda y a la que m\u00e1s amaba. Fue un proceso tan sencillo y a la vez tan inabarcable como el momento en que un ni\u00f1o peque\u00f1o le pregunta a su padre: \u00ab\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 no puedes estar con nosotros?\u00bb. Y el padre se ve obligado a pronunciar las terribles palabras: \u00abHay otros ni\u00f1os como t\u00fa, muchos otros...\u00bb antes de quedarse sin 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nac\u00ed con hambre de libertad, nac\u00ed libre en todos los aspectos que me era dado conocer. Libre para correr por los campos cerca de la choza de mi madre, libre para nadar en el arroyo transparente que atravesaba mi aldea, libre para asar mazorcas de ma\u00edz bajo las estrellas y cabalgar sobre los anchos lomos de los bueyes que marchaban por las veredas con andar cansino. Mientras obedeciera a mi padre y respetara las costumbres de mi tribu, ni las leyes de Dios ni las del hombre me afectaban.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>S\u00f3lo cuando empec\u00e9 a comprender que mi libertad infantil era una ilusi\u00f3n, cuando descubr\u00ed, siendo a\u00fan joven, que mi libertad ya me hab\u00eda sido arrebatada, fue cuando comenc\u00e9 a a\u00f1orarla. Al principio, cuando era un estudiante, s\u00f3lo buscaba mi propia libertad, la libertad pasajera de poder pasar la noche fuera, leer lo que quisiera e ir donde me apeteciera. Posteriormente, ya como un hombre joven en Johannesburgo, empec\u00e9 a a\u00f1orar otras libertades b\u00e1sicas y honorables: la de realizarme, ganarme la vida, casarme y crear una familia, la libertad de no tener obst\u00e1culos para vivir mi vida respetando la 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Vi que no era s\u00f3lo mi libertad la que estaba en juego, sino la de todo aquel que se pareciera a m\u00ed. Fue entonces cuando me un\u00ed al Congreso Nacional Africano, cuando el ansia por mi propia libertad se transform\u00f3 en otra m\u00e1s grandiosa, que buscaba la libertad para mi pueblo. Fue el deseo de lograr la libertad para que mi pueblo pudiera vivir con dignidad y respeto hacia s\u00ed mismo lo que movi\u00f3 mi vida, lo que transform\u00f3 a un hombre joven y asustado en un hombre audaz. Eso fue lo que convirti\u00f3 a un abogado respetuoso con la ley en un delincuente, a un marido amante de la familia en un hombre sin hogar, lo que oblig\u00f3 a un hombre que amaba la vida a vivir como un monje. No soy m\u00e1s virtuoso o sacrificado que cualquier otro, pero descubr\u00ed que ni siquiera podr\u00eda disfrutar de las escasas y restringidas libertades que se me conced\u00edan mientras mi pueblo no fuera libre. La libertad es indivisible. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-barack-obama-isabel-allende\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Barack Obama: \u00abEl mundo est\u00e1 lleno de crueldad e injusticia, pero creo que la bondad y la decencia ganar\u00e1n\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/rosario-castellanos-feminismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El cuerpo sometido de las mujeres: la lucha feminista sigue<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/centenario-muerte-lenin-revolucion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abGood Bye, Lenin!\u00bb: 100 a\u00f1os sin el alma de la Revoluci\u00f3n rusa<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/dallas-22-de-noviembre-de-1963-john-fitzgerald-kennedy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Dallas, 22 de noviembre de 1963: John Fitzgerald Kennedy y el hombre que no supo reinar<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/pepe-mujica-noam-chomsky-latinoamerica-saul-alvidrez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pepe Mujica y Noam Chomsky: Latinoam\u00e9rica, \u00bffaro de 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15 minutos
Nelson Mandela en una comparecencia pública en marzo de 1999. Crédito: Getty Images

Nelson Mandela en una comparecencia pública en marzo de 1999. Crédito: Getty Images

El 10 de mayo amaneció luminoso y transparente. Durante los últimos días había sufrido el agradable asedio de dignatarios y líderes mundiales que venían a presentarme sus respetos antes de la investidura. La ceremonia de toma de posesión sería la mayor reunión de líderes internacionales jamás vista en el territorio de Sudáfrica.  

Los actos se celebraron en el precioso anfiteatro de arenisca de Union Buildings, los edificios de la administración en Pretoria. Durante décadas aquella había sido la sede de la supremacía blanca. Ahora era el centro de un arco iris de colores y naciones diferentes presentes allí para asistir a la instauración del primer gobierno democrático y no racista de Sudáfrica.  

Aquel maravilloso día de otoño me acompañaba mi hija Zenani. En el podio, el señor de Klerk prestó juramento como vicepresidente segundo, a continuación lo hizo Thabo Mbeki como vicepresidente primero. Cuando me llegó el turno juré respetar y hacer respetar la Constitución y entregarme en cuerpo y alma al bienestar de la república y su pueblo. Ante los invitados allí reunidos y el mundo que nos observaba, manifesté:  

Hoy, con nuestra presencia aquí... conferimos grandiosidad y esperanza a nuestra recién nacida libertad. De la experiencia de un desastre humano que ha durado demasiado ha de nacer una sociedad de la que toda la humanidad se sienta orgullosa.  

...A nosotros, que no hace mucho éramos aún personas fuera de la ley, se nos ha concedido el extraordinario privilegio de acoger a las naciones del mundo sobre nuestro propio suelo. Damos gracias a nuestros distinguidos huéspedes de todas las naciones por haber venido a tomar posesión, junto con el pueblo de nuestro país, de lo que después de todo es una victoria de la justicia, la paz y la dignidad humana.  

Hemos logrado por fin nuestra emancipación política. Nos comprometemos a liberar a nuestro pueblo de las cadenas de la pobreza, las privaciones, el sufrimiento, el género y cualquier otra discriminación.  

Nunca, nunca, nunca jamás, experimentará otra vez esta maravillosa tierra la opresión del hombre por el hombre. El sol jamás se pondrá para tan glorioso logro humano.  

Que reine la libertad. ¡Qué Dios bendiga a África!  

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El largo camino hacia la libertad

La autobiografía de Nelson Mandela escrita de su puño y letra.

La vida un hombre extraordinario, un héroe internacional, uno de los grandes líderes morales y políticos de nuestro tiempo.

Momentos más tarde, todos levantamos la vista sobrecogidos ante el espectacular y atronador despliegue de reactores, helicópteros y transportes de tropas que sobrevolaron en perfecta formación Union Buildings. No fue sólo una muestra de precisión y poderío militar, sino de lealtad de los militares para con la democracia, para con un nuevo gobierno que acababa de ser elegido libre y justamente. Sólo unos momentos antes, los generales de la fuerzas de defensa sudafricana y de la policía, con sus guerreras repletas de entorchados y medallas, me habían saludado y me habían jurado lealtad. No se me pasó por alto el hecho de que pocos años atrás no sólo no me habrían saludado sino que me habrían detenido. Finalmente, una formación en cuña de reactores Impala dejó una estela de humo negro, rojo, verde, azul y oro, los colores de la nueva bandera de Sudáfrica.  

Para mí, el día quedó simbolizado por la interpretación de nuestros dos himnos nacionales y por la visión de blancos cantando Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika y de negros cantando Die Stem, el viejo himno de la república. Aquel día ninguno de los dos grupos del público se sabía la letra del himno que hasta hacía poco despreciaban, pero no tardarían en aprenderse ambas de memoria.  

Aquel día sentí, como he sentido tantos otros días, que no era más que la suma de todos los patriotas africanos que me habían precedido. Aquel largo y noble linaje había llegado a su fin y ahora recomenzaba su andadura conmigo.

El día de la investidura me sentí abrumado por la sensación de que nos encontrábamos en un momento histórico. A lo largo de la primera década del siglo XX, poco después de la amarga guerra anglo-bóer y antes de que yo hubiera nacido, los pueblos blancos de Sudáfrica habían resuelto sus diferencias y erigido un sistema de dominación racial sobre los pueblos de piel oscura de su propia tierra. La estructura que crearon fue la base de una de las sociedades más duras e inhumanas que el mundo haya conocido. En la última década del siglo XX, y en el octavo decenio de mi vida, aquel sistema había sido derribado para siempre, siendo sustituido por otro que reconocía los derechos y libertades de todos los pueblos al margen de cuál fuera el color de su piel.  

Aquel día había llegado gracias a los inimaginables sacrificios de miles de los míos, gente cuyos sufrimientos y valor jamás podrán ser evaluados ni recompensados. Aquel día sentí, como he sentido tantos otros días, que no era más que la suma de todos los patriotas africanos que me habían precedido. Aquel largo y noble linaje había llegado a su fin y ahora recomenzaba su andadura conmigo. Me resultaba doloroso que fuera imposible agradecerles su generosidad y que no hubieran tenido oportunidad de ser testigos de lo que su sacrificio había logrado.

Nelson Mandela durante la campaña electoral en Durban, Sudáfrica, en abril de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

Nelson Mandela durante la campaña electoral en Durban, Sudáfrica, en abril de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

La política del apartheid creó una herida profunda y duradera en mi país y mi gente. Todos nosotros necesitaremos muchos años, o generaciones, para recuperarnos de ese profundo dolor. Pero las décadas de opresión y brutalidad tuvieron también un efecto imprevisto: produjeron a los Oliver Tambo, los Walter Sisulu, los jefe Luthuli, los Yusuf Dadoo, los Bram Fischer, los Robert Sobukwe de nuestros días. Dieron lugar a hombres de tan extraordinario coraje, sabiduría y generosidad, que es posible que jamás vuelva a haber nadie como ellos. Quizá sea necesario llegar a niveles de ignominia como los que habíamos padecido para que surjan personalidades tan sublimes. En el subsuelo de mi país hay una gran riqueza en minerales y gemas, pero siempre he sabido que su principal riqueza es el pueblo, más valioso y resplandeciente que el más puro de los diamantes.  

Fue de aquellos compañeros de lucha de quien aprendí el significado de la palabra valor. Una y otra vez he tenido ocasión de ver cómo hombres y mujeres arriesgaban y entregaban sus vidas por una idea. Les he visto soportar toda clase de agresiones y torturas sin ceder ni un ápice, haciendo gala de una fuerza y una tenacidad más allá de todo lo imaginable. Tuve ocasión de aprender que el valor no consiste en no tener miedo, sino en ser capaz de vencerlo. He sentido miedo más veces de las que puedo recordar, pero siempre lo he ocultado tras una máscara de audacia. El hombre valiente no es el que no siente miedo, sino el que es capaz de conquistarlo. 

Cuando salí de la cárcel ésa era mi misión: liberar tanto al oprimido como al opresor. Hay quien dice que ese objetivo ya ha sido alcanzado, pero sé que no es así. La verdad es que aún no somos libres; sólo hemos logrado la libertad de ser libres, el derecho a no ser oprimidos.

Jamás perdí la esperanza de que se produjera esta gran transformación. No sólo por los grandes héroes que ya he citado, sino por la valentía de los hombres y mujeres corrientes de mi país. Siempre he sabido que en el fondo del corazón de todos los seres humanos hay misericordia y generosidad. Nadie nace odiando a otra persona por el color de su piel, su procedencia o su religión. El odio se aprende, y si es posible aprender a odiar, es posible aprender a amar, ya que el amor surge con mayor naturalidad en el corazón del hombre que el odio. Incluso en los momentos más duros de mi encarcelamiento, cuando mis camaradas y yo nos encontrábamos en situaciones límite, alcanzaba a distinguir un ápice de humanidad en alguno de los guardianes, quizá tan sólo durante un segundo, pero lo suficiente para reconfortarme y animarme a seguir adelante. La bondad del hombre es una llama que puede quedar oculta, pero que nunca se extingue.  

Nos lanzamos a la lucha con los ojos bien abiertos, sin dejarnos llevar por el espejismo de que el camino que habíamos emprendido fuera a resultar fácil. Cuando era joven y me uní al Congreso Nacional Africano vi el precio que tuvieron que pagar por sus convicciones mis camaradas. Fue muy alto. Por lo que a mí respecta, jamás he lamentado mi compromiso con la lucha y siempre he estado dispuesto a hacer frente a las calamidades que me afectaban personalmente. Pero mi familia pagó un precio terrible, quizás excesivo, por mi compromiso. 

En la vida, todo hombre tiene dos tipos de obligaciones igualmente importantes: las que le reclama su familia, sus padres, su esposa y sus hijos; y las que contrae con su pueblo, su comunidad y su país. En una sociedad civilizada y tolerante, todo hombre puede cumplir con esas obligaciones con arreglo a sus propias inclinaciones y capacidades. Pero en un país como Sudáfrica era imposible para un hombre de mi procedencia y color hacer honor a ambas obligaciones. En Sudáfrica, un hombre de color que intentara vivir como un ser humano era castigado y aislado. En Sudáfrica, todo hombre que intentara cumplir con sus deberes para con su pueblo quedaba inevitablemente desarraigado de su familia y su hogar y se veía obligado a vivir una vida aparte, una existencia en la oscuridad de la clandestinidad y la rebelión. En un principio, no elegí poner a mi pueblo por encima de mi familia, pero al intentar servir al primero descubrí que eso me impedía hacer honor a mis obligaciones como hijo, hermano, padre y esposo.  

Así pues, asumí el compromiso con mi pueblo, con los millones de sudafricanos a los que jamás llegaría a conocer, a expensas de la gente que mejor conocía y a la que más amaba. Fue un proceso tan sencillo y a la vez tan inabarcable como el momento en que un niño pequeño le pregunta a su padre: «¿Por qué no puedes estar con nosotros?». Y el padre se ve obligado a pronunciar las terribles palabras: «Hay otros niños como tú, muchos otros...» antes de quedarse sin voz.  

Nelson Mandela junto a seguidores jóvenes en Durban, en 1994. Crédito: Getty Images

Nelson Mandela junto a seguidores jóvenes en Durban, en 1994. Crédito: Getty Images

No nací con hambre de libertad, nací libre en todos los aspectos que me era dado conocer. Libre para correr por los campos cerca de la choza de mi madre, libre para nadar en el arroyo transparente que atravesaba mi aldea, libre para asar mazorcas de maíz bajo las estrellas y cabalgar sobre los anchos lomos de los bueyes que marchaban por las veredas con andar cansino. Mientras obedeciera a mi padre y respetara las costumbres de mi tribu, ni las leyes de Dios ni las del hombre me afectaban.  

Sólo cuando empecé a comprender que mi libertad infantil era una ilusión, cuando descubrí, siendo aún joven, que mi libertad ya me había sido arrebatada, fue cuando comencé a añorarla. Al principio, cuando era un estudiante, sólo buscaba mi propia libertad, la libertad pasajera de poder pasar la noche fuera, leer lo que quisiera e ir donde me apeteciera. Posteriormente, ya como un hombre joven en Johannesburgo, empecé a añorar otras libertades básicas y honorables: la de realizarme, ganarme la vida, casarme y crear una familia, la libertad de no tener obstáculos para vivir mi vida respetando la ley.  

Sólo cuando empecé a comprender que mi libertad infantil era una ilusión, cuando descubrí, siendo aún joven, que mi libertad ya me había sido arrebatada, fue cuando comencé a añorarla.

Pero poco a poco fui comprendiendo que no sólo no era libre, sino que tampoco lo eran mis hermanos y hermanas. Vi que no era sólo mi libertad la que estaba en juego, sino la de todo aquel que se pareciera a mí. Fue entonces cuando me uní al Congreso Nacional Africano, cuando el ansia por mi propia libertad se transformó en otra más grandiosa, que buscaba la libertad para mi pueblo. Fue el deseo de lograr la libertad para que mi pueblo pudiera vivir con dignidad y respeto hacia sí mismo lo que movió mi vida, lo que transformó a un hombre joven y asustado en un hombre audaz. Eso fue lo que convirtió a un abogado respetuoso con la ley en un delincuente, a un marido amante de la familia en un hombre sin hogar, lo que obligó a un hombre que amaba la vida a vivir como un monje. No soy más virtuoso o sacrificado que cualquier otro, pero descubrí que ni siquiera podría disfrutar de las escasas y restringidas libertades que se me concedían mientras mi pueblo no fuera libre. La libertad es indivisible. Las cadenas que tenía que soportar cualquier miembro de mi pueblo eran las mismas que nos ataban a todos. Las cadenas que ataban a mi pueblo eran las cadenas que me ataban a mí.  

Nelson Mandela votando por primera vez el 27 de abril de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

Nelson Mandela votando por primera vez el 27 de abril de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

Durante aquellos largos y solitarios años, el ansia de obtener la libertad para mi pueblo se convirtió en un ansia de libertad para todos los pueblos, blancos y negros. Sabía mejor que nadie que es tan necesario liberar al opresor como al oprimido. Aquel que arrebata la libertad a otro es prisionero del odio, está encerrado tras los barrotes de los prejuicios y la estrechez de miras. Nadie es realmente libre si arrebata a otro su libertad, del mismo modo en que nadie es libre si su libertad le es arrebatada. Tanto el opresor como el oprimido quedan privados de su humanidad.  

Cuando salí de la cárcel ésa era mi misión: liberar tanto al oprimido como al opresor. Hay quien dice que ese objetivo ya ha sido alcanzado, pero sé que no es así. La verdad es que aún no somos libres; sólo hemos logrado la libertad de ser libres, el derecho a no ser oprimidos. No hemos dado el último paso, sino el primero de un camino aún más largo y difícil. Ser libre no es simplemente desprenderse de las cadenas, sino vivir de un modo que respete y aumente la libertad de los demás. La verdadera prueba de nuestra devoción por la libertad no ha hecho más que empezar.  

He recorrido un largo camino hacia la libertad. He intentado no titubear. He dado pasos en falso en mi recorrido, pero he descubierto el gran secreto. Tras subir a una colina, uno descubre que hay muchas más colinas detrás. Me he concedido aquí un momento de reposo, para lanzar una mirada hacia el glorioso panorama que me rodea, para volver la vista atrás hacia el trecho que he recorrido. Pero sólo puedo descansar un instante, ya que la libertad trae consigo responsabilidades y no me atrevo a quedarme rezagado. Mi largo camino aún no ha terminado.