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«Por qué 1984 no será como "1984"»: 40 años del primer Macintosh

El 24 de enero de 1984, Steve Jobs anunció en Cupertino -en medio de fanfarrias y florituras- el lanzamiento de un nuevo producto llamado a convertirse en un hito trascendental en la historia universal: el Macintosh 128K, el primer «Mac», el ordenador personal con el que Apple iniciaría el desarrollo y venta de una línea de «gadgets» que hoy son objeto de culto. Lo hizo, como después convertiría en un acto marca de la casa, frente a un público de fieles entregados a quienes había llamado la atención gracias a una estrategia publicitaria de lo más orwelliana: semanas antes del evento, y llevando la contraria a los mandamases de Apple, Jobs encargó un anuncio inspirado en «1984» para que fuese emitido la noche del 22 de enero durante la XVIII edición de la Super Bowl: el «spot» fue visto por más de 96 millones de personas y generó una expectación publicitaria desconocida en una época en la que no existía YouTube. En las siguientes líneas, un extracto de «Steve Jobs» (Debate), la biografía definitiva del fundador de Apple, la cual fue escrita con su colaboración, Walter Isaacson narra el origen del «mejor anuncio de todos los tiempos».

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y dos miembros de su equipo \u2014el redactor publicitario Steve Hayden y el director art\u00edstico Brent Thomas\u2014 hab\u00edan estado considerando la posibilidad de utilizar un eslogan que utilizara el t\u00edtulo de la novela de George Orwell: \u00abPor qu\u00e9 1984 no ser\u00e1 como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">1984<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00bb. 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Muchos j\u00f3venes, especialmente aquellos que formaban parte de la contracultura, hab\u00edan visto a los ordenadores como instrumentos que pod\u00edan ser utilizados por gobiernos orwellianos y grandes empresas con el fin de socavar la individualidad de la gente. Sin embargo, hacia el final de la d\u00e9cada de los setenta, tambi\u00e9n se ve\u00edan como una herramienta en potencia para lograr la realizaci\u00f3n personal de sus usuarios. El anuncio presentaba a Macintosh como un guerrero que defend\u00eda esta \u00faltima causa: una compa\u00f1\u00eda joven, rebelde y heroica que era lo \u00fanico que se interpon\u00eda entre la gran empresa malvada y su plan para dominar el mundo y controlar la mente de los ciudadanos.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A Jobs le gustaba aquello. De hecho, el concepto que articulaba el anuncio ten\u00eda para \u00e9l una relevancia especial. 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embargo, se daba cuenta, en lo m\u00e1s profundo de su ser, de que hab\u00eda ido abandonando cada vez m\u00e1s aquel esp\u00edritu pirata. Algunos podr\u00edan acusarlo incluso de haberse vendido. Cuando Wozniak se mantuvo fiel a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Homebrew_Computer_Club\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">los principios del Homebrew Club<\/a><\/span> al repartir gratuitamente su dise\u00f1o del Apple\u202fI, fue Jobs quien insisti\u00f3 en que le vendieran los circuitos impresos a sus compa\u00f1eros. Tambi\u00e9n fue \u00e9l quien quiso, a pesar de la reticencia de Wozniak, convertir a Apple en una empresa, sacarla a Bolsa y no repartir alegremente las opciones de compra de acciones entre los amigos que hab\u00edan empezado con ellos en el garaje. Ahora estaba a punto de presentar el Macintosh, y sab\u00eda que violaba muchos de los principios del c\u00f3digo de los <em>hackers<\/em>. Era muy caro y hab\u00eda decidido que no tendr\u00eda ninguna ranura, lo que implicaba que los aficionados a la electr\u00f3nica no podr\u00edan conectar sus propias tarjetas de ampliaci\u00f3n o acceder a la placa madre para a\u00f1adir sus propias funciones. Incluso hab\u00eda dise\u00f1ado el ordenador de forma que no se pudiera llegar a su interior. Hac\u00edan falta herramientas especiales \u00fanicamente para abrir la carcasa de pl\u00e1stico. Era un sistema cerrado y controlado, como algo que hubiera dise\u00f1ado el Gran Hermano en lugar de un pirata inform\u00e1tico.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>As\u00ed pues, el anuncio de \u00ab1984\u00bb fue una forma de reafirmar ante s\u00ed mismo y ante el mundo la imagen que deseaba ofrecer. La hero\u00edna, con el dibujo de un Macintosh estampado sobre su camiseta, de un blanco puro, era una insurgente que pretend\u00eda derrocar al poder establecido. 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Logr\u00f3 que se aceptara un presupuesto sin precedentes de 750.000 d\u00f3lares solo para la filmaci\u00f3n del anuncio. Ridley Scott lo rod\u00f3 en Londres empleando a decenas de aut\u00e9nticos cabezas rapadas como parte de las masas absortas que escuchaban al Gran Hermano hablar en la pantalla. Para el papel de la hero\u00edna eligieron a una lanzadora de disco. Con un escenario fr\u00edo e industrial dominado por tonos grises metalizados, Scott evocaba el ambiente dist\u00f3pico de<em> Blade Runner<\/em>. En el momento exacto en que el Gran Hermano anuncia \u00ab\u00a1venceremos!\u00bb, el mazo hace a\u00f1icos la pantalla, que se evapora entre un estallido de humo y luces.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando Jobs le ense\u00f1\u00f3 el anuncio al equipo de ventas de Apple en la conferencia de Hawai, todos quedaron encantados, as\u00ed que decidi\u00f3 present\u00e1rselo al consejo de administraci\u00f3n durante la reuni\u00f3n de diciembre de 1983. Cuando se encendieron de nuevo las luces\u202fde\u202fla sala de juntas, todo el mundo guard\u00f3 silencio. Philip Schlein, el consejero delegado de la cadena de supermercados Macy's en California, hab\u00eda apoyado la cabeza contra la mesa. Markkula segu\u00eda mirando fijamente y en silencio, y al principio parec\u00eda como si la potencia del anuncio lo hubiera dejado sin habla, pero entonces pregunt\u00f3: \u00ab\u00bfQui\u00e9n quiere que busquemos una nueva agencia?\u00bb. Seg\u00fan recuerda Sculley, \u00abla mayor\u00eda pens\u00f3 que era el peor anuncio nunca visto\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4zh3pzj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A Jobs le gustaba aquello (...). Se ve\u00eda a s\u00ed mismo como un rebelde, y le gustaba asociarse con los valores de la variopinta banda de piratas y <em>hackers<\/em> que hab\u00eda reclutado para el grupo del Macintosh. Por algo sobre su edificio ondeaba la bandera pirata.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"weu81qu\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Sculley se ech\u00f3 atr\u00e1s. Le pidi\u00f3 a la agencia Chiat\/Day que vendiera los dos espacios publicitarios \u2014uno de sesenta segundos y otro de treinta\u2014 ya contratados. Jobs estaba fuera de s\u00ed. Una tarde, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Steve_Wozniak\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Wozniak<\/a><\/span>, que hab\u00eda estado manteniendo una relaci\u00f3n intermitente con Apple durante los \u00faltimos dos a\u00f1os, se pas\u00f3 por el edificio donde se trabajaba en el Macintosh. Jobs lo agarr\u00f3 y le dijo: \u00abven a ver esto\u00bb . Sac\u00f3 un reproductor de v\u00eddeo y le mostr\u00f3 el anuncio. \u00abEstaba alucinando \u2014recordaba Woz\u2014. Me pareci\u00f3 la cosa m\u00e1s incre\u00edble que hab\u00eda visto\u00bb. Cuando Jobs anunci\u00f3 que el consejo de administraci\u00f3n hab\u00eda decidido no emitir el anuncio durante <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/the-wire-baltimore-ravens-100-yardas-100-historias-nfl-super-bowl\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la disputa de la Super Bowl<\/a><\/span>, Wozniak le pregunt\u00f3 cu\u00e1nto costaba contratar el espacio para aquel anuncio. Jobs le respondi\u00f3 que 800.000 d\u00f3lares. Con su bondad impulsiva habitual, Wozniak se ofreci\u00f3 inmediatamente: \u00abBueno, yo pago la mitad si t\u00fa pones la otra mitad\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Al final no le hizo falta. La agencia logr\u00f3 revender el espacio de treinta segundos, pero en un acto de desaf\u00edo pasivo no vendi\u00f3 el m\u00e1s largo. \u00abLes dijimos que no hab\u00edamos logrado revender el espacio de sesenta segundos, aunque en realidad ni siquiera lo intentamos\u00bb, se\u00f1al\u00f3 Lee Clow. Sculley, quiz\u00e1 en un intento por evitar el enfrentamiento con el consejo o con Jobs, recurri\u00f3 a Bill Campbell, director de marketing, para que decidiera qu\u00e9 hacer. Campbell, un antiguo entrenador de f\u00fatbol americano, opt\u00f3 por jug\u00e1rsela. \u00abCreo que deber\u00edamos intentarlo\u00bb, le dijo a su equipo .<\/p><p>Al principio del tercer cuarto de la 18.\u00aa Super Bowl, los Raiders se anotaron un ensayo contra los Redskins, pero en lugar de mostrar al instante la repetici\u00f3n de la jugada, los televisores de todo el pa\u00eds se fundieron en negro durante dos segundos funestos. Entonces, una inquietante imagen en blanco y negro de aut\u00f3matas que avanzaban al ritmo de una m\u00fasica espeluznante comenz\u00f3 a llenar las pantallas. M\u00e1s de 96 millones de personas vieron un anuncio que no se parec\u00eda a nada de lo que hubieran visto antes. Al final, mientras los aut\u00f3matas observaban horrorizados la desaparici\u00f3n del Gran Hermano, un locutor anunciaba en tono calmado: \u00abEl 24 de enero, Apple Computer presentar\u00e1 el Macintosh. Y entonces ver\u00e1s por qu\u00e9 1984 no ser\u00e1 como <em>1984<\/em>\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Fue todo un fen\u00f3meno. Esa noche, los tres principales canales de televisi\u00f3n y cincuenta emisoras locales hablaron del anuncio en sus informativos, lo que cre\u00f3 una expectaci\u00f3n publicitaria desconocida en una \u00e9poca en la que no exist\u00eda YouTube. Tanto la revista<em> TV\u202fGuide<\/em> como <em>Advertising Age<\/em> lo eligieron como el mejor anuncio de todos los tiempos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"63qjkyz\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/elon-musk-jeff-bezos-walter-isaacson\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Elon Musk contra Jeff Bezos: guerra entre los barones de la ciencia ficci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/hector-garcia-barnes-futurofobia-sergio-del-molino\\\">V\u00edctimas de la \u00abfuturofobia\u00bb: una generaci\u00f3n triste con fotos felices<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sandel-por-sandel-el-futuro-que-queremos-atrevete-a-pensar\\\">Sandel por Sandel: el futuro que queremos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/en-la-sombra-memorias-principe-harry-primeras-paginas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cuando Harry (re)encontr\u00f3 a William: \u00abQu\u00e9 bello es todo. Y tambi\u00e9n qu\u00e9 triste\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/dallas-22-de-noviembre-de-1963-john-fitzgerald-kennedy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Dallas, 22 de noviembre de 1963: John Fitzgerald Kennedy y el hombre que no supo 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10 minutos
Steve Jobs en una sala llena de ordenadores, 1984. Crédito: Getty Images.

Steve Jobs en una sala llena de ordenadores, 1984. Crédito: Getty Images.

Cuando Jobs comenzó a planear, en la primavera de 1983, la presentación del Macintosh, encargó un anuncio de televisión que resultara tan revolucionario y sorprendente como el producto que habían creado. «Quiero algo que haga que la gente se detenga en seco —pidió—. Quiero que resuene como un trueno». La tarea recayó en la agencia publicitaria Chiat/Day, que había incorporado a Apple como cliente cuando absorbió el departamento de publicidad de la empresa de Regis Mckenna. La persona al cargo era un surfista desgarbado con una espesa barba, pelo enmarañado, sonrisa bobalicona y ojos brillantes llamado Lee Clow, por entonces el director creativo de la oficina de la agencia en la sucursal de Los Ángeles, situada en Venice Beach. Clow, un tipo divertido y a la vez con sentido común, relajado pero concentrado, forjó una relación con Jobs que duraría tres décadas.

Clow y dos miembros de su equipo —el redactor publicitario Steve Hayden y el director artístico Brent Thomas— habían estado considerando la posibilidad de utilizar un eslogan que utilizara el título de la novela de George Orwell: «Por qué 1984 no será como 1984». A Jobs le encantó, y les pidió que lo tuvieran listo para la presentación del Macintosh, así que prepararon un guion gráfico para un anuncio de sesenta segundos que debía parecer la escena de una película de ciencia ficción. En ella se presentaba a una joven rebelde que huía de la policía del pensamiento orwelliana y que arrojaba un martillo contra una pantalla donde se mostraba al Gran Hermano mientras este pronunciaba un alienante discurso.  

El concepto capturaba el espíritu de aquella época, el de la revolución de los ordenadores personales. Muchos jóvenes, especialmente aquellos que formaban parte de la contracultura, habían visto a los ordenadores como instrumentos que podían ser utilizados por gobiernos orwellianos y grandes empresas con el fin de socavar la individualidad de la gente. Sin embargo, hacia el final de la década de los setenta, también se veían como una herramienta en potencia para lograr la realización personal de sus usuarios. El anuncio presentaba a Macintosh como un guerrero que defendía esta última causa: una compañía joven, rebelde y heroica que era lo único que se interponía entre la gran empresa malvada y su plan para dominar el mundo y controlar la mente de los ciudadanos.  

A Jobs le gustaba aquello. De hecho, el concepto que articulaba el anuncio tenía para él una relevancia especial. Se veía a sí mismo como un rebelde, y le gustaba asociarse con los valores de la variopinta banda de piratas y hackers que había reclutado para el grupo del Macintosh. Por algo sobre su edificio ondeaba la bandera pirata. Aunque hubiera abandonado la comuna de manzanos en Oregón para crear la empresa Apple, todavía quería que lo vieran como un miembro de la contracultura, y no como un elemento más de la estructura empresarial.

Sin embargo, se daba cuenta, en lo más profundo de su ser, de que había ido abandonando cada vez más aquel espíritu pirata. Algunos podrían acusarlo incluso de haberse vendido. Cuando Wozniak se mantuvo fiel a los principios del Homebrew Club al repartir gratuitamente su diseño del Apple I, fue Jobs quien insistió en que le vendieran los circuitos impresos a sus compañeros. También fue él quien quiso, a pesar de la reticencia de Wozniak, convertir a Apple en una empresa, sacarla a Bolsa y no repartir alegremente las opciones de compra de acciones entre los amigos que habían empezado con ellos en el garaje. Ahora estaba a punto de presentar el Macintosh, y sabía que violaba muchos de los principios del código de los hackers. Era muy caro y había decidido que no tendría ninguna ranura, lo que implicaba que los aficionados a la electrónica no podrían conectar sus propias tarjetas de ampliación o acceder a la placa madre para añadir sus propias funciones. Incluso había diseñado el ordenador de forma que no se pudiera llegar a su interior. Hacían falta herramientas especiales únicamente para abrir la carcasa de plástico. Era un sistema cerrado y controlado, como algo que hubiera diseñado el Gran Hermano en lugar de un pirata informático.  

Así pues, el anuncio de «1984» fue una forma de reafirmar ante sí mismo y ante el mundo la imagen que deseaba ofrecer. La heroína, con el dibujo de un Macintosh estampado sobre su camiseta, de un blanco puro, era una insurgente que pretendía derrocar al poder establecido. Y al contratar a Ridley Scott, que como director acababa de cosechar un gran éxito con Blade Runner, Jobs podía asociarse a sí mismo y a Apple con el espíritu ciberpunk de aquella época . Gracias a aquel anuncio, Apple podía identificarse con los rebeldes y los piratas que pensaban de forma diferente, y Jobs podía reclamar su derecho a identificarse también con ellos.

Steve Jobs, a la izquierda, y John Sculley durante la reunión anual de 1984. Crédito: Getty Images.

Steve Jobs, a la izquierda, y John Sculley durante la reunión anual de 1984. Crédito: Getty Images.

Sculley se mostró escéptico en un primer momento cuando vio el guion del anuncio, pero Jobs insistió en que necesitaban algo revolucionario. Logró que se aceptara un presupuesto sin precedentes de 750.000 dólares solo para la filmación del anuncio. Ridley Scott lo rodó en Londres empleando a decenas de auténticos cabezas rapadas como parte de las masas absortas que escuchaban al Gran Hermano hablar en la pantalla. Para el papel de la heroína eligieron a una lanzadora de disco. Con un escenario frío e industrial dominado por tonos grises metalizados, Scott evocaba el ambiente distópico de Blade Runner. En el momento exacto en que el Gran Hermano anuncia «¡venceremos!», el mazo hace añicos la pantalla, que se evapora entre un estallido de humo y luces.  

Cuando Jobs le enseñó el anuncio al equipo de ventas de Apple en la conferencia de Hawai, todos quedaron encantados, así que decidió presentárselo al consejo de administración durante la reunión de diciembre de 1983. Cuando se encendieron de nuevo las luces de la sala de juntas, todo el mundo guardó silencio. Philip Schlein, el consejero delegado de la cadena de supermercados Macy's en California, había apoyado la cabeza contra la mesa. Markkula seguía mirando fijamente y en silencio, y al principio parecía como si la potencia del anuncio lo hubiera dejado sin habla, pero entonces preguntó: «¿Quién quiere que busquemos una nueva agencia?». Según recuerda Sculley, «la mayoría pensó que era el peor anuncio nunca visto».

A Jobs le gustaba aquello (...). Se veía a sí mismo como un rebelde, y le gustaba asociarse con los valores de la variopinta banda de piratas y hackers que había reclutado para el grupo del Macintosh. Por algo sobre su edificio ondeaba la bandera pirata.

Sculley se echó atrás. Le pidió a la agencia Chiat/Day que vendiera los dos espacios publicitarios —uno de sesenta segundos y otro de treinta— ya contratados. Jobs estaba fuera de sí. Una tarde, Wozniak, que había estado manteniendo una relación intermitente con Apple durante los últimos dos años, se pasó por el edificio donde se trabajaba en el Macintosh. Jobs lo agarró y le dijo: «ven a ver esto» . Sacó un reproductor de vídeo y le mostró el anuncio. «Estaba alucinando —recordaba Woz—. Me pareció la cosa más increíble que había visto». Cuando Jobs anunció que el consejo de administración había decidido no emitir el anuncio durante la disputa de la Super Bowl, Wozniak le preguntó cuánto costaba contratar el espacio para aquel anuncio. Jobs le respondió que 800.000 dólares. Con su bondad impulsiva habitual, Wozniak se ofreció inmediatamente: «Bueno, yo pago la mitad si tú pones la otra mitad».  

Al final no le hizo falta. La agencia logró revender el espacio de treinta segundos, pero en un acto de desafío pasivo no vendió el más largo. «Les dijimos que no habíamos logrado revender el espacio de sesenta segundos, aunque en realidad ni siquiera lo intentamos», señaló Lee Clow. Sculley, quizá en un intento por evitar el enfrentamiento con el consejo o con Jobs, recurrió a Bill Campbell, director de marketing, para que decidiera qué hacer. Campbell, un antiguo entrenador de fútbol americano, optó por jugársela. «Creo que deberíamos intentarlo», le dijo a su equipo .

Al principio del tercer cuarto de la 18.ª Super Bowl, los Raiders se anotaron un ensayo contra los Redskins, pero en lugar de mostrar al instante la repetición de la jugada, los televisores de todo el país se fundieron en negro durante dos segundos funestos. Entonces, una inquietante imagen en blanco y negro de autómatas que avanzaban al ritmo de una música espeluznante comenzó a llenar las pantallas. Más de 96 millones de personas vieron un anuncio que no se parecía a nada de lo que hubieran visto antes. Al final, mientras los autómatas observaban horrorizados la desaparición del Gran Hermano, un locutor anunciaba en tono calmado: «El 24 de enero, Apple Computer presentará el Macintosh. Y entonces verás por qué 1984 no será como 1984».  

Fue todo un fenómeno. Esa noche, los tres principales canales de televisión y cincuenta emisoras locales hablaron del anuncio en sus informativos, lo que creó una expectación publicitaria desconocida en una época en la que no existía YouTube. Tanto la revista TV Guide como Advertising Age lo eligieron como el mejor anuncio de todos los tiempos.

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