Cine y series

«El ferrocarril subterráneo» o el holocausto norteamericano

Colson Whitehead escribió «El ferrocarril subterráneo» combinando fantasía e historia para contrarrestar el olvido de los horrores vividos por la población negra en los Estados Unidos. Galardonada con el Pulitzer y el National Book Award en 2016, la novela cuenta, en un estilo llano, con la impasividad de un documentalista, una serie de episodios brutales en los que traza un persistente paralelo entre la esclavitud y el nazismo. El cineasta Barry Jenkins —ganador del Oscar por el guion de «Moonlight»— llevó la novela a la TV en una adaptación lírica que, recurriendo a imágenes de inspiración bíblica y pictóricas composiciones visuales, la traiciona para serle fiel.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">La actriz sudafricana Thuso Mbedu, quien encarna a Cora a lo largo del sufrido y brutal recorrido conocido como \u00abel ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo\u00bb, la red clandestina de abolicionistas a trav\u00e9s de la cual los esclavos del Sur de Estados Unidos intentaban escapar a sus destinos, y que la premiada novela de Whitehead convierte, literalmente, en un fant\u00e1stico tren que corre bajo la tierra. Cr\u00e9dito: Kyle Kaplan \/ Amazon 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/hernanferreiros?lang=es\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">HERN\u00c1N FERREIR\u00d3S<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.upf.edu\/es\/web\/humanitats\/entry\/-\/-\/15900\/404\/miquel-berga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br \/><br 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que nada, corresponde hacer una aclaraci\u00f3n: en el siglo XIX realmente existi\u00f3, en el territorio norteamericano, algo llamado \u00abel ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo\u00bb, aunque no era subterr\u00e1neo ni era un ferrocarril. Tal fue el nombre, ciertamente imaginativo, que recibi\u00f3 la red clandestina de abolicionistas que ofrec\u00edan ayuda a los esclavos escapados de las plantaciones del sur en su fuga hacia los m\u00e1s liberales estados norte\u00f1os. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37014-el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-9788439733003\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Esta novela de Colson Whitehead<\/a><\/span>, ganadora de los prestigiosos Pulitzer y National Book Award en 2016, descarta la met\u00e1fora de ese nombre y se lo apropia de modo literal. Es decir,<strong> el ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo no es aqu\u00ed un mapa secreto de casas seguras, sino una compleja red de t\u00faneles por la que circulan locomotoras a vapor con vagones que transportan a fugitivos negros.<\/strong> Esta transformaci\u00f3n del lenguaje figurado en literal, una operaci\u00f3n que en este libro es invisible si no se conoce la historia, es un rasgo definitorio del g\u00e9nero fant\u00e1stico y, como tal, cambia las coordenadas del texto: <strong>lo corre de una ficci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica a una historia alternativa que mantiene un v\u00ednculo m\u00e1s complejo con la realidad.<\/strong> No es \u00e9sta la \u00fanica anomal\u00eda que nos pone en un mundo paralelo: en el 1850 presentado en la novela, ya existen rascacielos en Carolina del Sur (en verdad, los primeros reci\u00e9n aparecer\u00edan en Chicago y Nueva York unos 40 a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde) y se revela la temprana puesta en pr\u00e1ctica de una cadena de montaje fordista. 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horror es la esclavitud, una instituci\u00f3n perfectamente legal, avalada por muchos de los padres fundadores de los Estados Unidos como Washington, Franklin o Jefferson que contaban esclavos entre sus posesiones y que por dos siglos fue uno de los sostenes de la econom\u00eda norteamericana. <strong>Se calcula que antes de la guerra civil hab\u00eda m\u00e1s de 4 millones de esclavos en el pa\u00eds.<\/strong>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37014-el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-9788439733003\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La novela se concentra en Cora<\/a><\/span>, una esclava adolescente que vivi\u00f3 toda su vida en una plantaci\u00f3n de Georgia y fue abandonada cuando ni\u00f1a por su madre, la \u00fanica sierva que se fug\u00f3 del lugar y nunca fue recapturada. Con la esperanza de que Cora haya heredado un poco de esa suerte, C\u00e9sar, un esclavo al que le fue prometida y luego negada la libertad, le propone escapar juntos. Ella se niega, pero luego de que otro fugitivo, llamado Big Anthony, sea atrapado, azotado hasta que la carne se desprende de sus huesos, castrado e incinerado vivo, decide acceder. C\u00e9sar cuenta con la colaboraci\u00f3n de un blanco abolicionista que resguarda un acceso al m\u00edtico ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo, su \u00fanica posibilidad de llegar al norte. La fuga da pie a una cacer\u00eda despiadada a cargo de Arnold Ridgeway, un rastreador fan\u00e1tico que se obsesiona con aprehender a Cora para resarcirse por no haber hallado jam\u00e1s a su madre y cuya monoman\u00eda recuerda la de otros perseguidores implacables y complicados como el Inspector Jarvert de\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36631-los-miserables-9788491051121\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los Miserables<\/a><\/span><\/em> o el Capit\u00e1n Ahab de<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36563-moby-dick-9788491050209\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Moby 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Los anacronismos, vinculados al avance tecnol\u00f3gico y al desarrollo del capitalismo, hilvanan una de las nociones centrales del libro: que el horror que narra no est\u00e1 fijo en el pasado.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"58\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"33vce8d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La novela no cita expl\u00edcitamente ninguno de estos libros, publicados aproximadamente por la fecha en que transcurre esta historia, pero s\u00ed a otro cl\u00e1sico muy anterior,\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/25982-los-viajes-de-gulliver-los-mejores-clasicos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Los viajes de Gulliver<\/em><\/span>,<\/a> la s\u00e1tira pol\u00edtica de Jonathan Swift. As\u00ed como, tras cada viaje, Gulliver llega a un pa\u00eds con costumbres y hasta habitantes completamente distintos que representan par\u00f3dicamente a algunos de los gobiernos europeos, en la novela de Whitehead, luego de cada viaje en el ferrocarril, Cora ingresa a un nuevo territorio (va de Georgia a Carolina del Sur, de ah\u00ed a Carolina del Norte, etc\u00e9tera) y, en cada estado, encuentra una realidad diferente, <strong>como si se moviera entre dimensiones paralelas cada una definida por una forma particular de sumisi\u00f3n de los negros.<\/strong><\/p><p>En Carolina del Sur, descubre una sociedad relativamente ben\u00e9vola en la que puede vivir y trabajar en libertad (su trabajo, parad\u00f3jicamente, consiste en representar a una esclava en el diorama de una plantaci\u00f3n de algod\u00f3n expuesto en un museo). Aunque en la superficie las condiciones de vida son mucho m\u00e1s justas y tolerables que en Georgia, <strong>pronto se revela que bajo la m\u00e1scara de la racionalidad yace una suerte de distop\u00eda cientificista<\/strong> en la que se controla a la poblaci\u00f3n negra someti\u00e9ndola a intervenciones quir\u00fargicas experimentales para evitar su reproducci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>En cada nuevo escenario de la novela resuena el eco de alguno de los momentos m\u00e1s infames y tr\u00e1gicos de la Historia de los afroamericanos. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37014-el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-9788439733003\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La novela<\/a><\/span>\u00a0crea otro v\u00ednculo persistente, aunque m\u00e1s oblicuo, con a\u00fan otro momento hist\u00f3rico definido por el racismo: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el r\u00e9gimen nazi<\/a>.<\/span><\/strong> Las escenas bestiales en la plantaci\u00f3n de Georgia bien podr\u00edan ser las de un campo de exterminio alem\u00e1n. Esto, que en ese punto de la lectura no es m\u00e1s que una intuici\u00f3n, se confirma cuando Cora llega a Carolina del Norte y, dada la proscripci\u00f3n de los negros en todo el estado, debe permanecer confinada en el \u00e1tico de una pareja de blancos que la protege,<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/456-anne-frank\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una evidente referencia a la historia de Ana Frank<\/a><\/span>. Este hecho est\u00e1 tomado de Incidentes en la vida de una esclava (1861) la autobiograf\u00eda de la abolicionista Harriet Jacobs, quien pas\u00f3 siete a\u00f1os tambi\u00e9n oculta en una buhardilla para sobrevivir. Parece claro que, si de todos los incidentes reales posibles Whitehead elige representar \u00e9ste, es <strong>para reforzar aquel v\u00ednculo y la idea de que la esclavitud es el holocausto norteamericano.<\/strong><\/p><p>Hay en el libro una tensi\u00f3n entre la Historia con may\u00fascula y la fantas\u00eda, evidente en el continuo reflejo de esos hechos documentados en otros de la ficci\u00f3n. Si bien los anacronismos contaminan el relato de irrealidad, son tambi\u00e9n el procedimiento que encontr\u00f3\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1063-colson-whitehead\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Whitehead<\/a><\/span> para sugerir que el supremacismo blanco no qued\u00f3 convenientemente encapsulado a 150 a\u00f1os de nosotros sino que atraviesa toda la historia para dar forma a nuestras vidas. <strong>La narraci\u00f3n usa un estilo llano e inexpresivo. Desde lo m\u00e1s extraordinario, como las locomotoras en las estaciones subterr\u00e1neas, a lo m\u00e1s chocante, como las torturas a los esclavos, todo est\u00e1 contado con la impasividad de un documentalista.<\/strong> Se nota una contenci\u00f3n de recursos tales como el suspenso, la anticipaci\u00f3n de momentos clim\u00e1ticos o la aparici\u00f3n imprevista de vueltas de tuerca que lleva a una neutralidad casi minimalista, aunque no en los sentimientos expresados sino en los procedimientos literarios que suelen hacer a la ficci\u00f3n m\u00e1s cautivante que la realidad. <strong>A pesar de los elementos fant\u00e1sticos del relato, el estilo quiere decirnos inequ\u00edvocamente que esto sucedi\u00f3.<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La novela fue adaptada<\/a><\/span>\u00a0por Barry Jenkins (ganador de un Oscar por el gui\u00f3n de su film <em>Moonlight)<\/em> a una serie de 10 episodios de Amazon Prime, que est\u00e1n disponibles para un<em> binge watching<\/em> que puede resultar abrumador. El estilo visual de Jenkins, una suerte de lirismo alucinatorio, a veces plasmado en una luz vibrante que envuelve a los personajes como en un cuadro impresionista, resulta el opuesto exacto del ascetismo verbal elegido por Whitehead. <strong>Se puede decir que Jenkins hace por la esclavitud lo que Monet hizo por los paseos en el campo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k84lpng\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">La novela crea otro v\u00ednculo persistente con otro momento hist\u00f3rico definido por el racismo: el r\u00e9gimen nazi. Las escenas bestiales en la plantaci\u00f3n de Georgia bien podr\u00edan ser las de un campo de exterminio alem\u00e1n. Esto se confirma cuando Cora llega a Carolina del Norte y debe permanecer confinada en el \u00e1tico de una pareja de blancos que la protege: una evidente referencia a la historia de Ana 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en el original de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37014-el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-9788439733003\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Whitehead<\/a><\/span> hay algunas citas religiosas, la imaginer\u00eda b\u00edblica es definitivamente la principal referencia de la serie. La tortura de Big Anthony (Elijah Everett), narrada en apenas diez l\u00edneas en la novela, es aqu\u00ed un martirologio no enteramente distinto de una crucifixi\u00f3n. Mientras que, en el texto, la fuga est\u00e1 planteada como una suerte de picaresca tr\u00e1gica con su caracter\u00edstica estructura itinerante, en la serie se la llama Exodo, el libro de la Biblia que narra la partida de los esclavos hebreos hacia la tierra prometida.<\/p><p>La escena inicial, un <em>flash forward<\/em> que <em>setea<\/em> el tono del resto, muestra a los dos protagonistas \u2013todav\u00eda no sabemos que se llaman Cora (Thuso Mbedu) y Ridgeway (Joel Edgerton)\u2014 mientras caen en c\u00e1mara lenta de una escalera hacia una voraz oscuridad. <strong>La imagen remite a la escalera de Jacob, el instrumento usado por los \u00e1ngeles en el Antiguo Testamento para ascender al cielo.<\/strong> La ca\u00edda pone a estos personajes en la direcci\u00f3n contraria. 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Como se sabe, la composici\u00f3n es un ordenamiento de la mirada a trav\u00e9s del eje bidimensional de la imagen. <strong>La mirada es un problema expl\u00edcito de la serie, que construye su narrativa sobre la tensi\u00f3n entre la visibilidad y la invisibilidad.<\/strong> Los esclavos aspiran a ser vistos como personas y a la vez necesitan, todos pero especialmente los fugitivos, ser invisibles para sobrevivir.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"agz3jx4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">El estilo visual de Jenkins, una suerte de lirismo alucinatorio, a veces plasmado en una luz vibrante que envuelve a los personajes como en un cuadro impresionista, resulta el opuesto exacto del ascetismo verbal elegido por Whitehead. Se puede decir que Jenkins hace por la esclavitud lo que Monet hizo por los paseos en el campo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"60\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jjiwv4f\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El plano que constituye la marca registrada de Jenkins como realizador es una doble mirada: la mirada de la c\u00e1mara en un lento <em>travelling<\/em> sobre un personaje fijo y la devoluci\u00f3n de esa mirada por ese personaje, que mantiene sus ojos clavados en la c\u00e1mara, que es el \u00fanico punto prohibido porque arranca al espectador de su lugar <em>voyerista<\/em> y lo interpela. <strong>En ese juego, los personajes reclaman la mirada del espectador como una forma de reintegro de su humanidad.<\/strong> El realizador compil\u00f3 cada uno de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/vimeo.com\/546795671\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los retratos que film\u00f3 en un clip de Vimeo<\/a><\/span>, la mayor\u00eda de ellos no usados en la serie.<\/p><p>A pesar de que \u00e9sta no es una ficci\u00f3n que pueda ser devorada en un \u00fanico atrac\u00f3n, Jenkins sabe sacar partido de las caracter\u00edsticas del <em>streaming<\/em> porque los episodios no tienen una duraci\u00f3n fija (uno dura apenas 20 minutos, en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26374-el-ferrocarril-subterraneo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una ingeniosa reproducci\u00f3n de la forma de la novela<\/a><\/span>, que alterna cap\u00edtulos largos con vi\u00f1etas de unas pocas p\u00e1ginas). Tampoco hay una estructura que se mantenga demasiados episodios (al promediar la temporada ya no se asocia un cap\u00edtulo a cada Estado), ni una forma visual consistente (cambia la relaci\u00f3n de aspecto de la imagen, cambia la iluminaci\u00f3n y el impresionismo se vuelve chiaroscuro), al punto de que ya no es que la serie sea como una pel\u00edcula, sino que es como m\u00e1s de una. En este conjunto de similitudes y diferencias, Jenkins encuentra el modo de apropiarse de esta historia, de traicionar el libro de muchas formas para contar algo m\u00e1s y, a la vez, para no dejar de serle fiel.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/gente-normal-el-amor-ante-toda-diferencia-social\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abGente normal\u00bb, el amor ante toda diferencia social<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dennis Lehane: el negro coraz\u00f3n del \u00abnoir\u00bb que conquist\u00f3 Hollywood<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/unorthodox-la-nina-que-no-encajaba\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Unorthodox: la ni\u00f1a que no encajaba<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4xfx8qr\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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12 minutos

La actriz sudafricana Thuso Mbedu, quien encarna a Cora a lo largo del sufrido y brutal recorrido conocido como «el ferrocarril subterráneo», la red clandestina de abolicionistas a través de la cual los esclavos del Sur de Estados Unidos intentaban escapar a sus destinos, y que la premiada novela de Whitehead convierte, literalmente, en un fantástico tren que corre bajo la tierra. Crédito: Kyle Kaplan / Amazon Studios.

Antes que nada, corresponde hacer una aclaración: en el siglo XIX realmente existió, en el territorio norteamericano, algo llamado «el ferrocarril subterráneo», aunque no era subterráneo ni era un ferrocarril. Tal fue el nombre, ciertamente imaginativo, que recibió la red clandestina de abolicionistas que ofrecían ayuda a los esclavos escapados de las plantaciones del sur en su fuga hacia los más liberales estados norteños. Esta novela de Colson Whitehead, ganadora de los prestigiosos Pulitzer y National Book Award en 2016, descarta la metáfora de ese nombre y se lo apropia de modo literal. Es decir, el ferrocarril subterráneo no es aquí un mapa secreto de casas seguras, sino una compleja red de túneles por la que circulan locomotoras a vapor con vagones que transportan a fugitivos negros. Esta transformación del lenguaje figurado en literal, una operación que en este libro es invisible si no se conoce la historia, es un rasgo definitorio del género fantástico y, como tal, cambia las coordenadas del texto: lo corre de una ficción histórica a una historia alternativa que mantiene un vínculo más complejo con la realidad. No es ésta la única anomalía que nos pone en un mundo paralelo: en el 1850 presentado en la novela, ya existen rascacielos en Carolina del Sur (en verdad, los primeros recién aparecerían en Chicago y Nueva York unos 40 años más tarde) y se revela la temprana puesta en práctica de una cadena de montaje fordista. Estos y otros anacronismos, vinculados al avance tecnológico y al desarrollo del capitalismo, hilvanan una de las nociones centrales del libro: que el horror que narra no está fijo en el pasado.

Ese horror es la esclavitud, una institución perfectamente legal, avalada por muchos de los padres fundadores de los Estados Unidos como Washington, Franklin o Jefferson que contaban esclavos entre sus posesiones y que por dos siglos fue uno de los sostenes de la economía norteamericana. Se calcula que antes de la guerra civil había más de 4 millones de esclavos en el país. La novela se concentra en Cora, una esclava adolescente que vivió toda su vida en una plantación de Georgia y fue abandonada cuando niña por su madre, la única sierva que se fugó del lugar y nunca fue recapturada. Con la esperanza de que Cora haya heredado un poco de esa suerte, César, un esclavo al que le fue prometida y luego negada la libertad, le propone escapar juntos. Ella se niega, pero luego de que otro fugitivo, llamado Big Anthony, sea atrapado, azotado hasta que la carne se desprende de sus huesos, castrado e incinerado vivo, decide acceder. César cuenta con la colaboración de un blanco abolicionista que resguarda un acceso al mítico ferrocarril subterráneo, su única posibilidad de llegar al norte. La fuga da pie a una cacería despiadada a cargo de Arnold Ridgeway, un rastreador fanático que se obsesiona con aprehender a Cora para resarcirse por no haber hallado jamás a su madre y cuya monomanía recuerda la de otros perseguidores implacables y complicados como el Inspector Jarvert de Los Miserables o el Capitán Ahab de Moby Dick.

Los anacronismos, vinculados al avance tecnológico y al desarrollo del capitalismo, hilvanan una de las nociones centrales del libro: que el horror que narra no está fijo en el pasado.

La novela no cita explícitamente ninguno de estos libros, publicados aproximadamente por la fecha en que transcurre esta historia, pero sí a otro clásico muy anterior, Los viajes de Gulliver, la sátira política de Jonathan Swift. Así como, tras cada viaje, Gulliver llega a un país con costumbres y hasta habitantes completamente distintos que representan paródicamente a algunos de los gobiernos europeos, en la novela de Whitehead, luego de cada viaje en el ferrocarril, Cora ingresa a un nuevo territorio (va de Georgia a Carolina del Sur, de ahí a Carolina del Norte, etcétera) y, en cada estado, encuentra una realidad diferente, como si se moviera entre dimensiones paralelas cada una definida por una forma particular de sumisión de los negros.

En Carolina del Sur, descubre una sociedad relativamente benévola en la que puede vivir y trabajar en libertad (su trabajo, paradójicamente, consiste en representar a una esclava en el diorama de una plantación de algodón expuesto en un museo). Aunque en la superficie las condiciones de vida son mucho más justas y tolerables que en Georgia, pronto se revela que bajo la máscara de la racionalidad yace una suerte de distopía cientificista en la que se controla a la población negra sometiéndola a intervenciones quirúrgicas experimentales para evitar su reproducción. 

En cada nuevo escenario de la novela resuena el eco de alguno de los momentos más infames y trágicos de la Historia de los afroamericanos. La medicalización del racismo en esta Carolina del Sur imaginaria hace pensar en los experimentos inhumanos llevados a cabo por el servicio de salud pública norteamericano en la Universidad de Tuskegee, Alabama, que tuvieron lugar entre 1930 y 1970 y que consistieron en negar, mediante engaños o placebos, tratamiento médico a negros enfermos de sífilis para estudiar el desarrollo de las etapas terminales de la enfermedad. Más adelante en el viaje de Cora, la aparición del estado de Tennessee como una tierra incinerada, con restos carbonizados de casas y establos hasta donde llega la vista, parece remitir a la masacre de Tulsa, Oklahoma, donde, en 1921, una turba de blancos se alzó contra la población afroamericana económicamente próspera del lugar y quemó 35 manzanas de hogares y negocios, poniendo así fin a la llamada Wall Street negra.

El horror es la esclavitud, una institución perfectamente legal, avalada por muchos de los padres fundadores de los Estados Unidos como Washington, Franklin o Jefferson que contaban esclavos entre sus posesiones y que por dos siglos fue uno de los sostenes de la economía norteamericana.

En la adaptación de Barry Jenkins (izquierda), los esclavos encuentran una sociedad relativamente benévola bajo la cual se oculta, apenas, un siniestro experimento de medicalización del racismo. Crédito: Kyle Kaplan / Amazon Studio.

La novela crea otro vínculo persistente, aunque más oblicuo, con aún otro momento histórico definido por el racismo: el régimen nazi. Las escenas bestiales en la plantación de Georgia bien podrían ser las de un campo de exterminio alemán. Esto, que en ese punto de la lectura no es más que una intuición, se confirma cuando Cora llega a Carolina del Norte y, dada la proscripción de los negros en todo el estado, debe permanecer confinada en el ático de una pareja de blancos que la protege, una evidente referencia a la historia de Ana Frank. Este hecho está tomado de Incidentes en la vida de una esclava (1861) la autobiografía de la abolicionista Harriet Jacobs, quien pasó siete años también oculta en una buhardilla para sobrevivir. Parece claro que, si de todos los incidentes reales posibles Whitehead elige representar éste, es para reforzar aquel vínculo y la idea de que la esclavitud es el holocausto norteamericano.

Hay en el libro una tensión entre la Historia con mayúscula y la fantasía, evidente en el continuo reflejo de esos hechos documentados en otros de la ficción. Si bien los anacronismos contaminan el relato de irrealidad, son también el procedimiento que encontró Whitehead para sugerir que el supremacismo blanco no quedó convenientemente encapsulado a 150 años de nosotros sino que atraviesa toda la historia para dar forma a nuestras vidas. La narración usa un estilo llano e inexpresivo. Desde lo más extraordinario, como las locomotoras en las estaciones subterráneas, a lo más chocante, como las torturas a los esclavos, todo está contado con la impasividad de un documentalista. Se nota una contención de recursos tales como el suspenso, la anticipación de momentos climáticos o la aparición imprevista de vueltas de tuerca que lleva a una neutralidad casi minimalista, aunque no en los sentimientos expresados sino en los procedimientos literarios que suelen hacer a la ficción más cautivante que la realidad. A pesar de los elementos fantásticos del relato, el estilo quiere decirnos inequívocamente que esto sucedió.

La novela fue adaptada por Barry Jenkins (ganador de un Oscar por el guión de su film Moonlight) a una serie de 10 episodios de Amazon Prime, que están disponibles para un binge watching que puede resultar abrumador. El estilo visual de Jenkins, una suerte de lirismo alucinatorio, a veces plasmado en una luz vibrante que envuelve a los personajes como en un cuadro impresionista, resulta el opuesto exacto del ascetismo verbal elegido por Whitehead. Se puede decir que Jenkins hace por la esclavitud lo que Monet hizo por los paseos en el campo.  

La novela crea otro vínculo persistente con otro momento histórico definido por el racismo: el régimen nazi. Las escenas bestiales en la plantación de Georgia bien podrían ser las de un campo de exterminio alemán. Esto se confirma cuando Cora llega a Carolina del Norte y debe permanecer confinada en el ático de una pareja de blancos que la protege: una evidente referencia a la historia de Ana Frank. 

Aunque en el original de Whitehead hay algunas citas religiosas, la imaginería bíblica es definitivamente la principal referencia de la serie. La tortura de Big Anthony (Elijah Everett), narrada en apenas diez líneas en la novela, es aquí un martirologio no enteramente distinto de una crucifixión. Mientras que, en el texto, la fuga está planteada como una suerte de picaresca trágica con su característica estructura itinerante, en la serie se la llama Exodo, el libro de la Biblia que narra la partida de los esclavos hebreos hacia la tierra prometida.

La escena inicial, un flash forward que setea el tono del resto, muestra a los dos protagonistas –todavía no sabemos que se llaman Cora (Thuso Mbedu) y Ridgeway (Joel Edgerton)— mientras caen en cámara lenta de una escalera hacia una voraz oscuridad. La imagen remite a la escalera de Jacob, el instrumento usado por los ángeles en el Antiguo Testamento para ascender al cielo. La caída pone a estos personajes en la dirección contraria. Así como la novela produce un sutil lazo entre la esclavitud y el régimen nazi, en la serie, los esclavos, sencillamente, están en el infierno.

Cora Randall (Thuso Mbedu) en uno de los muchos planos de inspiración pictórica de la serie de Barry Jenkins. Crédito: Kyle Kaplan / Amazon Studios.

Jenkins y su extraordinario director de fotografía, James Laxton, ofrecen muy trabajadas composiciones de inspiración pictórica o tomadas de los maestros de la narración lenta y la imagen plástica como Malick, Sokurov o Tarkovski, todos notorias influencias. Como se sabe, la composición es un ordenamiento de la mirada a través del eje bidimensional de la imagen. La mirada es un problema explícito de la serie, que construye su narrativa sobre la tensión entre la visibilidad y la invisibilidad. Los esclavos aspiran a ser vistos como personas y a la vez necesitan, todos pero especialmente los fugitivos, ser invisibles para sobrevivir.

El estilo visual de Jenkins, una suerte de lirismo alucinatorio, a veces plasmado en una luz vibrante que envuelve a los personajes como en un cuadro impresionista, resulta el opuesto exacto del ascetismo verbal elegido por Whitehead. Se puede decir que Jenkins hace por la esclavitud lo que Monet hizo por los paseos en el campo.

El plano que constituye la marca registrada de Jenkins como realizador es una doble mirada: la mirada de la cámara en un lento travelling sobre un personaje fijo y la devolución de esa mirada por ese personaje, que mantiene sus ojos clavados en la cámara, que es el único punto prohibido porque arranca al espectador de su lugar voyerista y lo interpela. En ese juego, los personajes reclaman la mirada del espectador como una forma de reintegro de su humanidad. El realizador compiló cada uno de los retratos que filmó en un clip de Vimeo, la mayoría de ellos no usados en la serie.

A pesar de que ésta no es una ficción que pueda ser devorada en un único atracón, Jenkins sabe sacar partido de las características del streaming porque los episodios no tienen una duración fija (uno dura apenas 20 minutos, en una ingeniosa reproducción de la forma de la novela, que alterna capítulos largos con viñetas de unas pocas páginas). Tampoco hay una estructura que se mantenga demasiados episodios (al promediar la temporada ya no se asocia un capítulo a cada Estado), ni una forma visual consistente (cambia la relación de aspecto de la imagen, cambia la iluminación y el impresionismo se vuelve chiaroscuro), al punto de que ya no es que la serie sea como una película, sino que es como más de una. En este conjunto de similitudes y diferencias, Jenkins encuentra el modo de apropiarse de esta historia, de traicionar el libro de muchas formas para contar algo más y, a la vez, para no dejar de serle fiel.



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