Cine y series

La pandemia del odio: «La conjura contra América», de Philip Roth, en la era del COVID-19

«América Primero», elecciones limpias, el ascenso inesperado de un presidente filonazi: en 2004, Philip Roth imaginó unos Estados Unidos gobernados por el fascismo. Hoy, convertida en serie de televisión vía HBO, La conjura contra América es un artefacto narrativo complejo capaz de hablarnos de Trump, de la COVID-19 y de otras pandemias que acechan -sutiles pero devastadoras- en nuestras sociedades.

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1940 \u00e9ramos una familia feliz\u00bb, dice el peque\u00f1o Philip Roth, que en esa fecha ten\u00eda siete a\u00f1os. Pero entonces Charles Lindbergh irrumpe en la vida pol\u00edtica de su pa\u00eds: fotog\u00e9nico como una estrella de cine, claro y conciso en sus mensajes p\u00fablicos y apoyado por un sector de la comunidad jud\u00eda que ayuda a \u00abvolverlo kosher\u00bb, se impone \u00abgracias a una victoria aplastante en unas elecciones imparciales y libres\u00bb. \u00abNuestros vecinos empezaron lentamente a tener m\u00e1s fe en las convicciones optimistas del rabino Bengelsdorf que en las atroces profec\u00edas de Walter Winchell\u00bb, dice el adulto Philip, refiri\u00e9ndose al c\u00e9lebre columnista que, en las p\u00e1ginas de la novela que Roth titul\u00f3\u00a0La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica, encabeza la oposici\u00f3n pol\u00edtica a Lindbergh\u2026Estamos habituados a que la ficci\u00f3n se inspire en hechos reales y a que ciertas noticias parezcan sacadas de una ficci\u00f3n. Lo que nada tiene de com\u00fan es que ese juego especular se vuelva c\u00edclico, de modo que una ficci\u00f3n intervenga sobre la realidad y que la realidad intervenida altere la lectura de esa narrativa original, a la manera de una banda de Moebius.Eso es lo que ha ocurrido con\u00a0La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica (The Plot Against America, 2004). Cuando imagin\u00f3 qu\u00e9 habr\u00eda pasado si \u2014contrariamente a lo que indican las cr\u00f3nicas\u2014 en las elecciones de 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt hubiese perdido ante el popular aviador Charles Lindbergh, practic\u00f3 a conciencia el g\u00e9nero llamado \u00abucron\u00eda\u00bb: una historia alternativa a la historia, en este caso una biograf\u00eda especulativa, ya que la historia est\u00e1 narrada por un Roth que \u00abrecuerda\u00bb su infancia y lo padecido por su familia en ese pasado hipot\u00e9tico.Aunque es posible especular que ya le perturbaba la vitalidad de la veta fascista de un sector de su sociedad, no creo que Roth imaginase que eclosionar\u00eda tan r\u00e1pido, y del modo en que la deton\u00f3 la presidencia de Donald Trump. Pero \u2014rizando a\u00fan m\u00e1s el rizo digno de Moebius\u2014 en 2020,\u00a0cuando David Simon estren\u00f3 en HBO la miniserie basada en el libro, La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica no pod\u00eda leerse como una simple adaptaci\u00f3n, sino como un artefacto mucho m\u00e1s complejo. Era un relato audiovisual que tomaba el ejercicio imaginativo de Philip Roth y al mismo tiempo, aun a pesar de narrar hechos proyectados sobre el tel\u00f3n de los a\u00f1os cuarenta, produc\u00eda el extra\u00f1o efecto de estar viendo un documental sobre los Estados Unidos contempor\u00e1neos.En un art\u00edculo para The Hollywood Reporter, Thomas Doherty \u2014profesor de la Brandeis University, especialista en historia cultural y autor de Hollywood y Hitler, 1933-1939\u2014 defini\u00f3 la novela como \u00abun ejercicio escalofriante de ficci\u00f3n especulativa\u00bb. Autor de un libro reciente sobre Lindbergh, a Doherty le consta que entre 1936 y 1938 el aviador visit\u00f3 Alemania seis veces, aceptando una medalla que\u00a0Hitler le concedi\u00f3 y Hermann Goering le puso en el pecho. Cuando la guerra estall\u00f3 en 1939, Lindbergh se convirti\u00f3 en vocero de un comit\u00e9 llamado America First, o sea, Primero Am\u00e9rica (\u00bfles suena?), que presionaba para que su pa\u00eds no entrase en el conflicto. En 1941 ya no ocultaba su antisemitismo. Durante un discurso en Des Moines, Iowa, dijo que quienes quer\u00edan arrastrar a los Estados Unidos a la batalla eran \u00ablos l\u00edderes de las razas brit\u00e1nica y jud\u00eda\u00bb, por razones \u00abque nada tienen de americanas\u00bb; y procedi\u00f3 a acusar a sus compatriotas de origen jud\u00edo de tener una influencia nefasta \u00absobre nuestras pel\u00edculas, nuestra radio y nuestro gobierno\u00bb. 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Ryder en\u00a0La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica. Cr\u00e9dito: 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pesar de narrar hechos proyectados sobre el tel\u00f3n de los a\u00f1os cuarenta, La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica produce el extra\u00f1o efecto de estar viendo un documental sobre los Estados Unidos contempor\u00e1neos.\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"7\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"w14y8il\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"Si la moneda de la historia hubiese ca\u00eddo sobre esa cara y no sobre esta que conocemos, bien podr\u00eda Lindbergh haber \u00abapelado a los peores instintos nacionales, de tal modo que se trajeran a la superficie\u00bb, dice Doherty. Lo deslumbrante es que Roth haya imaginado semejante cosa en tiempos de George W. Bush, cuando surg\u00eda la marea que llevar\u00eda a la Casa Blanca al primer presidente negro, despu\u00e9s de lo cual \u2014lo suger\u00eda la l\u00f3gica evolucionista\u2014 no pod\u00eda sino venir la primera presidenta. Sin embargo, quien se impuso fue una figura medi\u00e1tica que hizo su campa\u00f1a bajo el eslogan \u00abAmerica First\u00bb y apel\u00f3 a un nacionalismo que negaba todas las conquistas sociales obtenidas a partir de los sesenta.\u00a0Donald Trump no tiene grises a ese respecto: es racista, es machista, atribuye la supremac\u00eda mundial de su pa\u00eds a la voluntad divina y persiste en deso\u00edr el concierto de las naciones. Por debajo de su ingenio de estafador de poca monta, no hay semana en la que no produzca pruebas que evidencian cu\u00e1n limitada es su inteligencia. Me hizo re\u00edr meses atr\u00e1s, cuando se enfrent\u00f3 a la prensa para hablar del coronavirus y atribuy\u00f3 su \u00abnatural habilidad\u00bb para entender de ciencia al hecho de que tiene un t\u00edo que ense\u00f1\u00f3 en el MIT y es un \u00abgreat super genius\u00bb, el doctor John Trump. El mundo lidia con una pandemia, y el l\u00edder del pa\u00eds m\u00e1s poderoso cree que el conocimiento se transmite por l\u00ednea gen\u00e9tica indirecta.Pero lo m\u00e1s impresionante de La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica no es tanto su vaticinio sobre el resistible ascenso de una figura pol\u00e9mica que, sin embargo, domina los medios como nadie, sino la forma en que describe c\u00f3mo el fascismo cala en la vida cotidiana, a trav\u00e9s de incrementos m\u00ednimos, gota tras gota, arrancando concesiones que parecen nimias a familias del com\u00fan \u2014como en su momento la de Roth\u2014, hasta que un d\u00eda descubren que perdieron derechos esenciales y el vecino que antes les sonre\u00eda grita ahora que sue\u00f1a con una \u00abAmerica Judenfrei\u00bb \u2014un pa\u00eds libre de jud\u00edos.O de gente de color. O de inmigrantes. Una vez que se encuentran razones socialmente aceptadas para tachar de la lista sectores enteros de la poblaci\u00f3n, cualquier etnia o minor\u00eda puede recibir un pulgar que apunte hacia abajo.Por supuesto, Roth no sit\u00faa el problema tan solo en el mundo exterior \u2014ese ser\u00eda el camino f\u00e1cil\u2014, sino tambi\u00e9n en el coraz\u00f3n de su familia. La t\u00eda Evelyn (Winona Ryder, en la serie) se casa con el rabino Bengelsdorf (John Turturro), uno de los l\u00edderes de la comunidad jud\u00eda de Newark que, a pesar del antisemitismo de Lindbergh, lo apoy\u00f3 en su carrera a la Casa Blanca. El hermano mayor de Roth, Sandy, es seleccionado por una iniciativa llamada Oficina de Absorci\u00f3n Americana (OAA) y enviado al sur para ser \u00abamericanizado\u00bb. Cuando regresa, expresa desprecio por los suyos, a quienes define como \u00abjud\u00edos del gueto\u00bb. El primo Alvin va a la guerra, convencido de la necesidad de derrotar a Hitler, pero vuelve con una pierna menos y un gran escepticismo, porque \u00abya no soportaba la carga de preocuparse por el sufrimiento de nadie excepto el suyo propio\u00bb. Y a medida que las semanas transcurren \u2014la novela cubre un per\u00edodo de poco m\u00e1s de dos a\u00f1os\u2014, la violencia hacia los estadounidenses de ese origen se hace brutal y desembozada, hasta el punto de que \u00ablos gentiles matan jud\u00edos en las calles\u00bb.El relato de Roth es devastador en su descripci\u00f3n de una cotidianeidad que va contamin\u00e1ndose de a poco, normalizando actitudes antidemocr\u00e1ticas que parec\u00edan impensables poco tiempo atr\u00e1s. Presionada por la sociedad y los medios, mucha gente empieza a tolerar situaciones que ayer se pensaban intolerables. En un momento el peque\u00f1o Philip hace una lista de las cosas que hasta entonces no hab\u00edan ocurrido y concluye: \u00abNunca hasta entonces... ese fue el gran estribillo de 1942\u00bb.\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"45\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3hmy552\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"El relato de Roth es devastador en su descripci\u00f3n de una cotidianeidad que va contamin\u00e1ndose de a poco, normalizando actitudes antidemocr\u00e1ticas que parec\u00edan impensables poco tiempo atr\u00e1s.\u00a0\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3nv8qxz\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"Su padre, Herman, vendedor de seguros, que dio por bueno el Sue\u00f1o Americano y adopt\u00f3 como pr\u00f3cer al Lincoln del discurso de Gettysburg, para quien \u00abtodos los hombres han sido creados iguales\u00bb, es quien, desde el principio, se resiste con m\u00e1s fuerzas a lo que viene. \u00abTodos los d\u00edas me hago la misma pregunta\u00bb, reflexiona. \u00ab\u00bfC\u00f3mo es posible que una cosa as\u00ed est\u00e9 pasando en Norteam\u00e9rica? \u00bfC\u00f3mo es posible que personas as\u00ed est\u00e9n al frente de nuestro pa\u00eds? Si no lo viera con mis propios ojos, pensar\u00eda que estoy sufriendo una alucinaci\u00f3n.\u00bb Este estado de \u00e1nimo, que Roth le atribuy\u00f3 a comienzos de este siglo a la versi\u00f3n alternativa de su padre, \u00bfno es id\u00e9ntico al de tantos ciudadanos durante los \u00faltimos cuatro a\u00f1os? \u00bfNo es id\u00e9ntico al de tantos estadounidenses hoy, que se agarraban la cabeza cuando escuchaban a Trump acusar al coronavirus de ser un mal \u00abextranjero\u00bb, como si los g\u00e9rmenes tuviesen patria, y aprovechar la pandemia para machacar sobre su nacionalismo marca America First?La adaptaci\u00f3n a la televisi\u00f3n de La conjura contra Am\u00e9rica\u00a0lleg\u00f3 en un momento inmejorable, porque ficcionaliz\u00f3 una psicosis colectiva que estamos viviendo en tiempo real. Tanto la novela como la miniserie ponen en acto lo que ocurre cuando una sociedad sucumbe a sus peores instintos. All\u00ed el mal es el racismo, espec\u00edficamente el antisemitismo. Pero en estos d\u00edas generosos en materia de gente con barbijos, aeropuertos desiertos y desconfianza hacia las manos tendidas, pensar en la naturaleza viral del prejuicio no solo es oportuno, es puro instinto de 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estos d\u00edas generosos en materia de gente con barbijos, aeropuertos desiertos y desconfianza hacia las manos tendidas, pensar en la naturaleza viral del prejuicio no solo es oportuno, es puro instinto de 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10 minutos
Ben Cole y John Turturro en La conjura contra América. Crédito: HBO.
Por MARCELO FIGUERAS
«En 1940 éramos una familia feliz», dice el pequeño Philip Roth, que en esa fecha tenía siete años. Pero entonces Charles Lindbergh irrumpe en la vida política de su país: fotogénico como una estrella de cine, claro y conciso en sus mensajes públicos y apoyado por un sector de la comunidad judía que ayuda a «volverlo kosher», se impone «gracias a una victoria aplastante en unas elecciones imparciales y libres». «Nuestros vecinos empezaron lentamente a tener más fe en las convicciones optimistas del rabino Bengelsdorf que en las atroces profecías de Walter Winchell», dice el adulto Philip, refiriéndose al célebre columnista que, en las páginas de la novela que Roth tituló La conjura contra América, encabeza la oposición política a Lindbergh…Estamos habituados a que la ficción se inspire en hechos reales y a que ciertas noticias parezcan sacadas de una ficción. Lo que nada tiene de común es que ese juego especular se vuelva cíclico, de modo que una ficción intervenga sobre la realidad y que la realidad intervenida altere la lectura de esa narrativa original, a la manera de una banda de Moebius.Eso es lo que ha ocurrido con La conjura contra América (The Plot Against America, 2004). Cuando imaginó qué habría pasado si —contrariamente a lo que indican las crónicas— en las elecciones de 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt hubiese perdido ante el popular aviador Charles Lindbergh, practicó a conciencia el género llamado «ucronía»: una historia alternativa a la historia, en este caso una biografía especulativa, ya que la historia está narrada por un Roth que «recuerda» su infancia y lo padecido por su familia en ese pasado hipotético.Aunque es posible especular que ya le perturbaba la vitalidad de la veta fascista de un sector de su sociedad, no creo que Roth imaginase que eclosionaría tan rápido, y del modo en que la detonó la presidencia de Donald Trump. Pero —rizando aún más el rizo digno de Moebius— en 2020, cuando David Simon estrenó en HBO la miniserie basada en el libro, La conjura contra América no podía leerse como una simple adaptación, sino como un artefacto mucho más complejo. Era un relato audiovisual que tomaba el ejercicio imaginativo de Philip Roth y al mismo tiempo, aun a pesar de narrar hechos proyectados sobre el telón de los años cuarenta, producía el extraño efecto de estar viendo un documental sobre los Estados Unidos contemporáneos.En un artículo para The Hollywood Reporter, Thomas Doherty —profesor de la Brandeis University, especialista en historia cultural y autor de Hollywood y Hitler, 1933-1939— definió la novela como «un ejercicio escalofriante de ficción especulativa». Autor de un libro reciente sobre Lindbergh, a Doherty le consta que entre 1936 y 1938 el aviador visitó Alemania seis veces, aceptando una medalla que Hitler le concedió y Hermann Goering le puso en el pecho. Cuando la guerra estalló en 1939, Lindbergh se convirtió en vocero de un comité llamado America First, o sea, Primero América (¿les suena?), que presionaba para que su país no entrase en el conflicto. En 1941 ya no ocultaba su antisemitismo. Durante un discurso en Des Moines, Iowa, dijo que quienes querían arrastrar a los Estados Unidos a la batalla eran «los líderes de las razas británica y judía», por razones «que nada tienen de americanas»; y procedió a acusar a sus compatriotas de origen judío de tener una influencia nefasta «sobre nuestras películas, nuestra radio y nuestro gobierno». Por eso mismo Doherty considera que la licencia que Roth se toma respecto de la realidad es «más plausible cuanto más se la considera».
Winona Ryder en La conjura contra América. Crédito: HBO.
A pesar de narrar hechos proyectados sobre el telón de los años cuarenta, La conjura contra América produce el extraño efecto de estar viendo un documental sobre los Estados Unidos contemporáneos.
Si la moneda de la historia hubiese caído sobre esa cara y no sobre esta que conocemos, bien podría Lindbergh haber «apelado a los peores instintos nacionales, de tal modo que se trajeran a la superficie», dice Doherty. Lo deslumbrante es que Roth haya imaginado semejante cosa en tiempos de George W. Bush, cuando surgía la marea que llevaría a la Casa Blanca al primer presidente negro, después de lo cual —lo sugería la lógica evolucionista— no podía sino venir la primera presidenta. Sin embargo, quien se impuso fue una figura mediática que hizo su campaña bajo el eslogan «America First» y apeló a un nacionalismo que negaba todas las conquistas sociales obtenidas a partir de los sesenta. Donald Trump no tiene grises a ese respecto: es racista, es machista, atribuye la supremacía mundial de su país a la voluntad divina y persiste en desoír el concierto de las naciones. Por debajo de su ingenio de estafador de poca monta, no hay semana en la que no produzca pruebas que evidencian cuán limitada es su inteligencia. Me hizo reír meses atrás, cuando se enfrentó a la prensa para hablar del coronavirus y atribuyó su «natural habilidad» para entender de ciencia al hecho de que tiene un tío que enseñó en el MIT y es un «great super genius», el doctor John Trump. El mundo lidia con una pandemia, y el líder del país más poderoso cree que el conocimiento se transmite por línea genética indirecta.Pero lo más impresionante de La conjura contra América no es tanto su vaticinio sobre el resistible ascenso de una figura polémica que, sin embargo, domina los medios como nadie, sino la forma en que describe cómo el fascismo cala en la vida cotidiana, a través de incrementos mínimos, gota tras gota, arrancando concesiones que parecen nimias a familias del común —como en su momento la de Roth—, hasta que un día descubren que perdieron derechos esenciales y el vecino que antes les sonreía grita ahora que sueña con una «America Judenfrei» —un país libre de judíos.O de gente de color. O de inmigrantes. Una vez que se encuentran razones socialmente aceptadas para tachar de la lista sectores enteros de la población, cualquier etnia o minoría puede recibir un pulgar que apunte hacia abajo.Por supuesto, Roth no sitúa el problema tan solo en el mundo exterior —ese sería el camino fácil—, sino también en el corazón de su familia. La tía Evelyn (Winona Ryder, en la serie) se casa con el rabino Bengelsdorf (John Turturro), uno de los líderes de la comunidad judía de Newark que, a pesar del antisemitismo de Lindbergh, lo apoyó en su carrera a la Casa Blanca. El hermano mayor de Roth, Sandy, es seleccionado por una iniciativa llamada Oficina de Absorción Americana (OAA) y enviado al sur para ser «americanizado». Cuando regresa, expresa desprecio por los suyos, a quienes define como «judíos del gueto». El primo Alvin va a la guerra, convencido de la necesidad de derrotar a Hitler, pero vuelve con una pierna menos y un gran escepticismo, porque «ya no soportaba la carga de preocuparse por el sufrimiento de nadie excepto el suyo propio». Y a medida que las semanas transcurren —la novela cubre un período de poco más de dos años—, la violencia hacia los estadounidenses de ese origen se hace brutal y desembozada, hasta el punto de que «los gentiles matan judíos en las calles».El relato de Roth es devastador en su descripción de una cotidianeidad que va contaminándose de a poco, normalizando actitudes antidemocráticas que parecían impensables poco tiempo atrás. Presionada por la sociedad y los medios, mucha gente empieza a tolerar situaciones que ayer se pensaban intolerables. En un momento el pequeño Philip hace una lista de las cosas que hasta entonces no habían ocurrido y concluye: «Nunca hasta entonces... ese fue el gran estribillo de 1942».
El relato de Roth es devastador en su descripción de una cotidianeidad que va contaminándose de a poco, normalizando actitudes antidemocráticas que parecían impensables poco tiempo atrás. 
Su padre, Herman, vendedor de seguros, que dio por bueno el Sueño Americano y adoptó como prócer al Lincoln del discurso de Gettysburg, para quien «todos los hombres han sido creados iguales», es quien, desde el principio, se resiste con más fuerzas a lo que viene. «Todos los días me hago la misma pregunta», reflexiona. «¿Cómo es posible que una cosa así esté pasando en Norteamérica? ¿Cómo es posible que personas así estén al frente de nuestro país? Si no lo viera con mis propios ojos, pensaría que estoy sufriendo una alucinación.» Este estado de ánimo, que Roth le atribuyó a comienzos de este siglo a la versión alternativa de su padre, ¿no es idéntico al de tantos ciudadanos durante los últimos cuatro años? ¿No es idéntico al de tantos estadounidenses hoy, que se agarraban la cabeza cuando escuchaban a Trump acusar al coronavirus de ser un mal «extranjero», como si los gérmenes tuviesen patria, y aprovechar la pandemia para machacar sobre su nacionalismo marca America First?La adaptación a la televisión de La conjura contra América llegó en un momento inmejorable, porque ficcionalizó una psicosis colectiva que estamos viviendo en tiempo real. Tanto la novela como la miniserie ponen en acto lo que ocurre cuando una sociedad sucumbe a sus peores instintos. Allí el mal es el racismo, específicamente el antisemitismo. Pero en estos días generosos en materia de gente con barbijos, aeropuertos desiertos y desconfianza hacia las manos tendidas, pensar en la naturaleza viral del prejuicio no solo es oportuno, es puro instinto de supervivencia.
En estos días generosos en materia de gente con barbijos, aeropuertos desiertos y desconfianza hacia las manos tendidas, pensar en la naturaleza viral del prejuicio no solo es oportuno, es puro instinto de supervivencia.
Meses atrás, escenas como las que vemos a diario hubiesen sonado a demencia propia de serie o película distópica. («La calamidad, cuando llega, lo hace a toda prisa», reflexiona Roth.) Pero si bien trabajamos a partir de la hipótesis de que una pandemia tiene origen natural y por eso es impredecible, lo que nada tienen de naturales son las condiciones que permiten que el mal se difunda como lo hace sin poder ser contenido en tiempo y forma. (Paradójicamente, hay otra novela de Roth que amerita ser leída en tándem con La conjura: se llama Némesis y utiliza la epidemia de la polio en 1944 para hablar de los efectos de una peste ya no sobre los cuerpos, sino sobre las almas que conforman una comunidad.) Cuando una enfermedad semejante cunde en una sociedad donde los servicios de salud son carísimos y, por ende, excluyentes, ¿qué termina siendo más mortífero: los bichitos que se te meten en el cuerpo o el capitalismo salvaje que toma derechos esenciales y los convierte en privilegios? En los tramos finales de la novela, Roth hace que el legendario alcalde de Nueva York Fiorello La Guardia exprese el dilema en sus términos más elementales: «Hay una conjura en marcha, desde luego, y mencionaré gustosamente las fuerzas que la impulsan: la histeria, la ignorancia, la maldad, la estupidez, el odio y el miedo. ¡En qué repugnante espectáculo se ha convertido nuestro país!».
La novela, la serie y la realidad se han entreverado de modo tal que se han potenciado entre sí y magnificado la advertencia común a las tres, que el Herman Roth de la ficción plantea así: «¿He de quedarme aquí sentado, esperando a que ocurra lo peor?».La reacción instintiva de nuestros cuerpos y almas es inconfundible: no queremos que lo malo se espese al punto de tornarse insalvable, no debemos permitir que el planeta llegue a un punto del que no haya retorno. De lo que se trata es de volver a tomar la historia por las astas; porque es la única ciencia que —según dice Philip Roth y tenemos presente— es capaz de frenar el desastre a tiempo y transformarlo en épica.

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