Entrevistas

Juan Esteban Constaín y el destino como acto de fe

El Mapa de las Lenguas no tiene fronteras ni capitales. Es, en consecuencia, un territorio común para la literatura en un idioma compartido, el español. Invitados por LENGUA, los autores de la edición de 2023 conversan con quienes mejor conocen su obra, sus editores, para exponer su geografía narrativa y explicar cómo sus libros encajan en esta colección panhispánica global. En las siguientes líneas, Juan Esteban Constaín, autor de «Cartas abiertas» (Random House), responde a las preguntas de Natalia Iriarte, editora literaria de Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial en Colombia.

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Iriarte: \u00bfQui\u00e9n es Marcelino Quijano y de d\u00f3nde sali\u00f3 la inspiraci\u00f3n para crear a este personaje?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\/juan-esteban-constain-cartas-abiertas-mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn<\/a><\/span>:<\/strong> Marcelino Quijano y Quadra \u2013as\u00ed, con Q\u2013 es un personaje exc\u00e9ntrico y anacr\u00f3nico o, como \u00e9l mismo dir\u00eda, un \u00abraro y curioso\u00bb. Desde ni\u00f1o prefiere la compa\u00f1\u00eda de los libros antiguos, los peri\u00f3dicos viejos, la gente mayor. Vive en una ciudad (Popay\u00e1n) habitada m\u00e1s por el pasado que por el presente, y \u00e9l encarna ese mundo: vestido con una bata de seda y sat\u00edn, descubre muy r\u00e1pido que nada tiene m\u00e1s valor que la ficci\u00f3n y que en ella est\u00e1 el premio, la consolaci\u00f3n al menos de las miserias de la vida. Esa intuici\u00f3n infantil se le vuelve luego una certeza cuando viaja a Buenos Aires, a los 20 a\u00f1os, y conoce a Karina Garabundo: una ciega extraordinaria y generosa que se dedica a robarles cartas a los carteros de la ciudad para leer en ellas esa novela inconclusa que siempre es la vida de los otros, pero adem\u00e1s de eso para ver si all\u00ed hay alguien que est\u00e9 viviendo una desgracia o una tragedia en la que pueda intervenir, con su riqueza, como una diosa bienhechora y an\u00f3nima. Marcelino se vuelve su socio y su aprendiz, su heredero en ese oficio maravilloso de irrumpir en el correo ajeno como un acto de fe en la literatura que siempre late all\u00ed. La inspiraci\u00f3n de Marcelino est\u00e1, primero, en una noticia que un amigo me mand\u00f3 de un peri\u00f3dico argentino: la historia de un cartero cuya casa, en un pueblito de C\u00f3rdoba, fue allanada un d\u00eda con la presunci\u00f3n de que all\u00ed hab\u00eda un expendio de drogas. Cuando los polic\u00edas entraron quedaron estupefactos al ver miles de cartas regadas y abiertas que el cartero jam\u00e1s entreg\u00f3; cuando le preguntaron por qu\u00e9, contest\u00f3 con un argumento bell\u00edsimo, y es que su suegra, una insaciable lectora, se hab\u00eda quedado ciega y le hab\u00eda empezado a exigir, con la determinaci\u00f3n de toda suegra, que le leyera \u00e9l nuevas historias y ficciones. 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/co.linkedin.com\/in\/natalia-iriarte-guill%C3%A9n-b8b608165\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Natalia Iriarte<\/a><\/span>: Podr\u00edamos decir que Marcelino es un redireccionador de destinos. \u00bfPero existe, acaso, el destino?<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn:<\/strong> El destino es un acto de fe y todo lo que ocurre lo confirma y configura; incluso el azar, dec\u00eda el doctor Marcelino, es la otra cara de la moneda del destino, pero nunca sabemos bien cu\u00e1ndo es qu\u00e9. Para un temperamento supersticioso y metaf\u00edsico (y yo lo soy, al menos un poco) la historia est\u00e1 atravesada por miles de instantes y episodios en los que el azar se hizo destino por eso: por la trascendencia y el significado que acabaron teniendo hechos en apariencia ca\u00f3ticos y contingentes. Hay un caso que siempre me ha impresionado mucho, entre tantos, y es el del archiduque Franz Ferdinand el d\u00eda de su asesinato, pues su carro se extravi\u00f3 de la caravana en la que iba y acab\u00f3 en una calle ciega en la que estaba el asesino comi\u00e9ndose un pan con jam\u00f3n. Ese asesino ya se hab\u00eda resignado a no serlo porque hab\u00eda fallado antes en el intento de atacar al archiduque, en parte por eso estaba all\u00ed en una cafeter\u00eda tom\u00e1ndose un caf\u00e9 y comi\u00e9ndose un s\u00e1ndwich; hab\u00eda desistido. Pero el azar -el destino- quiso que en un instante el carro perdido del heredero de la corona de los Habsburgo quedara justo en frente de la puerta de ese local en el que estaba Gavrilo Princip (ese era su nombre), quien desenfund\u00f3 de inmediato su pistola, sin pensarlo, y mat\u00f3 a Franz Ferdinand y a su esposa Sof\u00eda: fueron las dos primeras balas de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Es muy dif\u00edcil no creer en el destino cuando el azar teje semejantes tramas; es casi absurdo recusar una fuerza tan bella y estremecedora detr\u00e1s de la suerte de nuestra especie humana.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Natalia Iriarte:\u00a0<\/strong><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES-TRAD\\\">\u00bf<\/span><\/b><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"IT\\\">Qu<\/span><\/b><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"FR\\\">\u00e9\u00a0<\/span><span lang=\\\"ES-TRAD\\\">papel juega la literatura en la invenci\u00f3n de la verdad, y c\u00f3mo es esa verdad que s\u00f3lo se puede crear a trav<\/span><\/b><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"FR\\\">\u00e9<\/span><span lang=\\\"ES-TRAD\\\">s de la literatura?<\/span><\/b><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn:<\/strong> Alguna vez, tambi\u00e9n a prop\u00f3sito de <em>Cartas abiertas<\/em> y la relaci\u00f3n que hay entre la historia y la literatura y la verdad y la ficci\u00f3n, dije que el prop\u00f3sito de la historia, como una disciplina intelectual, como una \u00abciencia\u00bb, digamos, y enfatizo en las comillas aunque la historia sin duda lo es: la ciencia social por excelencia, quiz\u00e1s, pero ese es otro tema, alguna vez dije que el prop\u00f3sito de la historia es buscar la verdad mientras que el de la literatura y el arte es decirla, contarla, descubrirla, inventarla. Me gusta mucho la etimolog\u00eda de la palabra invenci\u00f3n porque en el fondo tiene que ver con el verbo latino<em> invenire,<\/em> que se refiere a eso, al hallazgo de algo incierto y nuevo. Esa es la verdad que crea el arte, la que est\u00e1 hecha con sus hilos y su magia, la que arrastra consigo la sustancia de la ficci\u00f3n como aquello que muchas veces supera a la realidad no s\u00f3lo porque es m\u00e1s veros\u00edmil sino m\u00e1s bello, m\u00e1s intenso, m\u00e1s necesario. El caso arquet\u00edpico de esa idea es por supuesto <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36614-libro-don-quijote-de-la-mancha-9788491050759\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el Quijote<\/a><\/span>, que renuncia al mundo en el que vive en nombre de las f\u00e1bulas que lo habitan y rescatan de su aldea polvorienta y decadente. Alonso Quijano (ah) prefiere el mundo de la ficci\u00f3n al de la realidad porque le resulta mucho m\u00e1s digno y aleccionador, mucho m\u00e1s consistente. Siempre cuento la an\u00e9cdota de los armarios de la pel\u00edcula <em>El Gatopardo<\/em>, inspirada en la magn\u00edfica novela de Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (otro de los modelos del doctor Marcelino). Esos armarios, en la pel\u00edcula de Visconti, est\u00e1n llenos de ropa del siglo XIX, \u00e9poca en la que transcurre la novela, en Sicilia. Pero esos armarios no se abren jam\u00e1s, nunca, ni en una sola escena. El jefe de producci\u00f3n le increp\u00f3 a Visconti que hubieran gastado una fortuna para llenar con ropa del siglo XIX esos armarios que jam\u00e1s se abren; Visconti le respondi\u00f3: \u00abEsa ropa es el alma de la pel\u00edcula, all\u00ed est\u00e1 toda su verdad\u00bb.\u00a0 \u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Natalia Iriarte:\u00a0<\/strong><b>Es sabido que muchas veces la realidad supera la ficci\u00f3n, y una an\u00e9cdota particular de esta novela parece demostrarlo. Me refiero a la guerra y a la posterior firma de la paz entre el Reino de B\u00e9lgica y el Estado Soberano de Boyac\u00e1. \u00bfC\u00f3mo se dieron estos acontecimientos y por qu\u00e9 era importante incluirlos en la novela?\u00a0<\/b><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn:<\/strong> Bueno, no creo que fuera importante incluirlos en la novela, fue m\u00e1s bien un rapto que llev\u00f3 la historia de <em>Cartas abiertas<\/em> hacia all\u00e1. Otra vez volvemos al misterio de lo que se vuelve un destino; todo aquello que ocurre porque ten\u00eda que ocurrir, as\u00ed era. Yo ten\u00eda dos historias: la de Marcelino Quijano y Quadra, el ladr\u00f3n de cartas que las abre para intervenir en los destinos de quienes comparecen all\u00ed y cambiarlos para bien, salvarlos, en la medida de lo posible; y ten\u00eda tambi\u00e9n la historia de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Estado_Soberano_de_Boyac%C3%A1\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la guerra entre el Estado Soberano de Boyac\u00e1<\/a><\/span>, en el siglo XIX colombiano, y el Reino de B\u00e9lgica. Esa era en realidad una an\u00e9cdota, un delirio, un leyenda de la vida colombiana que siempre me hab\u00eda fascinado pero nunca pens\u00e9 que le fuera a dar tr\u00e1mite en una novela, aunque el argumento es muy bueno \u2013y queda mal que yo lo diga ahora\u2013: la historia de un caudillo militar que en el federalismo colombiano, y por razones rom\u00e1nticas y cursis, un amor contrariado, le declara la guerra a un pa\u00eds extranjero, en Europa, que no se entera jam\u00e1s. Sobre ese episodio no hay nada en nuestra historia, s\u00f3lo el cuento. Pero lo que s\u00ed ocurri\u00f3 en la realidad fue la llegada, en 1987, de un embajador belga que, al enterarse de semejante disparate, decidi\u00f3 hacer un armisticio para zanjar un conflicto que llevaba m\u00e1s de 120 a\u00f1os abierto. Eso s\u00ed ocurri\u00f3 en 1988 y es asombroso porque es un acto literario, nacido en la vida real, para sellar un episodio de novela que acaso nunca ocurri\u00f3. La ficci\u00f3n se inventa la realidad, la convierte en un hecho hist\u00f3rico por cuenta de un capricho, un golpe de gracia de un embajador con talento y desparpajo. Cuando tuve esas dos tramas en la mano, supe hacia d\u00f3nde ten\u00eda que ir Marcelino Quijano y Quadra. Su participaci\u00f3n all\u00ed es lo que cuenta <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\/juan-esteban-constain-cartas-abiertas-mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cartas abiertas<\/a><\/em><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Natalia Iriarte:\u00a0<\/strong><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES-TRAD\\\">En el mundo contempor\u00e1neo, marcado por la inmediatez de las redes sociales y una mirada constante hacia el futuro, \u00bfpor qu<\/span><\/b><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"FR\\\">\u00e9\u00a0<\/span><span lang=\\\"ES-TRAD\\\">sigue siendo tan relevante el estudio de la historia? \u00bfY por qu<\/span><\/b><b style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"FR\\\">\u00e9\u00a0<\/span><span lang=\\\"ES-TRAD\\\">hay que seguir encontrando nuevas maneras de abordarla?<\/span><\/b><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn:<\/strong> Yo creo que justo por eso: la historia es la ciencia del presente, de todo presente, siempre. Y cuanto m\u00e1s enmara\u00f1ado y trepidante parece el mundo, m\u00e1s urgente se hace conocer la historia, las posibles causas de que todo sea como es. Creo que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/18349-johann-wolfgang-goethe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Goethe<\/a><\/span> dec\u00eda que el historiador es un adivino del pasado, que es una idea que tambi\u00e9n me gusta mucho: nos remontamos en el tiempo, en sus luces y sus sombras, lo que se dijo y lo que no, para desentra\u00f1ar lo que somos, nuestra cara en ese espejo que tambi\u00e9n es un r\u00edo que no para, que siempre fluye. Todas las \u00e9pocas tienen dos percepciones inamovibles: una, que nunca antes hab\u00edan pasado tantas cosas, y dos, que todo tiempo pasado fue mejor. Como en las cartas de Petrarca en las que a\u00f1ora los d\u00edas de Cicer\u00f3n que a\u00f1oraba los d\u00edas de Plat\u00f3n que a\u00f1oraba los d\u00edas de Homero. Nuestra \u00e9poca es muy interesante no s\u00f3lo por lo que est\u00e1 ocurriendo sino tambi\u00e9n por la evidente y desbordante curiosidad hist\u00f3rica de la gente, que sin duda tiene que ver con la complejidad del mundo en el que estamos. Hac\u00eda mucho \u2013quiz\u00e1s desde el siglo XIX\u2013 no se consum\u00eda tanta historia en los m\u00e1s distintos formatos, desde los documentales esot\u00e9ricos hasta los <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/podcast\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">p\u00f3dcasts<\/span><\/a>, por no hablar del trabajo acad\u00e9mico de los historiadores, que es donde est\u00e1 la vanguardia de las nuevas discusiones y los mejores hallazgos de la historia como ciencia. Es all\u00ed donde la literatura puede prestarle un servicio inmejorable a la historia porque en el fondo se trata tambi\u00e9n de un desaf\u00edo narrativo (algo que hoy importa tanto): c\u00f3mo contar las cosas, c\u00f3mo hacer que las ideas m\u00e1s rigurosas y consistentes susciten el inter\u00e9s de quienes quiz\u00e1s tengan curiosidad pero no siempre encausada hacia los mejores relatos. Al final yo creo que la variedad es una fortuna y que vivimos en un mundo que la promueve y atiza, as\u00ed los resultados no sean en todas las ocasiones los m\u00e1s dignos y satisfactorios. No importa: hay que colonizar los espacios que se pueda para ensanchar la reflexi\u00f3n, la discusi\u00f3n, la comprensi\u00f3n de lo que somos. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\/juan-esteban-constain-cartas-abiertas-mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abCartas abiertas\u00bb, de Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn: por qu\u00e9 cartas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\/miramar-de-gloria-peirano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abMiramar\u00bb, de Gloria Peirano: escribir en el jard\u00edn de Derek Jarman<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2023\/derroche-de-maria-sonia-cristoff\\\" 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10 minutos
Juan Esteban Constaín. Crédito: David Rugeles cortesía Revista Diners.

Juan Esteban Constaín. Crédito: David Rugeles / cortesía Revista Diners.

La nueva novela de Juan Esteban Constaín es un ejercicio literario que se nutre de la historia, y en ese punto de encuentro entre ambas disciplinas fue que el autor halló el material para escribirla. Su protagonista es Marcelino Quijano y Quadra, un hombre que se dedica a fabricar ficciones, oficio que implica «la falsificación de documentos históricos o pasaportes, la reinvención del pasado, la estratagema del teatro y la simulación y la suplantación para engañar al diablo y rescatar de sus fauces a cuantas más víctimas fuera posible».

Natalia Iriarte: ¿Quién es Marcelino Quijano y de dónde salió la inspiración para crear a este personaje?

Juan Esteban Constaín: Marcelino Quijano y Quadra –así, con Q– es un personaje excéntrico y anacrónico o, como él mismo diría, un «raro y curioso». Desde niño prefiere la compañía de los libros antiguos, los periódicos viejos, la gente mayor. Vive en una ciudad (Popayán) habitada más por el pasado que por el presente, y él encarna ese mundo: vestido con una bata de seda y satín, descubre muy rápido que nada tiene más valor que la ficción y que en ella está el premio, la consolación al menos de las miserias de la vida. Esa intuición infantil se le vuelve luego una certeza cuando viaja a Buenos Aires, a los 20 años, y conoce a Karina Garabundo: una ciega extraordinaria y generosa que se dedica a robarles cartas a los carteros de la ciudad para leer en ellas esa novela inconclusa que siempre es la vida de los otros, pero además de eso para ver si allí hay alguien que esté viviendo una desgracia o una tragedia en la que pueda intervenir, con su riqueza, como una diosa bienhechora y anónima. Marcelino se vuelve su socio y su aprendiz, su heredero en ese oficio maravilloso de irrumpir en el correo ajeno como un acto de fe en la literatura que siempre late allí. La inspiración de Marcelino está, primero, en una noticia que un amigo me mandó de un periódico argentino: la historia de un cartero cuya casa, en un pueblito de Córdoba, fue allanada un día con la presunción de que allí había un expendio de drogas. Cuando los policías entraron quedaron estupefactos al ver miles de cartas regadas y abiertas que el cartero jamás entregó; cuando le preguntaron por qué, contestó con un argumento bellísimo, y es que su suegra, una insaciable lectora, se había quedado ciega y le había empezado a exigir, con la determinación de toda suegra, que le leyera él nuevas historias y ficciones. El cartero, en vez de comprar libros para su suegra, decidió que lo mejor era abrir las cartas que llevaba en su morral y leérselas a ella como si se tratara de una novela, algo no del todo equivocado. Esa imagen, la de un ladrón de cartas y una ciega que las oye como si fueran un relato, fue para mí el detonante de Cartas abiertas. Ya después la estampa y la personalidad de Marcelino está hecha de otros elementos, de muchos arquetipos en los que pensé para teñirlo: Harold Laski, Pessoa, Joyce, Walter Benjamin, algo así.

Natalia Iriarte: Podríamos decir que Marcelino es un redireccionador de destinos. ¿Pero existe, acaso, el destino?

Juan Esteban Constaín: El destino es un acto de fe y todo lo que ocurre lo confirma y configura; incluso el azar, decía el doctor Marcelino, es la otra cara de la moneda del destino, pero nunca sabemos bien cuándo es qué. Para un temperamento supersticioso y metafísico (y yo lo soy, al menos un poco) la historia está atravesada por miles de instantes y episodios en los que el azar se hizo destino por eso: por la trascendencia y el significado que acabaron teniendo hechos en apariencia caóticos y contingentes. Hay un caso que siempre me ha impresionado mucho, entre tantos, y es el del archiduque Franz Ferdinand el día de su asesinato, pues su carro se extravió de la caravana en la que iba y acabó en una calle ciega en la que estaba el asesino comiéndose un pan con jamón. Ese asesino ya se había resignado a no serlo porque había fallado antes en el intento de atacar al archiduque, en parte por eso estaba allí en una cafetería tomándose un café y comiéndose un sándwich; había desistido. Pero el azar -el destino- quiso que en un instante el carro perdido del heredero de la corona de los Habsburgo quedara justo en frente de la puerta de ese local en el que estaba Gavrilo Princip (ese era su nombre), quien desenfundó de inmediato su pistola, sin pensarlo, y mató a Franz Ferdinand y a su esposa Sofía: fueron las dos primeras balas de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Es muy difícil no creer en el destino cuando el azar teje semejantes tramas; es casi absurdo recusar una fuerza tan bella y estremecedora detrás de la suerte de nuestra especie humana.  

Natalia Iriarte: ¿Qué papel juega la literatura en la invención de la verdad, y cómo es esa verdad que sólo se puede crear a través de la literatura?

Juan Esteban Constaín: Alguna vez, también a propósito de Cartas abiertas y la relación que hay entre la historia y la literatura y la verdad y la ficción, dije que el propósito de la historia, como una disciplina intelectual, como una «ciencia», digamos, y enfatizo en las comillas aunque la historia sin duda lo es: la ciencia social por excelencia, quizás, pero ese es otro tema, alguna vez dije que el propósito de la historia es buscar la verdad mientras que el de la literatura y el arte es decirla, contarla, descubrirla, inventarla. Me gusta mucho la etimología de la palabra invención porque en el fondo tiene que ver con el verbo latino invenire, que se refiere a eso, al hallazgo de algo incierto y nuevo. Esa es la verdad que crea el arte, la que está hecha con sus hilos y su magia, la que arrastra consigo la sustancia de la ficción como aquello que muchas veces supera a la realidad no sólo porque es más verosímil sino más bello, más intenso, más necesario. El caso arquetípico de esa idea es por supuesto el Quijote, que renuncia al mundo en el que vive en nombre de las fábulas que lo habitan y rescatan de su aldea polvorienta y decadente. Alonso Quijano (ah) prefiere el mundo de la ficción al de la realidad porque le resulta mucho más digno y aleccionador, mucho más consistente. Siempre cuento la anécdota de los armarios de la película El Gatopardo, inspirada en la magnífica novela de Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (otro de los modelos del doctor Marcelino). Esos armarios, en la película de Visconti, están llenos de ropa del siglo XIX, época en la que transcurre la novela, en Sicilia. Pero esos armarios no se abren jamás, nunca, ni en una sola escena. El jefe de producción le increpó a Visconti que hubieran gastado una fortuna para llenar con ropa del siglo XIX esos armarios que jamás se abren; Visconti le respondió: «Esa ropa es el alma de la película, allí está toda su verdad».    

Natalia Iriarte: Es sabido que muchas veces la realidad supera la ficción, y una anécdota particular de esta novela parece demostrarlo. Me refiero a la guerra y a la posterior firma de la paz entre el Reino de Bélgica y el Estado Soberano de Boyacá. ¿Cómo se dieron estos acontecimientos y por qué era importante incluirlos en la novela? 

Juan Esteban Constaín: Bueno, no creo que fuera importante incluirlos en la novela, fue más bien un rapto que llevó la historia de Cartas abiertas hacia allá. Otra vez volvemos al misterio de lo que se vuelve un destino; todo aquello que ocurre porque tenía que ocurrir, así era. Yo tenía dos historias: la de Marcelino Quijano y Quadra, el ladrón de cartas que las abre para intervenir en los destinos de quienes comparecen allí y cambiarlos para bien, salvarlos, en la medida de lo posible; y tenía también la historia de la guerra entre el Estado Soberano de Boyacá, en el siglo XIX colombiano, y el Reino de Bélgica. Esa era en realidad una anécdota, un delirio, un leyenda de la vida colombiana que siempre me había fascinado pero nunca pensé que le fuera a dar trámite en una novela, aunque el argumento es muy bueno –y queda mal que yo lo diga ahora–: la historia de un caudillo militar que en el federalismo colombiano, y por razones románticas y cursis, un amor contrariado, le declara la guerra a un país extranjero, en Europa, que no se entera jamás. Sobre ese episodio no hay nada en nuestra historia, sólo el cuento. Pero lo que sí ocurrió en la realidad fue la llegada, en 1987, de un embajador belga que, al enterarse de semejante disparate, decidió hacer un armisticio para zanjar un conflicto que llevaba más de 120 años abierto. Eso sí ocurrió en 1988 y es asombroso porque es un acto literario, nacido en la vida real, para sellar un episodio de novela que acaso nunca ocurrió. La ficción se inventa la realidad, la convierte en un hecho histórico por cuenta de un capricho, un golpe de gracia de un embajador con talento y desparpajo. Cuando tuve esas dos tramas en la mano, supe hacia dónde tenía que ir Marcelino Quijano y Quadra. Su participación allí es lo que cuenta Cartas abiertas

Natalia Iriarte: En el mundo contemporáneo, marcado por la inmediatez de las redes sociales y una mirada constante hacia el futuro, ¿por qué sigue siendo tan relevante el estudio de la historia? ¿Y por qué hay que seguir encontrando nuevas maneras de abordarla?

Juan Esteban Constaín: Yo creo que justo por eso: la historia es la ciencia del presente, de todo presente, siempre. Y cuanto más enmarañado y trepidante parece el mundo, más urgente se hace conocer la historia, las posibles causas de que todo sea como es. Creo que Goethe decía que el historiador es un adivino del pasado, que es una idea que también me gusta mucho: nos remontamos en el tiempo, en sus luces y sus sombras, lo que se dijo y lo que no, para desentrañar lo que somos, nuestra cara en ese espejo que también es un río que no para, que siempre fluye. Todas las épocas tienen dos percepciones inamovibles: una, que nunca antes habían pasado tantas cosas, y dos, que todo tiempo pasado fue mejor. Como en las cartas de Petrarca en las que añora los días de Cicerón que añoraba los días de Platón que añoraba los días de Homero. Nuestra época es muy interesante no sólo por lo que está ocurriendo sino también por la evidente y desbordante curiosidad histórica de la gente, que sin duda tiene que ver con la complejidad del mundo en el que estamos. Hacía mucho –quizás desde el siglo XIX– no se consumía tanta historia en los más distintos formatos, desde los documentales esotéricos hasta los pódcasts, por no hablar del trabajo académico de los historiadores, que es donde está la vanguardia de las nuevas discusiones y los mejores hallazgos de la historia como ciencia. Es allí donde la literatura puede prestarle un servicio inmejorable a la historia porque en el fondo se trata también de un desafío narrativo (algo que hoy importa tanto): cómo contar las cosas, cómo hacer que las ideas más rigurosas y consistentes susciten el interés de quienes quizás tengan curiosidad pero no siempre encausada hacia los mejores relatos. Al final yo creo que la variedad es una fortuna y que vivimos en un mundo que la promueve y atiza, así los resultados no sean en todas las ocasiones los más dignos y satisfactorios. No importa: hay que colonizar los espacios que se pueda para ensanchar la reflexión, la discusión, la comprensión de lo que somos. La historia y la literatura, allí, son el motor de una fascinante puerta giratoria.

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