Literatura

Día de Muertos: «Bajo el volcán» o cómo volver a la habitación del monstruo

Si hay una novela que le rinde honores al Día de Muertos, ésa es «Bajo el volcán»: ambientada esencialmente en ese día de 1938, el descenso etílico a los infiernos del ex cónsul británico Geoffrey Firmin en la ciudad de Cuernavaca es a la vez un despliegue de la fuerza vital y autodestructiva del siglo XX, de las técnicas narrativas más sofisticadas que lo acercan a nombres como Virginia Woolf y William Faulkner y un mapa de referencias a la tradición cultural occidental que lo vincula con James Joyce. Para Julián Herbert —tal como explica en este prólogo incluido en la edición actual de Literatura Random House y que LENGUA publica para celebrar este Día de Muertos—, todo eso es cierto pero también algo más: la novela del inglés Malcolm Lowry, una de las grandes obras del siglo XX, es el testimonio del doloroso regreso por el camino del arte a la habitación del monstruo original.
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Para Juli\u00e1n Herbert, tal como explica en este pr\u00f3logo, la novela de Malcolm Lowry es el testimonio del doloroso regreso por el camino del arte a la habitaci\u00f3n del monstruo.","meta_keywords":" Revista LENGUA Bajo el volc\u00e1n Malcolm Lowry Juli\u00e1n Herbert D\u00eda de Muertos","short_content":"<p>Si hay una novela que le rinde honores al D\u00eda de Muertos, \u00e9sa es \u00abBajo el volc\u00e1n\u00bb: ambientada esencialmente en ese d\u00eda de 1938, el descenso et\u00edlico a los infiernos del ex c\u00f3nsul brit\u00e1nico Geoffrey Firmin en la ciudad de Cuernavaca es a la vez un despliegue de la fuerza vital y autodestructiva del siglo XX, de las t\u00e9cnicas narrativas m\u00e1s sofisticadas que lo acercan a nombres como Virginia Woolf y William Faulkner y un mapa de referencias a la tradici\u00f3n cultural occidental que lo vincula con James Joyce. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Malcolm Lowry en una escena del documental \u00abVOLCANO: An Inquiry into the Life of Malcolm Lowry\u00bb, de 1976, dirigida por Donald Brittain. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4636-julian-herbert\\\">JULI\u00c1N HERBERT<\/a><\/span><\/strong><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.upf.edu\/es\/web\/humanitats\/entry\/-\/-\/15900\/404\/miquel-berga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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septiembre de 1968, en una entrevista concedida a Mar\u00eda Josefina Tejeda para <em>El Nacional<\/em> de Caracas, Jos\u00e9 Revueltas hizo una declaraci\u00f3n fervorosa e inequ\u00edvoca: \u00abTodav\u00eda no hemos llegado al nivel de la gran novela norteamericana o europea. \u00bfQu\u00e9 gran novela mexicana hay comparable a<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26518-bajo-el-volcan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0de Malcolm Lowry? Yo ser\u00eda el m\u00e1s ferviente admirador y subordinado de un Malcolm Lowry mexicano\u00bb. La opini\u00f3n me interesa por la evidente confluencia existencial entre ambos autores, en particular su periplo a trav\u00e9s de la luz negra del alcohol, un milagro envenenado al que no soy ajeno. Pero tambi\u00e9n por lo que ata\u00f1e al realismo dial\u00e9ctico, esa \u00abliteratura del lado moridor\u00bb acerca de la cual Revueltas teoriz\u00f3 larga y confusamente, y en cuyas m\u00e1rgenes M\u00e9xico aparece \u2014entre otras muchas y agudas observaciones que vinculan lo pol\u00edtico a lo sagrado\u2014 como s\u00edmbolo de una experiencia espiritual llamada infierno.<\/p><p>La primera edici\u00f3n en espa\u00f1ol de <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em> \u2014en la misma traducci\u00f3n que publica ahora Literatura Random House\u2014 apareci\u00f3 en 1964. Ignoro si Revueltas conoci\u00f3 la obra de Lowry antes de esa fecha, pero lo dudo. De ah\u00ed que me parezca relevante traer a colaci\u00f3n el pr\u00f3logo a la reedici\u00f3n de 1961 de <em>Los muros de agua<\/em>, donde el mexicano establece lowryanamente que: \u00abLa realidad debe ser ordenada, discriminada, armonizada dentro de una composici\u00f3n sometida a determinados requisitos. Pero estos requisitos tampoco son arbitrarios; existen fuera de nosotros; son, dig\u00e1moslo as\u00ed, el modo que tiene la realidad de dejarse que la seleccionemos.<\/p><p>La realidad tiene un movimiento interno propio, que no es ese torbellino que se nos muestra en su apariencia inmediata, donde todo parece tirar en mil direcciones a la vez. Tenemos entonces que saber cu\u00e1l es la direcci\u00f3n fundamental, a qu\u00e9 punto se dirige. Dicho movimiento interno de la realidad tiene su modo, tiene su m\u00e9todo, para decirlo con la palabra exacta (su \\\"lado moridor\\\", como dice el pueblo.) 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Si Jos\u00e9 \u2014en <em>El luto humano<\/em> o en las primeras p\u00e1ginas de <em>Los d\u00edas terrenales<\/em>\u2014 borda tal tesitura al amparo de met\u00e1foras b\u00edblicas, para Malcolm ser\u00e1n la <em>Divina Comedia<\/em> y el <em>Fausto<\/em> de Marlowe la doble matriz simb\u00f3lica de donde emerjan las im\u00e1genes siniestras que son leitmotiv de<em> Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em>. 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vez sea este peculiar ejercicio de palimpsesto sublime y aun solemne lo que hace tan aut\u00e9ntica la p\u00e1tina de mexicanidad (entendida \u00e9sta como metonimia cultural y paradigma infernal, no en un sentido nacionalista) implementada por Lowry. A diferencia del de D. H. Lawrence, que confunde a los aztecas con una mascarada veneciana; o el de Graham Greene, cuyo catolicismo no logra diferenciar una pol\u00edtica oficial de una idiosincrasia; o el de William Burroughs, quien nunca pretendi\u00f3 ser algo m\u00e1s que un turista despistado y <em>punk-avant-la-lettre<\/em>, el M\u00e9xico que Malcolm Lowry consigue dibujar es verdadero no en un sentido hist\u00f3rico sino po\u00e9tico; porque su sentimiento de la realidad cotidiana est\u00e1 a la altura del mito y el misterio. Un bot\u00f3n: \u00bfqu\u00e9 superficie narrativa esbozar\u00eda con mayor profundidad este pa\u00eds que un veloz tratamiento del perpetuo temor a ser asesinados y\/o desaparecidos por un polic\u00eda corrupto?... Para la mayor\u00eda de quienes vivimos aqu\u00ed, se trata de una recurrente pesadilla l\u00facida.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"n0zexnp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEl M\u00e9xico que Malcolm Lowry consigue dibujar es verdadero no en un sentido hist\u00f3rico sino po\u00e9tico; porque su sentimiento de la realidad cotidiana est\u00e1 a la altura del mito y el misterio\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hblccuo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Existe por \u00faltimo una sincron\u00eda de la imaginaci\u00f3n epistolar que me impele a evocar a Revueltas y Malcolm Lowry como colegas marineros en las procelosas aguas de lo que el primero de ellos bautiz\u00f3 como realismo dial\u00e9ctico. En el pr\u00f3logo de 1961 a <em>Los muros de agua<\/em> (escrito veinte a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de la publicaci\u00f3n original de la obra, pero que por artes de la autoficci\u00f3n retroactiva se lee hoy como la primera pieza cronol\u00f3gica en el corpus de su autor) aparece consignada una carta que Jos\u00e9 envi\u00f3 a Mar\u00eda Teresa, su mujer, desde un leprosario en Guadalajara en 1955. El texto \u2014uno de los pasajes m\u00e1s rebozantes de <em>pathos<\/em> de la literatura mexicana\u2014 crea un efecto de metaficci\u00f3n que permite a Revueltas corregir su propia obra sin introducir en ella ning\u00fan cambio directo, am\u00e9n de sentar las bases te\u00f3ricas de su visi\u00f3n narrativa, del horror diferido que genera la realidad cuando es transformada en realismo por un punto de vista.<\/p><p>Paralelamente, en el primer cap\u00edtulo de <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em>, Jacques Laruelle encuentra dentro del libro de teatro elizabethiano que le prest\u00f3 hace m\u00e1s de un a\u00f1o el c\u00f3nsul (y que ya nunca podr\u00e1 ser devuelto a su due\u00f1o) una carta que Geoffrey escribi\u00f3 (pero jam\u00e1s envi\u00f3) a Yvonne antes de los sucesos narrados en la novela (el primer cap\u00edtulo de <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em> sucede el D\u00eda de Muertos de 1939; los once restantes, el D\u00eda de Muertos de 1938). Cima de una desesperaci\u00f3n demasiado articulada como para ser soportable, la carta del c\u00f3nsul prefigura el regreso de Yvonne a Quauhn\u00e1huac, la ca\u00edda definitiva del protagonista derrotado por la nitidez de sus delirios, y el dolor colectivo de las traiciones \u00edntimas apenas entredichas que involucran a Hugh, el medio hermano de Geoffrey, y al propio Laruelle. La misiva narra tambi\u00e9n un viaje a Oaxaca que se cuenta entre los pasajes m\u00e1s soberbios de la prosa de Lowry, y que culmina con esta cita ya cl\u00e1sica: \u00abY as\u00ed, a veces me veo como un gran explorador que ha descubierto alg\u00fan pa\u00eds extraordinario del que jam\u00e1s podr\u00e1 regresar para darlo a conocer al mundo: porque el nombre de esta tierra es el infierno\u00bb.<\/p><p>El tono del ficticio Firmin no difiere demasiado de lo que escribi\u00f3 el hist\u00f3rico Revueltas en su propia carta acerca de la manera en que los infantes del leprosario tapat\u00edo que visit\u00f3 en 1955 se entretienen: \u00abLos ni\u00f1os, para jugar, se ponen esas horribles m\u00e1scaras de hule que, ahora me doy cuenta, no son sino de leprosos. \u00bfD\u00f3nde se puede ver que esto sea un juego y una diversi\u00f3n? Solo entre nosotros. Somos un pa\u00eds incre\u00edble. De demonios\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"h9m55qf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00a0\u00abY as\u00ed, a veces me veo como un gran explorador que ha descubierto alg\u00fan pa\u00eds extraordinario del que jam\u00e1s podr\u00e1 regresar para darlo a conocer al mundo: porque el nombre de esta tierra es el infierno\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"68d7zzn\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Mi oficio me depar\u00f3 dos sabios maestros, los mejores que un escritor de mi generaci\u00f3n pod\u00eda tener: David Huerta y Rafael Ram\u00edrez Heredia. Del primero aprend\u00ed lo que es la dicci\u00f3n en un poema. El segundo me ense\u00f1\u00f3 pr\u00e1cticamente todo lo que s\u00e9 acerca del punto de vista narrativo. En el caso de el Rayo, un matraz de sus lecciones era <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em>.<\/p><p>Observaba Rafael que la novela de Lowry arranca fuera de centro al menos en sus tres p\u00e1rrafos iniciales: aunque el primer cap\u00edtulo est\u00e1 todo narrado en una tercera persona encarnada en M. Laruelle, esto solo es evidente a partir de la puesta en situaci\u00f3n en el Casino de la Selva, junto al doctor Vigil. Los primeros pasajes \u2014la descripci\u00f3n de la Sierra Madre, los volcanes y el trazo urbano\u2014 son proferidos por una voz en off omnisciente, un poco a la manera de las novelas del siglo XIX.\u00a0<\/p><p>(A m\u00ed este inicio, con su <em>mood<\/em> plano secuencia que va de un <em>wide<\/em> <em>shot<\/em> a un <em>medium close-up<\/em>, siempre me ha recordado las primeras p\u00e1ginas de<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36593-rojo-y-negro-9788491050537\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Rojo y negro<\/em> de Stendhal<\/a><\/span>, otra de mis novelas favoritas.)<\/p><p>\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 eligi\u00f3 Malcolm Lowry entrar as\u00ed en materia? La respuesta sencilla \u2014es la que daba Rafael\u2014 es que esos p\u00e1rrafos son tan grandiosos y su eficacia narrativa es tanta que bien valen una diminuta traici\u00f3n a la t\u00e9cnica. Sin embargo, no es \u00e9sta la \u00fanica ocasi\u00f3n en la que Lowry rompe la l\u00f3gica interna de sus voces encarnadas: en el mismo primer cap\u00edtulo hay un fugaz e innecesario desliz cognitivo de Laruelle a Hugh, y no son infrecuentes las ocasiones en que los cap\u00edtulos atribuidos a la mente de Yvonne son intervenidos por pensamientos de Hugh o del c\u00f3nsul. \u00bfEstoy siendo demasiado quisquilloso? Tal vez, pero es porque deseo llegar a un punto fundamental. Para lograrlo, me valdr\u00e9 de una digresi\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q31pdfs\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 es lo que nos conmueve tanto del c\u00f3nsul, este hombre incapacitado para algo tan elemental como ponerse los calcetines, un loco en llamas que se sienta a beber desde que Dios amanece con una fruici\u00f3n pusil\u00e1nime y, sin embargo, heroica?\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dc6khk5\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"espny2t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hace unos 25 a\u00f1os, en Guanajuato, Tom\u00e1s Segovia era importunado en una conferencia por cierto profesor. El acad\u00e9mico se quejaba de haber encontrado alg\u00fan verso de diez o doce s\u00edlabas en la <em>\u00c9gloga Tercera<\/em> de Garcilaso. Con amorosa paciencia, Tom\u00e1s le respondi\u00f3 algo como esto: \u00abSolo caben dos opciones. La primera, no muy rara, ser\u00eda que nuestra \u00e9poca cuente las s\u00edlabas del espa\u00f1ol de una manera diferente a la del toledano. La otra posibilidad, \u00e9sta s\u00ed asombrosa, ser\u00eda que Garcilaso se haya equivocado un par de veces porque era capaz de contar octavas reales del natural, a primer golpe de oreja\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>No creo que la t\u00e9cnica narrativa de Lowry sea perfectamente natural \u2014no podr\u00eda serlo: es una pr\u00e1ctica dieg\u00e9tica heredera de indagaciones cognitivas propias del siglo XX. Pero estoy convencido, sin embargo, de que su habilidad para interiorizar estas t\u00e9cnicas es m\u00e1s intuitiva y menos intelectual que la de la mayor\u00eda de los grandes narradores anglosajones de su per\u00edodo. Narrar en tercera persona encarnada utilizando alternativamente como escenario interior la conciencia de al menos cuatro personajes (Laruelle, Yvonne, el c\u00f3nsul y Hugh) no es nada f\u00e1cil, y menos a\u00fan si dichas interioridades deben equilibrar su coherencia cognitiva individual y la multiplicidad de sus evocaciones sociales-hist\u00f3ricas con un tel\u00f3n de fondo simb\u00f3lico construido a partes iguales por palimpsestos de pasajes centrales de la literatura cl\u00e1sica occidental y por una suerte de alegor\u00eda pl\u00e1stica enmarcada por los volcanes Popocat\u00e9petl e Iztacc\u00edhuatl.<\/p><p>No es gratuito que la confecci\u00f3n de <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em> haya tomado una d\u00e9cada de la vida y gran parte de la cordura de Malcolm Lowry. Y aunque quiz\u00e1 su t\u00e9cnica de encarnaci\u00f3n del punto de vista no tenga siempre la elegancia de \u2014pongo por caso\u2014\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/414-william-faulkner\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">William Faulkner<\/a><\/span>\u00a0o\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/647-virginia-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Virginia Woolf<\/a><\/span>, la mixtura entre dicci\u00f3n po\u00e9tica tradicional y sentimiento de lo cotidiano que Lowry logra me resulta, no pocas veces, superior a la de estos autores. Y su capacidad para entroncar con la emoci\u00f3n tr\u00e1gica primitiva solo conoce, me parece, dos grandes rivales en la primera mitad del siglo XX:\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/392-thomas-mann\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Thomas Mann<\/a><\/span> y <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/665-james-joyce\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">James Joyce<\/span><\/a>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cvc997d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 significa releer <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em> a estas alturas de la historia, a estas alturas de la vida? Significa, para m\u00ed, volver a la habitaci\u00f3n del monstruo original. Aceptar que la vida es una c\u00e1rcel m\u00e1s horrenda y majestuosa que mi comprensi\u00f3n o mi voluntad.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"n0p580l\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Es sabido y repetido que el autor concibi\u00f3 y ejecut\u00f3 su obra maestra mientras era atravesado por el efecto fulm\u00edneo del alcohol. Lo que se dice poco \u2014quiz\u00e1 porque es menos heroico en apariencia; tal vez porque en ello subyace una tragedia m\u00e1s profunda\u2014 es que Lowry debi\u00f3 ponerse medianamente sobrio durante una larga \u00e9poca para dar forma definitiva a <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em>.<\/p><p>La temporada que pas\u00f3 en la Columbia Brit\u00e1nica en compa\u00f1\u00eda y complicidad de Margerie Bonner, su segunda esposa, quien se emborrachaba con \u00e9l pero tambi\u00e9n le conminaba a comer y escribir, fungiendo asimismo como pre-editora de muchas de sus p\u00e1ginas, representa el momento m\u00e1s alto de la escritura de Malcolm y tambi\u00e9n un periodo relativamente feliz de su existencia. Algo de lo que Geoffrey Firmin, su personaje, carece en la oscura noche de Quauhn\u00e1huac. Y algo que, en \u00faltima instancia, no fue para el autor brit\u00e1nico un indulto; apenas si una condena temporalmente suspendida.<\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 es lo que nos conmueve tanto del c\u00f3nsul, este hombre incapacitado para algo tan elemental como ponerse los calcetines, un loco en llamas que se sienta a beber desde que Dios amanece con una fruici\u00f3n pusil\u00e1nime y, sin embargo, heroica? Hay una frase del reci\u00e9n finado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/168547-harold-bloom\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Harold Bloom<\/a><\/span> que resume la epifan\u00eda est\u00e9tica de los protagonistas shakesperianos, y que a mi juicio le viene al dedillo a Firmin: \u00abEl personaje se escucha a s\u00ed mismo por accidente\u00bb. En la superficie, Geoffrey puede parecer un payaso m\u00edstico (e inclusive en ese registro posee cierto aroma falstaffiano); sin embargo, en el transcurso de un d\u00eda descubre \u2014sin quererlo, la verdad\u2014 que el alcohol no es un compa\u00f1ero de viaje sino un dios pagano al que le gusta jugar con su comida, pero que en \u00faltima instancia lo devorar\u00e1. En esto radica, creo, la principal diferencia entre los apologistas del trago (con <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1056-charles-bukowski\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Charles Bukowski<\/span><\/a> a la cabeza) y los aut\u00e9nticos santos bebedores del tipo Lowry o Joseph Roth: los m\u00e1rtires saben que no es necesario colocarle guirnaldas al potro de tortura.<\/p><p>La profunda lucidez del c\u00f3nsul, expresada a lo largo de toda la novela pero quintaesenciada en el cap\u00edtulo final, consiste en saberse arrebatado por una voluntad m\u00e1s poderosa que la suya, una suerte de teodicea destilada. De ah\u00ed el sentido tr\u00e1gico del relato, que a posteriori a\u00f1adir\u00e1 una vuelta de tuerca donde el plano de la ficci\u00f3n y el de lo que llamamos realidad intercambiar\u00e1n miradas: la alcoholizada muerte de Malcolm en 1957, una d\u00e9cada despu\u00e9s de publicada su novela. Vista a toro pasado, la depurada t\u00e9cnica de Lowry, su prosa envidiable y su aguda observaci\u00f3n de los ambientes y escenarios no son m\u00e1s que un largu\u00edsimo epitafio (uno alterno al que efectivamente se escribi\u00f3 en verso pero que nadie quiso colocar sobre su l\u00e1pida); una premonici\u00f3n del \u00e1ngel reca\u00eddo (el relapse es una espada de Damocles que pende sobre la cabeza de nosotros los adictos para siempre) que fue durante la mayor parte de su vida.<\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 significa releer <em>Bajo el volc\u00e1n<\/em> a estas alturas de la historia, a estas alturas de la vida?... Significa, para m\u00ed, volver a la habitaci\u00f3n del monstruo original. Dejar para otro momento los alegatos autocompasivos en favor de la libertad de autodestrucci\u00f3n. Aceptar que la vida es una c\u00e1rcel m\u00e1s horrenda y majestuosa que mi comprensi\u00f3n o mi voluntad. Aceptar que el arte, el arte profundo y verdadero, eso que llaman lo Sublime, todav\u00eda puede fulminarme. Aceptar que la banalizaci\u00f3n, la novedad, la levedad incluso \u2014un valor est\u00e9tico que aprecio mucho\u2014 no siempre salvan.\u00a0<\/p><p>Esta novela, verdadero vino de los bravos, me recuerda que la oscuridad existe, que es hermosa, y que solo sabe obsequiar quemaduras. Y que a veces tengo que besarla en la boca.<\/p><p><\/p><p><strong><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La campa\u00f1a de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura contin\u00faa<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/luis-jorge-boone-y-la-gran-pregunta-de-la-literatura-mexicana-del-siglo-xxi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Luis Jorge Boone y la gran pregunta de la literatura mexicana del siglo XXI<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/raquel-tibol-frida-kahlo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Raquel Tibol, la mujer que nunca pudo hacer una biograf\u00eda de Frida 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20 minutos

Malcolm Lowry en una escena del documental «VOLCANO: An Inquiry into the Life of Malcolm Lowry», de 1976, dirigida por Donald Brittain. Crédito: Getty Images.

En septiembre de 1968, en una entrevista concedida a María Josefina Tejeda para El Nacional de Caracas, José Revueltas hizo una declaración fervorosa e inequívoca: «Todavía no hemos llegado al nivel de la gran novela norteamericana o europea. ¿Qué gran novela mexicana hay comparable a Bajo el volcán de Malcolm Lowry? Yo sería el más ferviente admirador y subordinado de un Malcolm Lowry mexicano». La opinión me interesa por la evidente confluencia existencial entre ambos autores, en particular su periplo a través de la luz negra del alcohol, un milagro envenenado al que no soy ajeno. Pero también por lo que atañe al realismo dialéctico, esa «literatura del lado moridor» acerca de la cual Revueltas teorizó larga y confusamente, y en cuyas márgenes México aparece —entre otras muchas y agudas observaciones que vinculan lo político a lo sagrado— como símbolo de una experiencia espiritual llamada infierno.

La primera edición en español de Bajo el volcán —en la misma traducción que publica ahora Literatura Random House— apareció en 1964. Ignoro si Revueltas conoció la obra de Lowry antes de esa fecha, pero lo dudo. De ahí que me parezca relevante traer a colación el prólogo a la reedición de 1961 de Los muros de agua, donde el mexicano establece lowryanamente que: «La realidad debe ser ordenada, discriminada, armonizada dentro de una composición sometida a determinados requisitos. Pero estos requisitos tampoco son arbitrarios; existen fuera de nosotros; son, digámoslo así, el modo que tiene la realidad de dejarse que la seleccionemos.

La realidad tiene un movimiento interno propio, que no es ese torbellino que se nos muestra en su apariencia inmediata, donde todo parece tirar en mil direcciones a la vez. Tenemos entonces que saber cuál es la dirección fundamental, a qué punto se dirige. Dicho movimiento interno de la realidad tiene su modo, tiene su método, para decirlo con la palabra exacta (su "lado moridor", como dice el pueblo.) Este lado moridor de la realidad, en el que se la aprehende, en el que se la somete, no es otro que su lado dialéctico: donde la realidad obedece a un devenir sujeto a leyes, en que los elementos contrarios se interpenetran y la acumulación cuantitativa se transforma cualitativamente.»

Para Revueltas, como para el cónsul Geoffrey Firmin, el lado moridor que organiza la realidad y le confiere dimensión estética está investido de símbolos judeocristianos y de la tensa relación de estos con el caos primitivo; con la violencia y autodestrucción preternaturales. Si José —en El luto humano o en las primeras páginas de Los días terrenales— borda tal tesitura al amparo de metáforas bíblicas, para Malcolm serán la Divina Comedia y el Fausto de Marlowe la doble matriz simbólica de donde emerjan las imágenes siniestras que son leitmotiv de Bajo el volcán. La vida trágica —no existe otra— está determinada —parece decirnos Lowry— por un movimiento circular que nos devuelve una y otra vez no solo a los mismos lugares —Parián, Oaxaca, Quauhnáhuac—, sino sobre todo a las mismas representaciones plásticas de lo insondable: un perro callejero, un caballo herrado con el número siete, un indígena sombrerudo y moribundo, dos volcanes enamorados, una botella de tequila oculta entre las flores del jardín del Edén… «Veo que la tierra anda», dice el cónsul en el ápice de uno de los pasajes más hermosos y tétricos de la historia de la literatura, «estoy esperando a que pase mi casa por aquí para meterme en ella». Y el chiste, expuesto desde el estado de fiebre perfecta que insufla el aguardiente en las almas, logra sonar a condena. 

Desde su recepción temprana, Bajo el volcán fue censurada por el crítico R. W. Flint debido a su second-handedness: su recurrencia a materia estética proveniente de otras obras clásicas de la literatura occidental. El juicio no solo me resulta severo, sino ante todo envejecido: en una cultura como la hipermoderna, tan afecta al refill y la parodia, la dialéctica operativa del realismo simbólico de Lowry rivaliza con otros experimentos contemporáneos, excediéndolos en extrañeza y densidad por su tratamiento crudo, casi sin vocación interpretativa, de lo que me atrevería a llamar exotismo hardcore si no lo considerase un retrato fidedigno de México. 

Tal vez sea este peculiar ejercicio de palimpsesto sublime y aun solemne lo que hace tan auténtica la pátina de mexicanidad (entendida ésta como metonimia cultural y paradigma infernal, no en un sentido nacionalista) implementada por Lowry. A diferencia del de D. H. Lawrence, que confunde a los aztecas con una mascarada veneciana; o el de Graham Greene, cuyo catolicismo no logra diferenciar una política oficial de una idiosincrasia; o el de William Burroughs, quien nunca pretendió ser algo más que un turista despistado y punk-avant-la-lettre, el México que Malcolm Lowry consigue dibujar es verdadero no en un sentido histórico sino poético; porque su sentimiento de la realidad cotidiana está a la altura del mito y el misterio. Un botón: ¿qué superficie narrativa esbozaría con mayor profundidad este país que un veloz tratamiento del perpetuo temor a ser asesinados y/o desaparecidos por un policía corrupto?... Para la mayoría de quienes vivimos aquí, se trata de una recurrente pesadilla lúcida.

«El México que Malcolm Lowry consigue dibujar es verdadero no en un sentido histórico sino poético; porque su sentimiento de la realidad cotidiana está a la altura del mito y el misterio».

Existe por último una sincronía de la imaginación epistolar que me impele a evocar a Revueltas y Malcolm Lowry como colegas marineros en las procelosas aguas de lo que el primero de ellos bautizó como realismo dialéctico. En el prólogo de 1961 a Los muros de agua (escrito veinte años después de la publicación original de la obra, pero que por artes de la autoficción retroactiva se lee hoy como la primera pieza cronológica en el corpus de su autor) aparece consignada una carta que José envió a María Teresa, su mujer, desde un leprosario en Guadalajara en 1955. El texto —uno de los pasajes más rebozantes de pathos de la literatura mexicana— crea un efecto de metaficción que permite a Revueltas corregir su propia obra sin introducir en ella ningún cambio directo, amén de sentar las bases teóricas de su visión narrativa, del horror diferido que genera la realidad cuando es transformada en realismo por un punto de vista.

Paralelamente, en el primer capítulo de Bajo el volcán, Jacques Laruelle encuentra dentro del libro de teatro elizabethiano que le prestó hace más de un año el cónsul (y que ya nunca podrá ser devuelto a su dueño) una carta que Geoffrey escribió (pero jamás envió) a Yvonne antes de los sucesos narrados en la novela (el primer capítulo de Bajo el volcán sucede el Día de Muertos de 1939; los once restantes, el Día de Muertos de 1938). Cima de una desesperación demasiado articulada como para ser soportable, la carta del cónsul prefigura el regreso de Yvonne a Quauhnáhuac, la caída definitiva del protagonista derrotado por la nitidez de sus delirios, y el dolor colectivo de las traiciones íntimas apenas entredichas que involucran a Hugh, el medio hermano de Geoffrey, y al propio Laruelle. La misiva narra también un viaje a Oaxaca que se cuenta entre los pasajes más soberbios de la prosa de Lowry, y que culmina con esta cita ya clásica: «Y así, a veces me veo como un gran explorador que ha descubierto algún país extraordinario del que jamás podrá regresar para darlo a conocer al mundo: porque el nombre de esta tierra es el infierno».

El tono del ficticio Firmin no difiere demasiado de lo que escribió el histórico Revueltas en su propia carta acerca de la manera en que los infantes del leprosario tapatío que visitó en 1955 se entretienen: «Los niños, para jugar, se ponen esas horribles máscaras de hule que, ahora me doy cuenta, no son sino de leprosos. ¿Dónde se puede ver que esto sea un juego y una diversión? Solo entre nosotros. Somos un país increíble. De demonios».

 «Y así, a veces me veo como un gran explorador que ha descubierto algún país extraordinario del que jamás podrá regresar para darlo a conocer al mundo: porque el nombre de esta tierra es el infierno».

Mi oficio me deparó dos sabios maestros, los mejores que un escritor de mi generación podía tener: David Huerta y Rafael Ramírez Heredia. Del primero aprendí lo que es la dicción en un poema. El segundo me enseñó prácticamente todo lo que sé acerca del punto de vista narrativo. En el caso de el Rayo, un matraz de sus lecciones era Bajo el volcán.

Observaba Rafael que la novela de Lowry arranca fuera de centro al menos en sus tres párrafos iniciales: aunque el primer capítulo está todo narrado en una tercera persona encarnada en M. Laruelle, esto solo es evidente a partir de la puesta en situación en el Casino de la Selva, junto al doctor Vigil. Los primeros pasajes —la descripción de la Sierra Madre, los volcanes y el trazo urbano— son proferidos por una voz en off omnisciente, un poco a la manera de las novelas del siglo XIX. 

(A mí este inicio, con su mood plano secuencia que va de un wide shot a un medium close-up, siempre me ha recordado las primeras páginas de Rojo y negro de Stendhal, otra de mis novelas favoritas.)

¿Por qué eligió Malcolm Lowry entrar así en materia? La respuesta sencilla —es la que daba Rafael— es que esos párrafos son tan grandiosos y su eficacia narrativa es tanta que bien valen una diminuta traición a la técnica. Sin embargo, no es ésta la única ocasión en la que Lowry rompe la lógica interna de sus voces encarnadas: en el mismo primer capítulo hay un fugaz e innecesario desliz cognitivo de Laruelle a Hugh, y no son infrecuentes las ocasiones en que los capítulos atribuidos a la mente de Yvonne son intervenidos por pensamientos de Hugh o del cónsul. ¿Estoy siendo demasiado quisquilloso? Tal vez, pero es porque deseo llegar a un punto fundamental. Para lograrlo, me valdré de una digresión.

«¿Qué es lo que nos conmueve tanto del cónsul, este hombre incapacitado para algo tan elemental como ponerse los calcetines, un loco en llamas que se sienta a beber desde que Dios amanece con una fruición pusilánime y, sin embargo, heroica?»

Hace unos 25 años, en Guanajuato, Tomás Segovia era importunado en una conferencia por cierto profesor. El académico se quejaba de haber encontrado algún verso de diez o doce sílabas en la Égloga Tercera de Garcilaso. Con amorosa paciencia, Tomás le respondió algo como esto: «Solo caben dos opciones. La primera, no muy rara, sería que nuestra época cuente las sílabas del español de una manera diferente a la del toledano. La otra posibilidad, ésta sí asombrosa, sería que Garcilaso se haya equivocado un par de veces porque era capaz de contar octavas reales del natural, a primer golpe de oreja». 

No creo que la técnica narrativa de Lowry sea perfectamente natural —no podría serlo: es una práctica diegética heredera de indagaciones cognitivas propias del siglo XX. Pero estoy convencido, sin embargo, de que su habilidad para interiorizar estas técnicas es más intuitiva y menos intelectual que la de la mayoría de los grandes narradores anglosajones de su período. Narrar en tercera persona encarnada utilizando alternativamente como escenario interior la conciencia de al menos cuatro personajes (Laruelle, Yvonne, el cónsul y Hugh) no es nada fácil, y menos aún si dichas interioridades deben equilibrar su coherencia cognitiva individual y la multiplicidad de sus evocaciones sociales-históricas con un telón de fondo simbólico construido a partes iguales por palimpsestos de pasajes centrales de la literatura clásica occidental y por una suerte de alegoría plástica enmarcada por los volcanes Popocatépetl e Iztaccíhuatl.

No es gratuito que la confección de Bajo el volcán haya tomado una década de la vida y gran parte de la cordura de Malcolm Lowry. Y aunque quizá su técnica de encarnación del punto de vista no tenga siempre la elegancia de —pongo por caso— William Faulkner o Virginia Woolf, la mixtura entre dicción poética tradicional y sentimiento de lo cotidiano que Lowry logra me resulta, no pocas veces, superior a la de estos autores. Y su capacidad para entroncar con la emoción trágica primitiva solo conoce, me parece, dos grandes rivales en la primera mitad del siglo XX: Thomas Mann y James Joyce.

«¿Qué significa releer Bajo el volcán a estas alturas de la historia, a estas alturas de la vida? Significa, para mí, volver a la habitación del monstruo original. Aceptar que la vida es una cárcel más horrenda y majestuosa que mi comprensión o mi voluntad.»

Es sabido y repetido que el autor concibió y ejecutó su obra maestra mientras era atravesado por el efecto fulmíneo del alcohol. Lo que se dice poco —quizá porque es menos heroico en apariencia; tal vez porque en ello subyace una tragedia más profunda— es que Lowry debió ponerse medianamente sobrio durante una larga época para dar forma definitiva a Bajo el volcán.

La temporada que pasó en la Columbia Británica en compañía y complicidad de Margerie Bonner, su segunda esposa, quien se emborrachaba con él pero también le conminaba a comer y escribir, fungiendo asimismo como pre-editora de muchas de sus páginas, representa el momento más alto de la escritura de Malcolm y también un periodo relativamente feliz de su existencia. Algo de lo que Geoffrey Firmin, su personaje, carece en la oscura noche de Quauhnáhuac. Y algo que, en última instancia, no fue para el autor británico un indulto; apenas si una condena temporalmente suspendida.

¿Qué es lo que nos conmueve tanto del cónsul, este hombre incapacitado para algo tan elemental como ponerse los calcetines, un loco en llamas que se sienta a beber desde que Dios amanece con una fruición pusilánime y, sin embargo, heroica? Hay una frase del recién finado Harold Bloom que resume la epifanía estética de los protagonistas shakesperianos, y que a mi juicio le viene al dedillo a Firmin: «El personaje se escucha a sí mismo por accidente». En la superficie, Geoffrey puede parecer un payaso místico (e inclusive en ese registro posee cierto aroma falstaffiano); sin embargo, en el transcurso de un día descubre —sin quererlo, la verdad— que el alcohol no es un compañero de viaje sino un dios pagano al que le gusta jugar con su comida, pero que en última instancia lo devorará. En esto radica, creo, la principal diferencia entre los apologistas del trago (con Charles Bukowski a la cabeza) y los auténticos santos bebedores del tipo Lowry o Joseph Roth: los mártires saben que no es necesario colocarle guirnaldas al potro de tortura.

La profunda lucidez del cónsul, expresada a lo largo de toda la novela pero quintaesenciada en el capítulo final, consiste en saberse arrebatado por una voluntad más poderosa que la suya, una suerte de teodicea destilada. De ahí el sentido trágico del relato, que a posteriori añadirá una vuelta de tuerca donde el plano de la ficción y el de lo que llamamos realidad intercambiarán miradas: la alcoholizada muerte de Malcolm en 1957, una década después de publicada su novela. Vista a toro pasado, la depurada técnica de Lowry, su prosa envidiable y su aguda observación de los ambientes y escenarios no son más que un larguísimo epitafio (uno alterno al que efectivamente se escribió en verso pero que nadie quiso colocar sobre su lápida); una premonición del ángel recaído (el relapse es una espada de Damocles que pende sobre la cabeza de nosotros los adictos para siempre) que fue durante la mayor parte de su vida.

¿Qué significa releer Bajo el volcán a estas alturas de la historia, a estas alturas de la vida?... Significa, para mí, volver a la habitación del monstruo original. Dejar para otro momento los alegatos autocompasivos en favor de la libertad de autodestrucción. Aceptar que la vida es una cárcel más horrenda y majestuosa que mi comprensión o mi voluntad. Aceptar que el arte, el arte profundo y verdadero, eso que llaman lo Sublime, todavía puede fulminarme. Aceptar que la banalización, la novedad, la levedad incluso —un valor estético que aprecio mucho— no siempre salvan. 

Esta novela, verdadero vino de los bravos, me recuerda que la oscuridad existe, que es hermosa, y que solo sabe obsequiar quemaduras. Y que a veces tengo que besarla en la boca.


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