Literatura

Las cartas de Gabriela Mistral: un clóset de cristal

Durante décadas, la vida amorosa de Gabriela Mistral y su relación con Doris Dana fueron una paradoja: las instituciones y la sociedad censuraban y ocultaban eso que ellas mismas vivieron en sus círculos y en tiempo presente: un amor de pareja que duró hasta la muerte de la chilena. Ahora, a través de la correspondencia entre ellas, legada a la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, el reciente «Doris, vida mía» (Lumen) permite asomarse a la intimidad, las ideas y la materia amorosa de la Premio Nobel que fue, además, «la madre queer de la Nación». La escritora argentina María Moreno –quizá la madre queer de su propia nación— ofrece este lúcido recorrido por aquellas cartas de amor correspondido de elocuente actualidad.
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","meta_keywords":"Revista Lengua Gabriela Mistral Doris Dan cartas Mar\u00eda Moreno","short_content":"<p>Durante d\u00e9cadas, la vida amorosa de Gabriela Mistral y su relaci\u00f3n con Doris Dana fueron una paradoja: las instituciones y la sociedad censuraban y ocultaban eso que ellas mismas vivieron en sus c\u00edrculos y en tiempo presente: un amor de pareja que dur\u00f3 hasta la muerte de la chilena. Ahora, a trav\u00e9s de la correspondencia entre ellas, legada a la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, el reciente \u00abDoris, vida m\u00eda\u00bb (Lumen) permite asomarse a la intimidad, las ideas y la materia amorosa de la Premio Nobel que fue, adem\u00e1s, \u00abla madre queer de la Naci\u00f3n\u00bb. La escritora argentina Mar\u00eda Moreno \u2013quiz\u00e1 la madre queer de su propia naci\u00f3n\u2014 ofrece este l\u00facido recorrido por aquellas cartas de amor correspondido de elocuente actualidad.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"0c70nuq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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7 de mayo de 1946, parada ante un pupitre en el anfiteatro del Barnard College, Gabriela Mistral, premio Nobel desde el a\u00f1o anterior, ignoraba dos cosas; la primera que era el cumplea\u00f1os de Eva Per\u00f3n, la segunda que el t\u00edtulo de su conferencia \u00abEl odio y el miedo a las cosas y a las personas distintas a uno mismo\u00bb era una profec\u00eda al rev\u00e9s: el amor y el deseo a las cosas y a las personas distintas a uno mismo que iba a experimentar en la pr\u00f3xima d\u00e9cada.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>En el auditorio estaba Doris Dana, una flaca id\u00e9ntica a Katherine Hepburn, con un doctorado en letras, profesora y de aspecto tan inocente como la joven depredadora de la pel\u00edcula <em>All about Eve<\/em>. Si se descuenta en este caso un marido, se debe sumar en cambio la figura de futura albacea, que es otro modo del compromiso, el de una vida en obra por delegaci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las cartas entre las dos mujeres, a las que separan treinta a\u00f1os de edad, comienzan dos a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde. Fechadas o no, las frases de despedida de la mayor van de \u00abel afecto y la gratitud de su vieja amiga\u00bb en abril, pasando por \u00abun abrazo de su amiga casi sin rostro que la quiere\u00bb en septiembre, a la expresiva: \u00abYo no deseo quedar viviendo (no vivir) muy lejos de ti\u00bb en noviembre.<\/p><p>Son 183 y est\u00e1n depositadas en la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile.<\/p><p>Durante el mes de marzo de 1948, seg\u00fan Daniela Sch\u00fctte Gonz\u00e1lez, que prologa la compilaci\u00f3n titulada <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/239797-ebook-doris-vida-mia-cartas-9789566058199\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Doris, vida m\u00eda<\/em><\/a><\/span>, la joven le hab\u00eda escrito a Mistral: \u00abHace dos a\u00f1os, tuve el gusto de conocerla personalmente en una conferencia que usted dio en Barnard College aqu\u00ed en Nueva York. En aquel entonces tanto mi timidez como mi deficiente conocimiento del espa\u00f1ol, as\u00ed como el temor a agregarme a los que en ese momento se arremolinaban a su alrededor, me impidieron acercarme a usted a saludarla y hablarle algunas palabras. Todav\u00eda recuerdo vivamente, con angustia, el sufrimiento que se reflejaba en sus ojos durante esos momentos de 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futura amada empieza por confesar veladamente que, al desear ser elegida, se sustrajo a la multitud con una voluntad de no agregarse, voluntad com\u00fan a los que se proponen como \u00fanicos; mientras pone en escena una causa-efecto entre un sufrimiento \u2014que ley\u00f3 mirando a los ojos de la conferencista, protegida por el anonimato\u2014 y una angustia que se recuerda \u00abvivamente\u00bb (traducci\u00f3n: \u00abno te olvid\u00e9\u00bb).<\/p><p>La ausencia es la condici\u00f3n de las cartas de amor \u2014la zoncera de esta frase puede, como mal menor, subrayar la riqueza ret\u00f3rica de la que estas suelen hacer gala\u2014, puede no ser una ausencia efectiva y hasta permite escribirse frente a frente y con figuras tan bellas que se olvide al destinatario, con la disculpa de la afirmaci\u00f3n freudiana de \u00abla sombra del objeto cae sobre el yo\u00bb (\u00bfqu\u00e9 poeta super\u00f3 este verso?).\u00a0<\/p><p>En estas cartas Doris Dana es siempre la que no vino, la que 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Y Gabriela Mistral es la que deber\u00e1 inventar, nombre tras nombre, en busca del que la traiga de nuevo a su lado: \u00abni\u00f1a mala\u00bb, \u00abvagabunda\u00bb, \u00abveleidosa\u00bb, \u00abcaprichosa\u00bb, \u00abcoqueta de nadie\u00bb, \u00abventolera del mar\u00bb, \u00abni\u00f1a de todos\u00bb, \u00abdada a todos\u00bb, \u00abfenomenito\u00bb, \u00abDori\u00f1a\u00bb, \u00abDoris\u00edn\u00bb, \u00abDor\u00eds Danita\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t2os53i\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En estas cartas Doris Dana es siempre la que no vino, la que no est\u00e1, la que tarda en venir. Y Gabriela Mistral es la que deber\u00e1 inventar, nombre tras nombre, en busca del que la traiga de nuevo a su lado: \u00abni\u00f1a mala\u00bb, \u00abvagabunda\u00bb, \u00abveleidosa\u00bb, \u00abcaprichosa\u00bb, \u00abcoqueta de nadie\u00bb, \u00abventolera del mar\u00bb, \u00abni\u00f1a de todos\u00bb, \u00abdada a todos\u00bb, \u00abfenomenito\u00bb, \u00abDori\u00f1a\u00bb, \u00abDoris\u00edn\u00bb, \u00abDor\u00eds Danita\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bow8hkq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em><strong>Secretaire<\/strong><\/em><\/p><p>La met\u00e1fora del cl\u00f3set para aludir al secreto sobre la condici\u00f3n gay es gringa y de privilegiados \u2014el cl\u00f3set a menudo ocupa un cuarto entero y su bastedad alude a una <em>fashion victim<\/em> y a que muchos trajes-h\u00e1bitos hacen monjes <em>straight\u2014<\/em>. Es cierto que se puede traducir por \u00abropero\u00bb, pero siempre habr\u00e1 en lo que este mueble oculta una potencia de vida p\u00fablica con el h\u00e9terodisfraz adecuado. Me gusta m\u00e1s la met\u00e1fora del <em>secretaire<\/em>, ya que el secreto est\u00e1 hecho de palabras y hay en toda cerradura un agujero de pecado. Y porque no necesariamente se guarda all\u00ed lo que no se quiere que se sepa debido al estigma social, sino lo que se quiere reservado y \u00fanico, incluso para las taxonom\u00edas pol\u00edticas. En el <em>secretaire<\/em> hay, adem\u00e1s, una comunidad locuaz casi siempre de corresponsales donde los t\u00e1citos son m\u00e1s eso mismo que silencio avergonzado, una comunidad capaz de desplegarse en esas palabras amorosas de ida y vuelta cuya tinta vuela en papeles para avi\u00f3n fin\u00edsimo con rayas en los bordes, iguales a los avisos de las barber\u00edas, adornados por dise\u00f1os rom\u00e1nticos y logos barrocos o de hojas arrancadas a un cuaderno para demostrar lo imperiosos en la expresi\u00f3n de un sentimiento.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Sylvia Molloy, para decir que el lesbianismo de Gabriela Mistral ha sido durante a\u00f1os un secreto a voces, cita a David Miller: \u00abEse secreto tiene por funci\u00f3n no esconder algo, sino esconder que se est\u00e1 al tanto de ese algo\u00bb. Y la frase tiene m\u00e1s evidencias que un juicio justo: cuando Juan Pablo Sutherland public\u00f3 su antolog\u00eda <em>A coraz\u00f3n abierto<\/em>, una recopilaci\u00f3n de la literatura homoer\u00f3tica chilena, la Fundaci\u00f3n Gabriela Mistral le prohibi\u00f3 incluir tres poemas con el pretexto gorra de que \u00abdicho trabajo antol\u00f3gico puede contribuir a interpretaciones tendenciosas, antojadizas y especulativas contrarias a la siempre significativa y relevante obra de nuestra autora\u00bb. Y eso que \u00abLa flor del aire\u00bb\u00a0y \u00abLa extranjera\u00bb pertenec\u00edan a Tala, que hab\u00eda sido publicado por la Editorial Sur (Buenos Aires) en 1938 y \u00abLa que camina\u00bb, en Lagar (Santiago de Chile), en 1954.\u00a0<\/p><p>V\u00eda email, Sutherland estalla en signos de admiraci\u00f3n devenidos protesta: \u00abF\u00edjate lo que pas\u00f3 con <em>Ni\u00f1a errante<\/em>, una compilaci\u00f3n de cartas que hizo Pedro Pablo Zegers hace unos a\u00f1os: en el lanzamiento nadie se atrev\u00eda a decir que Gabriela Mistral y Doris Dana eran amantes. En primera fila estaba Pancho Casas, una de las Yeguas del Apocalipsis, que en un momento sali\u00f3 gritando: \u201c\u00a1Digan que era lesbiana! \u00a1Son cartas de amor!\u201d. Y se fue. Cuando le\u00ed el pr\u00f3logo y lo estudi\u00e9 para un trabajo que no encuentro ahora, me llam\u00f3 la atenci\u00f3n poderosamente que el compilador solamente dijera que la relaci\u00f3n de Mistral con Dana era\u2026 \u00a1\u00a1\u00a1\u00a1paternal!!! \u00a1\u00a1\u00a1Por Dios!!! Eso dec\u00eda, un esc\u00e1ndalo esa escena que adem\u00e1s ocurre muchos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de la publicaci\u00f3n de <em>A coraz\u00f3n abierto<\/em>, censurado y luego de que la sobrina de Doris Dana, Doris Atkinson, entregara al Estado chileno todo el patrimonio de Mistral a la Biblioteca Nacional (donde hab\u00eda decenas de cartas)\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"r0n6wd2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abF\u00edjate lo que pas\u00f3 con <em>Ni\u00f1a errante<\/em>, una compilaci\u00f3n de cartas que hizo Pedro Pablo Zegers hace unos a\u00f1os: en el lanzamiento nadie se atrev\u00eda a decir que Gabriela Mistral y Doris Dana eran amantes. En primera fila estaba Pancho Casas, una de las Yeguas del Apocalipsis, que en un momento sali\u00f3 gritando: \\\"\u00a1Digan que era lesbiana! \u00a1Son cartas de amor!\\\". Y se fue\u00bb. Juan Pablo Sutherland<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zq5k3da\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9669-alia-trabucco-zeran\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Alia Trabucco Zer\u00e1n<\/span><\/a>, que prologa <em>Doris, vida m\u00eda<\/em>, sugiere que ese amor es un secreto expandido en la intimidad de diversos corresponsales: \u00abY es que resulta importante tambi\u00e9n realzar, tras d\u00e9cadas de ocultamiento de esta relaci\u00f3n, que, durante sus vidas, es decir, en su propio presente, Gabriela Mistral y Doris Dana s\u00ed fueron nombradas y consideradas en sus c\u00edrculos como lo que eran: una pareja. As\u00ed dan cuenta no solamente el tenor amoroso de estas cartas y el hecho de que Dana fuera declarada la albacea de Mistral, sino las cientos de misivas que Mistral recib\u00eda de manera regular donde amigos y conocidos env\u00edan saludos y cari\u00f1os a Doris, reflejando ese conocer y reconocer posteriormente negado. As\u00ed, Andr\u00e9 Racz, tras una visita en Italia, pregunta por Doris y le manda sus cari\u00f1osos saludos; Palma Guill\u00e9n le pregunta a Dana por el estado de salud de Mistral; o simplemente se reiteran las misivas con saludos a ambas, visibilizando la gran relevancia que Doris tuvo en su vida\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>En el <em>secretaire<\/em>, las cartas cruzadas entre parejas de amigas y amantes probaban que el tel\u00e9fono era un aparato indeciblemente pr\u00e1ctico, pero tambi\u00e9n mucho m\u00e1s precario a la hora de dar testimonio de una obviedad: no se deja escrito lo que no quiere que se sepa. S\u00ed se elige a los testigos. Las cartas que Gabriela Mistral escribe a Victoria Ocampo, por ejemplo, son expl\u00edcitas. Hay una donde se informa con solemnidad, como si se tratara de una ceremonia de compromiso:\u00a0\u00abVivo con una profesora y escritora americana, Doris Dana. Ella ahora sosiega sus pies en N\u00e1poles. Por cuido. Es muy serena y no se le ve alarma alguna\u00bb. Muchas otras ponen en escena una sucesi\u00f3n informada donde Dana llega a aparecer como la coartada para el constante reclamo de presencia a la corresponsal (\u00bfera Gabriela Mistral densa en general y no solo cuando estaba enamorada?): \u00abMe haces mucha falta, no solo a m\u00ed, a Doris \u00eddem\u00bb; \u00abYo hago esto de escribirte sin ninguna esperanza. Doris y yo lo hemos hecho ya y respuesta tuya no hemos tenido. T\u00fa sabes c\u00f3mo desconsuela y hace perder la esperanza tal cosa y en estos tiempos\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"z50gnt2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abDoris es muy buena para m\u00ed, mucho; pero me da cierto remordimiento acapararla. Yo s\u00e9 que ella est\u00e1 perdiendo su vida conmigo, su vida\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"p7ayz2u\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Y no se trata de formalidades de tono conyugal, la confidencia es lo suficientemente desenvuelta como para extenderse ante una mujer que en sus memorias se declara casi rabiosamente hetero: \u00abDoris es muy buena para m\u00ed, mucho; pero me da cierto remordimiento acapararla. Yo s\u00e9 que ella est\u00e1 perdiendo su vida conmigo, su vida\u00bb. \u00abDoris es la compa\u00f1era \u00f3ptima, la mejor que hallar se puede, pero a veces me pasa por la cabeza el pensamiento de que una mujer vieja pueda, sin darse cuenta, no dar alegr\u00eda a una persona de su edad, s\u00ed, eso, y adem\u00e1s envejecerla\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Es demasiado perezoso pensar que es la moral burguesa y su censura efectiva la que est\u00e1 dispuesta a hacer o\u00eddos sordos y ojos ciegos a lo que es evidente, permitiendo a cambio ese saber no sabido de tantos padres y madres de disidentes sexuales que organiz\u00f3 durante d\u00e9cadas las buenas maneras en lo impronunciable. El secreto es la resistencia a la serie y su quiebre, a la resoluci\u00f3n en una identidad de rasgos tensados entre los anatemas de la religi\u00f3n y la cl\u00ednica psiqui\u00e1trica.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero las pol\u00edticas del deseo tienen derecho a contar con materiales donde la censura no se debi\u00f3 a los escr\u00fapulos de las protagonistas ni aun a un descuido archivista inocente. Lo cierto es que ninguna hoguera patriarcal y patriota quem\u00f3 estas cartas que guardaron el cont\u00ednuum de las amigas para los deseosos capaces de leer entre l\u00edneas o en buen castellano, en su elocuente vehemencia carnal.<\/p><p><b>De par en par<\/b><\/p><p>Abiertas las persianas del <em>secretaire<\/em>, hoy la imagen de Mistral est\u00e1 <em>on the street<\/em>, con su pa\u00f1uelo abortero al cuello y bandera negra en la mano. Y sus amores de mujer a mujer aludido en una nota de Alia Trabucco Zer\u00e1n al pie de <em>Doris, vida m\u00eda<\/em>.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abLa imagen a la que me refiero fue creada por Fabi\u00e1n Ciarolo y pintada como mural en las paredes del Centro Cultural Gabriela Mistral (GAM), en el centro de Santiago. El pa\u00f1uelo verde es s\u00edmbolo, tanto en Chile como en Argentina, de las demandas colectivas por el aborto seguro, legal y gratuito. Curiosamente, el dise\u00f1o que hoy est\u00e1 grabado en la versi\u00f3n chilena de ese pa\u00f1uelo est\u00e1 basado en un grabado de la artista chilena Laura Rodig, quien fuera pareja de Mistral, para el Primer Congreso Nacional del MEMCH, en 1937\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"npnkl6b\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abDoris 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style=\\\"text-align: center;\\\">\u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0Cr\u00e9dito: Biblioteca Nacional de 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comunidad de c(i)elo y tierra\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Alguna vez, debilitada por un amor correspondido (son los que m\u00e1s perjudican), defin\u00ed el cont\u00ednuum lesbiano muy por fuera de la ortodoxia de Adrienne Reach: una largu\u00edsima cinta de raso que une a la primera mujer con la \u00faltima y que va enred\u00e1ndose en las mu\u00f1ecas de todas las mujeres del mundo y de todos los tiempos y est\u00e1 hecha de caricias, arrorr\u00f3s, bordados, subrayados, pa\u00f1uelos, <em>rouge<\/em>, saludos, lectura en voz alta, secretos y lo que se quiera hasta formar un gran nido donde cobijarse y rebelarse en un mundo hecho por otros.<\/p><p>Toda mujer lleva en su mu\u00f1eca esa cinta, que hace que jam\u00e1s se sienta sola, quiera o no amar a un hombre, casarse con \u00e9l, es decir, cumplir con la heterosexualidad obligatoria, que es otra idea de Adrienne, muy dif\u00edcil de pronunciar y de explicar.\u00a0<\/p><p>Gilda P\u00e9ndola, Palma Guill\u00e9n, Emma Godoy, Eda Ramelli, Margarita Michelena, Anita Bustamante, Sixta Araya\u2026 Las cartas a Doris Dana ponen en escena una sucesi\u00f3n de mujeres que viajan junto con Gabriela Mistral, ofician de amas de casa, int\u00e9rpretes, contables, agentes inmobiliarios, gestoras y cualquier otro oficio a la que las comprometiera esa Pocahontas soltera y andina que se sent\u00eda mancillada, como llorisquea en una enumeraci\u00f3n de desgracias, al tener que salir sola a comprar sus remedios, sus sellos, sus papeles y sus bananas. Estas mujeres se instalan por un tiempo en las diversas casas que Mistral habita en M\u00e9xico, Italia y Estados Unidos, se relevan para ordenar correspondencia, controlar las cuentas bancarias, organizar archivos o copiar originales, y son las responsables del gran archivo Mistral.\u00a0<\/p><p>Fluctuante entre la complicidad y el \u00abodio sombr\u00edo\u00bb, entre la hermandad en lucha por recibir justicia por sus afanes y los celos intrigantes, entre la delaci\u00f3n separadora y la voluntad por un bien com\u00fan, en esta suerte de arcadia bien administrada y de amores ya atemperados, intercambian a veces sus copiosas cartas entre ellas por fuera del c\u00edrculo Mistral, quien por m\u00e1s Nobel que sea insiste en practicar la modestia afectada para exigir desp\u00f3ticamente cuidados. Ver\u00f3nica Zondek, poeta y mistralista consecuente, relata el mito de origen de ese don de mando ejercido con tono pla\u00f1ido: \u00abEn la escuela de Vicu\u00f1a donde la llevaron para que siguiera sus estudios de primaria no encaj\u00f3. Sus compa\u00f1eras recelaban de ella y no la aceptaron. Un d\u00eda la culparon de ladrona ante la directora, una mujer casi ciega y adem\u00e1s madrina de Lucila. Esta mujer transform\u00f3 la acusaci\u00f3n en un acto ejemplar frente a toda la escuela y frente a Gabriela, que, muerta de verg\u00fcenza, se escondi\u00f3 apenas termin\u00f3. Cuando finalmente sali\u00f3 ellas estaban a\u00fan ah\u00ed paradas en la plaza con los bolsillos llenos de piedras y la apedrearon hasta hacerla sangrar mientras le gritaban ladrona. Mistral relata esto cada vez que puede y lo recuerda como el trance m\u00e1s marcador de su vida. Este hecho refuerza su sentimiento de no pertenencia, y marca adem\u00e1s el fin de su educaci\u00f3n formal. En su expediente personal se anota que no contin\u00faa con su educaci\u00f3n porque ella es deficiente mental. Esta notaci\u00f3n resulta ser ventajosa en relaci\u00f3n a la de ladrona porque la exime de ser llevada a la justicia o de ser internada en la correccional. La madrina le sugiere entonces a Petronila que la entrene en labores del hogar para que sirva para algo. En ese mismo instante Lucila, rebelde, clarividente o exc\u00e9ntrica, decide no cocinar, no limpiar, no hacer la cama, no bordar, no coser. Decide no hacerlo nunca\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zcc69wi\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEl coraz\u00f3n, vida m\u00eda. Es \u00f3rgano tan celoso como un hispanoamericano\u00bb. Gabriela Mistral<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9jxetvo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En medio de la retah\u00edla de reproches que constituyen la parte machacona de las cartas (es que la mayor\u00eda de las cartas de amor, por muy brillantes que sean, carecen de <em>grandeur<\/em>), existe el argumento positivista mediante el que Mistral oscila entre darse por latina o por india al azar de su logorrea afectiva: \u00abYo no tengo vida suficiente para hacerte comprender que la m\u00e1quina humana que llamamos latinidad \u2014aunque no tenga ninguna sangre latina tengo h\u00e1bitos latinos\u2014 marcha de modo muy opuesto a la sajona\u00bb.\u00a0\u00abEl coraz\u00f3n, vida m\u00eda. Es \u00f3rgano tan celoso como un hispanoamericano\u00bb.\u00a0\u00abT\u00fa eres de una raza libertaria, yo de una raza esclavista\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Si siempre argument\u00f3 su amor insatisfecho y quejoso en esa diferencia \u00abracial\u00bb sin matices pol\u00edticos, denost\u00f3 la xenofobia de los que rechazaban a Dana, no dejando de incluir a su amante en la serie de sat\u00e9lites femeninos, y tal vez haya pensado en una potencial comunidad ut\u00f3pica de resistencia cultural y vida nueva. Es interesante que Sylvia Molloy ante similares acusaciones, que pudo haber recibido Teresa de la Parra, por reaccionaria, dice: \u00abSer goda, ser precolonia, no es solo una postura aristocratizante: es rechazar la paradigm\u00e1tica pareja heterosexual del proyecto liberal postulando en cambio una comunidad precapitalista basada en afectos femeninos\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Porque el despotismo de Mistral no es el del patriarca que naturaliza al serrallo profesional a la manera de un Joyce \u2014cuyo nombre se debe tanto a la construcci\u00f3n cr\u00edtica moderna como al trabajo material de editoras, mecan\u00f3grafas, mecenas, traductoras y enfermeras vocacionales\u2014, sino\u00a0el de la hu\u00e9rfana que lleva el peso de encarnar un universal de poeta m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de su sexo sin contar con los privilegios patriarcales.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando no hay palabras para definir las alianzas femeninas se recurre a dupla madre-hija, para deserotizarlas por descontado y evocar la sentencia freudiana de que se tratar\u00eda del v\u00ednculo m\u00e1s ambivalente \u2014el menos ser\u00eda el de la madre y el hijo var\u00f3n\u2014. Sin discutir la sentencia, es posible apropiarla, para se\u00f1alar que ni el odio, ni los celos, ni la envidia logran la ruptura de afectos que contin\u00faan por sobre toda violencia, indisolubles como si fueran de sangre. Aqu\u00ed, como siempre, la naturaleza es una met\u00e1fora. Acusadas de no sublimar nada y de una pasi\u00f3n que se desgasta para el pensamiento racional, son prol\u00edferas en obras, y las amigas as\u00ed enlazadas, aun en sus furias tienen menos trabajo para no separarse de s\u00ed mismas que las acopladas a la pasi\u00f3n con un hombre.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mnazikx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Todo enamorado se cree \u00fanico, nada hubo antes que \u00e9l, no lo habr\u00e1 despu\u00e9s, todos reclaman ser aquel al que el amado no ama, se reponen a veces en un altruismo que estallar\u00e1 en la m\u00e1s imposible de las promesas. \u00abYo te ver\u00e9 vivir y esto me bastar\u00e1. 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y m\u00e1s all\u00e1\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Hermanas de otra manera, algunas de ellas no admitieron los l\u00edmites de la vida ni mucho menos el fin del amor en la muerte. Y es quiz\u00e1 por sus vehemencias carnales que necesitaron buscar templar el esp\u00edritu en pr\u00e1cticas de iniciaci\u00f3n esot\u00e9rica y de trascendencia. Madame Blavatsky fue para Gabriela Mistral una gu\u00eda, Krishnamurti para Victoria Ocampo y Salvadora Medina. Seg\u00fan sus cartas, Gabriela podr\u00eda provocar una alucinaci\u00f3n de Yinyin, su suicida hijo adoptivo, y Lidia Cabrera se comunic\u00f3 con Teresa de la Parra en una mesa espiritista. Hoy pienso en el yoga de feministas como Luce Irigaray y Mar\u00eda Pia L\u00f3pez, en la numerolog\u00eda que consultaba Josefina Ludmer, como b\u00fasqueda de rituales de pacificaci\u00f3n y entrenamiento para la templanza del pensamiento y la energ\u00eda vital, conexi\u00f3n con saberes populares y memoria. Para escribir <em>Poema de Chile<\/em>, Gabriela Mistral se alimenta de im\u00e1genes no humanas, animales y plantas y piedras de Am\u00e9rica en un mapa que hoy podr\u00eda formar parte del archivo del planeta a salvar.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p><strong>Usureros\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Hay en la ret\u00f3rica amorosa de escritores y escritoras un plus contable que parece desmentir la denuncia por una ausencia, que hace que el vivir sea una muerte en vida, y no solo porque los amores que matan nunca mueren, sino porque a la vuelta de un adjetivo justo o una imagen ingeniosa, el gusto de escribir hace olvidar el objeto y lo convierte en pretexto. En las cartas de amor de una religiosa portuguesa, un caballero que ha pasado una vez por la reja del convento es mera excusa para liberarse de Dios en la suntuosidad de la lengua. Pero puede haber algo m\u00e1s pedestre: el amante que escribe suele medir al amado por las rentas que produce. El <em>De profundis<\/em> de Oscar Wilde sorprende porque, de pronto, un c\u00e9lebre ensalzador de la belleza en su gratuidad clama, con las maneras de un usurero del arte que recuenta una y otra vez, c\u00f3mo cuando Bosie, en el que dec\u00eda gastar fortunas, estaba fuera de Inglaterra, \u00e9l pod\u00eda redondear un acto de <em>Un marido ideal<\/em>, una \u00abtragedia florentina\u00bb o algo como <em>La Sainte Courtisane<\/em>, mientras que en su presencia casi no pod\u00eda trabajar. En cambio, con su amigo Robbie, tres francos y medio invertidos en un cafecito del Soho le rindieron el \u00abprimero y mejor de todos mis di\u00e1logos\u00bb. 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condici\u00f3n zonza del amante se debe a su incomprensi\u00f3n radical de la pasi\u00f3n que despierta, y si alguna vez Martin Heidegger sufri\u00f3 el totalitarismo de estar loco por Hanna Arendt, ella no habr\u00e1 sido para \u00e9l m\u00e1s que aquella incapaz de entender.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fp6q25v\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Entre los bramidos amorosos de Gabriela Mistral suele aparecer una y otra vez el reclamo a Dana por sus obligaciones de asistente y luego de una albacea con la que se discute fr\u00edamente las conveniencias de una edici\u00f3n, la ubicaci\u00f3n de unos versos o una bibliograf\u00eda necesaria, y una exigencia de piedad ante esta mujer vieja que extorsiona torpemente con argumentos como este: \u00abHe\u00a0sido insistente, majadero, est\u00fapido en mi porf\u00eda por retenerte. Pero nosotros los latinos ind\u00edgenas en una actitud de esta especie vemos ola y \u00fanicamente un cari\u00f1o y un apego machacones y majaderos. Nada m\u00e1s\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Es preciso consultar las grabaciones de esas dos para ubicar los razonamientos editoriales de un amor nada loco, y da risa cuando la amante exigente pide a su ingrata que le lleve a su paradero la enciclopedia Espasa Calpe, especie de representaci\u00f3n de un amor en densidad de toneladas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Carlota siempre es idiota, Julieta no tiene conversaci\u00f3n y Melibea solo puede memorizar al arpa dos versos de romance. La condici\u00f3n zonza del amante se debe a su incomprensi\u00f3n radical de la pasi\u00f3n que despierta y si alguna vez Martin Heidegger sufri\u00f3 el totalitarismo de estar loco por Hanna Arendt, ella no habr\u00e1 sido para \u00e9l m\u00e1s que aquella incapaz de entender.\u00a0<\/p><p>Todo enamorado se cree \u00fanico, nada hubo antes que \u00e9l, no lo habr\u00e1 despu\u00e9s, todos reclaman ser aquel al que el amado no ama, se reponen a veces en un altruismo que estallar\u00e1 en la m\u00e1s imposible de las promesas. \u00abYo te ver\u00e9 vivir y esto me bastar\u00e1. Yo velar\u00e9 por ti\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Llamar lesbianas a dos que se quieren es reducir ese absoluto a pedestres dimensiones humanas.\u00a0 Y aunque el amante se mueva literalmente como lo hace Mistral, es al amado al que se le atribuye movimiento, ya que act\u00faa lo inapresable del objeto, su radical inadecuaci\u00f3n.\u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0<\/p><p>Un amigo me acerca la valiosa met\u00e1fora de H\u00e9ctor Murena, \u00abel secreto claro\u00bb: \u00abDi\u00e1logo somos entre una corza oscura y el secreto claro. As\u00ed en el fin nunca en el fin fenece\u00bb. Me advierte sobre una indiscreta tradici\u00f3n que nos exige descifrarlo todo en lugar de cobijar el enigma, ser sus custodios, entre una corza oscura, es decir, un ser capaz de mimetizarse entre las sombras del bosque, gr\u00e1cil y huidizo y el \u00absecreto claro\u00bb, como ese que velan m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de su fin, las palabras apasionadas de las amigas, lejos de las miradas tasadoras de aquellos que no aman demasiado.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Escritoras latinoamericanas: A<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">lgo est\u00e1 pasando<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/pilar-quintana-los-abismos-alfaguara\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pilar Quintana: en la espesura del deseo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/fernanda-melchor-y-su-viaje-al-paradais-escribir-de-lo-que-a-una-le-interesa-es-suficientemente-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fernanda Melchor y su viaje al <em>P\u00e1radais<\/em>: \u00abEscribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1acwz5t\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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20 minutos

Crédito: Max Rompo.

Por MARÍA MORENO

El 7 de mayo de 1946, parada ante un pupitre en el anfiteatro del Barnard College, Gabriela Mistral, premio Nobel desde el año anterior, ignoraba dos cosas; la primera que era el cumpleaños de Eva Perón, la segunda que el título de su conferencia «El odio y el miedo a las cosas y a las personas distintas a uno mismo» era una profecía al revés: el amor y el deseo a las cosas y a las personas distintas a uno mismo que iba a experimentar en la próxima década.  

En el auditorio estaba Doris Dana, una flaca idéntica a Katherine Hepburn, con un doctorado en letras, profesora y de aspecto tan inocente como la joven depredadora de la película All about Eve. Si se descuenta en este caso un marido, se debe sumar en cambio la figura de futura albacea, que es otro modo del compromiso, el de una vida en obra por delegación. 

Las cartas entre las dos mujeres, a las que separan treinta años de edad, comienzan dos años más tarde. Fechadas o no, las frases de despedida de la mayor van de «el afecto y la gratitud de su vieja amiga» en abril, pasando por «un abrazo de su amiga casi sin rostro que la quiere» en septiembre, a la expresiva: «Yo no deseo quedar viviendo (no vivir) muy lejos de ti» en noviembre.

Son 183 y están depositadas en la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile.

Durante el mes de marzo de 1948, según Daniela Schütte González, que prologa la compilación titulada Doris, vida mía, la joven le había escrito a Mistral: «Hace dos años, tuve el gusto de conocerla personalmente en una conferencia que usted dio en Barnard College aquí en Nueva York. En aquel entonces tanto mi timidez como mi deficiente conocimiento del español, así como el temor a agregarme a los que en ese momento se arremolinaban a su alrededor, me impidieron acercarme a usted a saludarla y hablarle algunas palabras. Todavía recuerdo vivamente, con angustia, el sufrimiento que se reflejaba en sus ojos durante esos momentos de prueba».

La futura amada empieza por confesar veladamente que, al desear ser elegida, se sustrajo a la multitud con una voluntad de no agregarse, voluntad común a los que se proponen como únicos; mientras pone en escena una causa-efecto entre un sufrimiento —que leyó mirando a los ojos de la conferencista, protegida por el anonimato— y una angustia que se recuerda «vivamente» (traducción: «no te olvidé»).

La ausencia es la condición de las cartas de amor —la zoncera de esta frase puede, como mal menor, subrayar la riqueza retórica de la que estas suelen hacer gala—, puede no ser una ausencia efectiva y hasta permite escribirse frente a frente y con figuras tan bellas que se olvide al destinatario, con la disculpa de la afirmación freudiana de «la sombra del objeto cae sobre el yo» (¿qué poeta superó este verso?). 

En estas cartas Doris Dana es siempre la que no vino, la que no está, la que tarda en venir. Y Gabriela Mistral es la que deberá inventar, nombre tras nombre, en busca del que la traiga de nuevo a su lado: «niña mala», «vagabunda», «veleidosa», «caprichosa», «coqueta de nadie», «ventolera del mar», «niña de todos», «dada a todos», «fenomenito», «Doriña», «Dorisín», «Dorís Danita».

En estas cartas Doris Dana es siempre la que no vino, la que no está, la que tarda en venir. Y Gabriela Mistral es la que deberá inventar, nombre tras nombre, en busca del que la traiga de nuevo a su lado: «niña mala», «vagabunda», «veleidosa», «caprichosa», «coqueta de nadie», «ventolera del mar», «niña de todos», «dada a todos», «fenomenito», «Doriña», «Dorisín», «Dorís Danita». 

Secretaire

La metáfora del clóset para aludir al secreto sobre la condición gay es gringa y de privilegiados —el clóset a menudo ocupa un cuarto entero y su bastedad alude a una fashion victim y a que muchos trajes-hábitos hacen monjes straight—. Es cierto que se puede traducir por «ropero», pero siempre habrá en lo que este mueble oculta una potencia de vida pública con el héterodisfraz adecuado. Me gusta más la metáfora del secretaire, ya que el secreto está hecho de palabras y hay en toda cerradura un agujero de pecado. Y porque no necesariamente se guarda allí lo que no se quiere que se sepa debido al estigma social, sino lo que se quiere reservado y único, incluso para las taxonomías políticas. En el secretaire hay, además, una comunidad locuaz casi siempre de corresponsales donde los tácitos son más eso mismo que silencio avergonzado, una comunidad capaz de desplegarse en esas palabras amorosas de ida y vuelta cuya tinta vuela en papeles para avión finísimo con rayas en los bordes, iguales a los avisos de las barberías, adornados por diseños románticos y logos barrocos o de hojas arrancadas a un cuaderno para demostrar lo imperiosos en la expresión de un sentimiento.  

Sylvia Molloy, para decir que el lesbianismo de Gabriela Mistral ha sido durante años un secreto a voces, cita a David Miller: «Ese secreto tiene por función no esconder algo, sino esconder que se está al tanto de ese algo». Y la frase tiene más evidencias que un juicio justo: cuando Juan Pablo Sutherland publicó su antología A corazón abierto, una recopilación de la literatura homoerótica chilena, la Fundación Gabriela Mistral le prohibió incluir tres poemas con el pretexto gorra de que «dicho trabajo antológico puede contribuir a interpretaciones tendenciosas, antojadizas y especulativas contrarias a la siempre significativa y relevante obra de nuestra autora». Y eso que «La flor del aire» y «La extranjera» pertenecían a Tala, que había sido publicado por la Editorial Sur (Buenos Aires) en 1938 y «La que camina», en Lagar (Santiago de Chile), en 1954. 

Vía email, Sutherland estalla en signos de admiración devenidos protesta: «Fíjate lo que pasó con Niña errante, una compilación de cartas que hizo Pedro Pablo Zegers hace unos años: en el lanzamiento nadie se atrevía a decir que Gabriela Mistral y Doris Dana eran amantes. En primera fila estaba Pancho Casas, una de las Yeguas del Apocalipsis, que en un momento salió gritando: “¡Digan que era lesbiana! ¡Son cartas de amor!”. Y se fue. Cuando leí el prólogo y lo estudié para un trabajo que no encuentro ahora, me llamó la atención poderosamente que el compilador solamente dijera que la relación de Mistral con Dana era… ¡¡¡¡paternal!!! ¡¡¡Por Dios!!! Eso decía, un escándalo esa escena que además ocurre muchos años después de la publicación de A corazón abierto, censurado y luego de que la sobrina de Doris Dana, Doris Atkinson, entregara al Estado chileno todo el patrimonio de Mistral a la Biblioteca Nacional (donde había decenas de cartas)».

«Fíjate lo que pasó con Niña errante, una compilación de cartas que hizo Pedro Pablo Zegers hace unos años: en el lanzamiento nadie se atrevía a decir que Gabriela Mistral y Doris Dana eran amantes. En primera fila estaba Pancho Casas, una de las Yeguas del Apocalipsis, que en un momento salió gritando: "¡Digan que era lesbiana! ¡Son cartas de amor!". Y se fue». Juan Pablo Sutherland

Alia Trabucco Zerán, que prologa Doris, vida mía, sugiere que ese amor es un secreto expandido en la intimidad de diversos corresponsales: «Y es que resulta importante también realzar, tras décadas de ocultamiento de esta relación, que, durante sus vidas, es decir, en su propio presente, Gabriela Mistral y Doris Dana sí fueron nombradas y consideradas en sus círculos como lo que eran: una pareja. Así dan cuenta no solamente el tenor amoroso de estas cartas y el hecho de que Dana fuera declarada la albacea de Mistral, sino las cientos de misivas que Mistral recibía de manera regular donde amigos y conocidos envían saludos y cariños a Doris, reflejando ese conocer y reconocer posteriormente negado. Así, André Racz, tras una visita en Italia, pregunta por Doris y le manda sus cariñosos saludos; Palma Guillén le pregunta a Dana por el estado de salud de Mistral; o simplemente se reiteran las misivas con saludos a ambas, visibilizando la gran relevancia que Doris tuvo en su vida». 

En el secretaire, las cartas cruzadas entre parejas de amigas y amantes probaban que el teléfono era un aparato indeciblemente práctico, pero también mucho más precario a la hora de dar testimonio de una obviedad: no se deja escrito lo que no quiere que se sepa. Sí se elige a los testigos. Las cartas que Gabriela Mistral escribe a Victoria Ocampo, por ejemplo, son explícitas. Hay una donde se informa con solemnidad, como si se tratara de una ceremonia de compromiso: «Vivo con una profesora y escritora americana, Doris Dana. Ella ahora sosiega sus pies en Nápoles. Por cuido. Es muy serena y no se le ve alarma alguna». Muchas otras ponen en escena una sucesión informada donde Dana llega a aparecer como la coartada para el constante reclamo de presencia a la corresponsal (¿era Gabriela Mistral densa en general y no solo cuando estaba enamorada?): «Me haces mucha falta, no solo a mí, a Doris ídem»; «Yo hago esto de escribirte sin ninguna esperanza. Doris y yo lo hemos hecho ya y respuesta tuya no hemos tenido. Tú sabes cómo desconsuela y hace perder la esperanza tal cosa y en estos tiempos». 

«Doris es muy buena para mí, mucho; pero me da cierto remordimiento acapararla. Yo sé que ella está perdiendo su vida conmigo, su vida».

Y no se trata de formalidades de tono conyugal, la confidencia es lo suficientemente desenvuelta como para extenderse ante una mujer que en sus memorias se declara casi rabiosamente hetero: «Doris es muy buena para mí, mucho; pero me da cierto remordimiento acapararla. Yo sé que ella está perdiendo su vida conmigo, su vida». «Doris es la compañera óptima, la mejor que hallar se puede, pero a veces me pasa por la cabeza el pensamiento de que una mujer vieja pueda, sin darse cuenta, no dar alegría a una persona de su edad, sí, eso, y además envejecerla».  

Es demasiado perezoso pensar que es la moral burguesa y su censura efectiva la que está dispuesta a hacer oídos sordos y ojos ciegos a lo que es evidente, permitiendo a cambio ese saber no sabido de tantos padres y madres de disidentes sexuales que organizó durante décadas las buenas maneras en lo impronunciable. El secreto es la resistencia a la serie y su quiebre, a la resolución en una identidad de rasgos tensados entre los anatemas de la religión y la clínica psiquiátrica. 

Pero las políticas del deseo tienen derecho a contar con materiales donde la censura no se debió a los escrúpulos de las protagonistas ni aun a un descuido archivista inocente. Lo cierto es que ninguna hoguera patriarcal y patriota quemó estas cartas que guardaron el contínuum de las amigas para los deseosos capaces de leer entre líneas o en buen castellano, en su elocuente vehemencia carnal.

De par en par

Abiertas las persianas del secretaire, hoy la imagen de Mistral está on the street, con su pañuelo abortero al cuello y bandera negra en la mano. Y sus amores de mujer a mujer aludido en una nota de Alia Trabucco Zerán al pie de Doris, vida mía

«La imagen a la que me refiero fue creada por Fabián Ciarolo y pintada como mural en las paredes del Centro Cultural Gabriela Mistral (GAM), en el centro de Santiago. El pañuelo verde es símbolo, tanto en Chile como en Argentina, de las demandas colectivas por el aborto seguro, legal y gratuito. Curiosamente, el diseño que hoy está grabado en la versión chilena de ese pañuelo está basado en un grabado de la artista chilena Laura Rodig, quien fuera pareja de Mistral, para el Primer Congreso Nacional del MEMCH, en 1937».

«Doris es la compañera óptima, la mejor que hallar se puede, pero a veces me pasa por la cabeza el pensamiento de que una mujer vieja pueda, sin darse cuenta, no dar alegría a una persona de su edad, sí, eso, y además envejecerla».

                                                                                                                                   Crédito: Biblioteca Nacional de Chile.

La comunidad de c(i)elo y tierra 

Alguna vez, debilitada por un amor correspondido (son los que más perjudican), definí el contínuum lesbiano muy por fuera de la ortodoxia de Adrienne Reach: una larguísima cinta de raso que une a la primera mujer con la última y que va enredándose en las muñecas de todas las mujeres del mundo y de todos los tiempos y está hecha de caricias, arrorrós, bordados, subrayados, pañuelos, rouge, saludos, lectura en voz alta, secretos y lo que se quiera hasta formar un gran nido donde cobijarse y rebelarse en un mundo hecho por otros.

Toda mujer lleva en su muñeca esa cinta, que hace que jamás se sienta sola, quiera o no amar a un hombre, casarse con él, es decir, cumplir con la heterosexualidad obligatoria, que es otra idea de Adrienne, muy difícil de pronunciar y de explicar. 

Gilda Péndola, Palma Guillén, Emma Godoy, Eda Ramelli, Margarita Michelena, Anita Bustamante, Sixta Araya… Las cartas a Doris Dana ponen en escena una sucesión de mujeres que viajan junto con Gabriela Mistral, ofician de amas de casa, intérpretes, contables, agentes inmobiliarios, gestoras y cualquier otro oficio a la que las comprometiera esa Pocahontas soltera y andina que se sentía mancillada, como llorisquea en una enumeración de desgracias, al tener que salir sola a comprar sus remedios, sus sellos, sus papeles y sus bananas. Estas mujeres se instalan por un tiempo en las diversas casas que Mistral habita en México, Italia y Estados Unidos, se relevan para ordenar correspondencia, controlar las cuentas bancarias, organizar archivos o copiar originales, y son las responsables del gran archivo Mistral. 

Fluctuante entre la complicidad y el «odio sombrío», entre la hermandad en lucha por recibir justicia por sus afanes y los celos intrigantes, entre la delación separadora y la voluntad por un bien común, en esta suerte de arcadia bien administrada y de amores ya atemperados, intercambian a veces sus copiosas cartas entre ellas por fuera del círculo Mistral, quien por más Nobel que sea insiste en practicar la modestia afectada para exigir despóticamente cuidados. Verónica Zondek, poeta y mistralista consecuente, relata el mito de origen de ese don de mando ejercido con tono plañido: «En la escuela de Vicuña donde la llevaron para que siguiera sus estudios de primaria no encajó. Sus compañeras recelaban de ella y no la aceptaron. Un día la culparon de ladrona ante la directora, una mujer casi ciega y además madrina de Lucila. Esta mujer transformó la acusación en un acto ejemplar frente a toda la escuela y frente a Gabriela, que, muerta de vergüenza, se escondió apenas terminó. Cuando finalmente salió ellas estaban aún ahí paradas en la plaza con los bolsillos llenos de piedras y la apedrearon hasta hacerla sangrar mientras le gritaban ladrona. Mistral relata esto cada vez que puede y lo recuerda como el trance más marcador de su vida. Este hecho refuerza su sentimiento de no pertenencia, y marca además el fin de su educación formal. En su expediente personal se anota que no continúa con su educación porque ella es deficiente mental. Esta notación resulta ser ventajosa en relación a la de ladrona porque la exime de ser llevada a la justicia o de ser internada en la correccional. La madrina le sugiere entonces a Petronila que la entrene en labores del hogar para que sirva para algo. En ese mismo instante Lucila, rebelde, clarividente o excéntrica, decide no cocinar, no limpiar, no hacer la cama, no bordar, no coser. Decide no hacerlo nunca».  

«El corazón, vida mía. Es órgano tan celoso como un hispanoamericano». Gabriela Mistral

En medio de la retahíla de reproches que constituyen la parte machacona de las cartas (es que la mayoría de las cartas de amor, por muy brillantes que sean, carecen de grandeur), existe el argumento positivista mediante el que Mistral oscila entre darse por latina o por india al azar de su logorrea afectiva: «Yo no tengo vida suficiente para hacerte comprender que la máquina humana que llamamos latinidad —aunque no tenga ninguna sangre latina tengo hábitos latinos— marcha de modo muy opuesto a la sajona». «El corazón, vida mía. Es órgano tan celoso como un hispanoamericano». «Tú eres de una raza libertaria, yo de una raza esclavista». 

Si siempre argumentó su amor insatisfecho y quejoso en esa diferencia «racial» sin matices políticos, denostó la xenofobia de los que rechazaban a Dana, no dejando de incluir a su amante en la serie de satélites femeninos, y tal vez haya pensado en una potencial comunidad utópica de resistencia cultural y vida nueva. Es interesante que Sylvia Molloy ante similares acusaciones, que pudo haber recibido Teresa de la Parra, por reaccionaria, dice: «Ser goda, ser precolonia, no es solo una postura aristocratizante: es rechazar la paradigmática pareja heterosexual del proyecto liberal postulando en cambio una comunidad precapitalista basada en afectos femeninos». 

Porque el despotismo de Mistral no es el del patriarca que naturaliza al serrallo profesional a la manera de un Joyce —cuyo nombre se debe tanto a la construcción crítica moderna como al trabajo material de editoras, mecanógrafas, mecenas, traductoras y enfermeras vocacionales—, sino el de la huérfana que lleva el peso de encarnar un universal de poeta más allá de su sexo sin contar con los privilegios patriarcales. 

Cuando no hay palabras para definir las alianzas femeninas se recurre a dupla madre-hija, para deserotizarlas por descontado y evocar la sentencia freudiana de que se trataría del vínculo más ambivalente —el menos sería el de la madre y el hijo varón—. Sin discutir la sentencia, es posible apropiarla, para señalar que ni el odio, ni los celos, ni la envidia logran la ruptura de afectos que continúan por sobre toda violencia, indisolubles como si fueran de sangre. Aquí, como siempre, la naturaleza es una metáfora. Acusadas de no sublimar nada y de una pasión que se desgasta para el pensamiento racional, son prolíferas en obras, y las amigas así enlazadas, aun en sus furias tienen menos trabajo para no separarse de sí mismas que las acopladas a la pasión con un hombre. 

Todo enamorado se cree único, nada hubo antes que él, no lo habrá después, todos reclaman ser aquel al que el amado no ama, se reponen a veces en un altruismo que estallará en la más imposible de las promesas. «Yo te veré vivir y esto me bastará. Yo velaré por ti».

Amor y más allá 

Hermanas de otra manera, algunas de ellas no admitieron los límites de la vida ni mucho menos el fin del amor en la muerte. Y es quizá por sus vehemencias carnales que necesitaron buscar templar el espíritu en prácticas de iniciación esotérica y de trascendencia. Madame Blavatsky fue para Gabriela Mistral una guía, Krishnamurti para Victoria Ocampo y Salvadora Medina. Según sus cartas, Gabriela podría provocar una alucinación de Yinyin, su suicida hijo adoptivo, y Lidia Cabrera se comunicó con Teresa de la Parra en una mesa espiritista. Hoy pienso en el yoga de feministas como Luce Irigaray y María Pia López, en la numerología que consultaba Josefina Ludmer, como búsqueda de rituales de pacificación y entrenamiento para la templanza del pensamiento y la energía vital, conexión con saberes populares y memoria. Para escribir Poema de Chile, Gabriela Mistral se alimenta de imágenes no humanas, animales y plantas y piedras de América en un mapa que hoy podría formar parte del archivo del planeta a salvar. 

Usureros 

Hay en la retórica amorosa de escritores y escritoras un plus contable que parece desmentir la denuncia por una ausencia, que hace que el vivir sea una muerte en vida, y no solo porque los amores que matan nunca mueren, sino porque a la vuelta de un adjetivo justo o una imagen ingeniosa, el gusto de escribir hace olvidar el objeto y lo convierte en pretexto. En las cartas de amor de una religiosa portuguesa, un caballero que ha pasado una vez por la reja del convento es mera excusa para liberarse de Dios en la suntuosidad de la lengua. Pero puede haber algo más pedestre: el amante que escribe suele medir al amado por las rentas que produce. El De profundis de Oscar Wilde sorprende porque, de pronto, un célebre ensalzador de la belleza en su gratuidad clama, con las maneras de un usurero del arte que recuenta una y otra vez, cómo cuando Bosie, en el que decía gastar fortunas, estaba fuera de Inglaterra, él podía redondear un acto de Un marido ideal, una «tragedia florentina» o algo como La Sainte Courtisane, mientras que en su presencia casi no podía trabajar. En cambio, con su amigo Robbie, tres francos y medio invertidos en un cafecito del Soho le rindieron el «primero y mejor de todos mis diálogos». Como un capitalista sin beneficios, dice que ha hecho el cálculo de que entre la fecha en que conoció a Bosie y esta temporada en la cárcel desde donde escribe, gastó en el amado unas cinco mil libras. 

La condición zonza del amante se debe a su incomprensión radical de la pasión que despierta, y si alguna vez Martin Heidegger sufrió el totalitarismo de estar loco por Hanna Arendt, ella no habrá sido para él más que aquella incapaz de entender. 

Entre los bramidos amorosos de Gabriela Mistral suele aparecer una y otra vez el reclamo a Dana por sus obligaciones de asistente y luego de una albacea con la que se discute fríamente las conveniencias de una edición, la ubicación de unos versos o una bibliografía necesaria, y una exigencia de piedad ante esta mujer vieja que extorsiona torpemente con argumentos como este: «He sido insistente, majadero, estúpido en mi porfía por retenerte. Pero nosotros los latinos indígenas en una actitud de esta especie vemos ola y únicamente un cariño y un apego machacones y majaderos. Nada más». 

Es preciso consultar las grabaciones de esas dos para ubicar los razonamientos editoriales de un amor nada loco, y da risa cuando la amante exigente pide a su ingrata que le lleve a su paradero la enciclopedia Espasa Calpe, especie de representación de un amor en densidad de toneladas. 

Carlota siempre es idiota, Julieta no tiene conversación y Melibea solo puede memorizar al arpa dos versos de romance. La condición zonza del amante se debe a su incomprensión radical de la pasión que despierta y si alguna vez Martin Heidegger sufrió el totalitarismo de estar loco por Hanna Arendt, ella no habrá sido para él más que aquella incapaz de entender. 

Todo enamorado se cree único, nada hubo antes que él, no lo habrá después, todos reclaman ser aquel al que el amado no ama, se reponen a veces en un altruismo que estallará en la más imposible de las promesas. «Yo te veré vivir y esto me bastará. Yo velaré por ti». 

Llamar lesbianas a dos que se quieren es reducir ese absoluto a pedestres dimensiones humanas.  Y aunque el amante se mueva literalmente como lo hace Mistral, es al amado al que se le atribuye movimiento, ya que actúa lo inapresable del objeto, su radical inadecuación.     

Un amigo me acerca la valiosa metáfora de Héctor Murena, «el secreto claro»: «Diálogo somos entre una corza oscura y el secreto claro. Así en el fin nunca en el fin fenece». Me advierte sobre una indiscreta tradición que nos exige descifrarlo todo en lugar de cobijar el enigma, ser sus custodios, entre una corza oscura, es decir, un ser capaz de mimetizarse entre las sombras del bosque, grácil y huidizo y el «secreto claro», como ese que velan más allá de su fin, las palabras apasionadas de las amigas, lejos de las miradas tasadoras de aquellos que no aman demasiado. 




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