Literatura

Elena Ferrante inédita: la vida después de «La hija oscura»

Tras «La hija oscura» –la novela sobre el lado opaco de la maternidad que ahora ha vuelto al debate a partir de la película de Maggie Gyllenhaal-, Elena Ferrante pensó que no volvería a publicar. Con inusitada generosidad, en este fragmento del erudito y delicioso «En los márgenes» (Lumen, 2022), ella misma explica cómo salió de ese estancamiento gracias a dos libros protagonizados por dos parejas de mujeres. Y cómo esa amiga del borrador que no avanzaba pasó de ser «necesaria» a ser «genial».

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unos a\u00f1os consider\u00e9\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30607-libro-la-hija-oscura-9788426405289\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La hija oscura<\/a><\/em><\/span> un libro definitivo, o, en cualquier caso, el \u00faltimo que publicar\u00eda. Mi af\u00e1n adolescente de realismo absoluto hab\u00eda quedado satisfecho. De pasaje en pasaje solo hab\u00eda seguido en pie un deseo de verdad que me llevaba a rechazar el naturalismo cron\u00edstico con sus pinceladas de dialecto, la bella escritura que dora la p\u00edldora, los personajes femeninos siempre dispuestos a levantar la cabeza y vencer. A ra\u00edz de haberlas narrado y haberme narrado a m\u00ed misma en el \u00fanico modo que me parec\u00eda veraz, mis mujeres hab\u00edan desembocado sin que yo lo quisiera \u2014insisto: no se narra sin los empujones de los dem\u00e1s; este viejo principio se ha mantenido bien firme\u2014 en una especie de solipsismo sin el cual, sin embargo, ve\u00eda, para m\u00ed, autora, solo una regresi\u00f3n a historias inaut\u00e9nticas.<\/p><p>Despu\u00e9s, de modo por completo ocasional, volv\u00ed a un libro que le\u00ed en cuanto Feltrinelli lo public\u00f3 en 1997 o 1998, <em>Tu che mi guardi, tu che mi racconti<\/em> (\u00abT\u00fa que me miras, t\u00fa que me narras\u00bb), de Adriana Cavarero. Aquella primera lectura no me hab\u00eda hecho bien; al contrario, hab\u00eda debilitado mi confianza en el camino que hab\u00eda emprendido con El amor molesto, aunque el an\u00e1lisis del impulso femenino por narrarse y el deseo de ser narradas me pareci\u00f3 muy apasionante. O al menos as\u00ed lo recuerdo. No obstante, ahora no quiero hablar de aquella primera lectura, sino de la segunda.\u00a0<\/p><p>Intentaba superar el callej\u00f3n sin salida de <em>La hija oscura<\/em> esbozando una nueva historia de madres e hijas, una historia desbordante que, seg\u00fan mis intenciones, deb\u00eda extender se a lo largo de sesenta a\u00f1os, cuando volv\u00ed al libro de Cavarero. Me pareci\u00f3 un libro nuevo, como si nunca lo hubiese le\u00eddo, hasta en el uso que hace de Karen Blixen y del cuento de la cig\u00fce\u00f1a, relatado en\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/6283-libro-memorias-de-africa-9788420407463\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Memorias de \u00c1frica<\/span><\/em>.<\/a> Pero lo que aviv\u00f3 mi imaginaci\u00f3n fue una expresi\u00f3n: \u00abla otra necesaria\u00bb. La frase da t\u00edtulo a todo un cap\u00edtulo, va precedida por un di\u00e1logo articulado con Hannah Arendt, bordea el tema del narcisismo, y al final llega a la siguiente definici\u00f3n:<\/p><p><em>El otro necesario [\u2026] es un finito que sigue siendo irremediablemente otro en todo lo insustituible, fr\u00e1gil y no juzgable, de su 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que aquello me sacudi\u00f3. Me pareci\u00f3 que necesitaba ese \u00abotro\u00bb para salir de los tres libros anteriores y, no obstante, seguir dentro de ellos.<\/p><p>Quiero, sin embargo, proceder con orden. Entre los muchos libros que Cavarero utilizaba para desarrollar su argumentaci\u00f3n, en un momento dado introduc\u00eda <em>Non credere di avere dei diritti<\/em> (\u00abNo creas que tienes derechos\u00bb), texto muy importante del feminismo italiano, preparado por la Libreria delle Donne de Mil\u00e1n. De \u00e9l extrapolaba una breve historia de amistad. Se trataba del encuentro entre Emilia y Amalia en el marco de los a\u00f1os setenta y de la escuela de las ciento cincuenta horas, una conquista sindical que hab\u00eda dado origen a unos cursos trienales de contenido profesional y no profesional, de los que pod\u00edan beneficiarse trabajadoras y trabajadores que hab\u00edan abandonado los estudios. Amalia era una magn\u00edfica narradora natural y, al principio, encontraba a Emilia aburrida, porque siempre contaba las mismas cosas. Pero despu\u00e9s, a fuerza de leerse mutuamente los ejercicios que hac\u00edan para el curso, Amalia hab\u00eda prestado m\u00e1s atenci\u00f3n y se hab\u00eda interesado por la escritura fragmentada de Emilia. Y como Emilia apreciaba hasta las l\u00e1grimas lo buena que era Amalia, esta se sinti\u00f3 en la necesidad de escribir los hechos de la vida vivida por su amiga y regalarle el texto. Un regalo del que Emilia no se separar\u00eda y, que conmovida, llevar\u00eda siempre en el bolso.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hy7sui6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abIntentaba superar el callej\u00f3n sin salida de\u00a0<em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30607-libro-la-hija-oscura-9788426405289\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La hija oscura<\/a><\/em> esbozando una nueva historia de madres e hijas, una historia desbordante que deb\u00eda extenderse a lo largo de sesenta a\u00f1os, cuando volv\u00ed al libro de Adriana Cavarero. Le\u00ed: \\\"El otro necesario es un finito que sigue siendo irremediablemente otro en todo lo insustituible, fr\u00e1gil y no juzgable de su existencia\\\". Aquello me sacudi\u00f3. 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<em>Non credere di avere dei diritti.<\/em> Las p\u00e1ginas en las que aparec\u00edan Emilia y Amalia resultaron importantes para la historia en la que yo estaba trabajando. Localic\u00e9 un pasaje que Cavarero no hab\u00eda citado directamente, pero que desboc\u00f3 mi imaginaci\u00f3n. En un momento dado, Amalia, la buena narradora, dec\u00eda de Emilia: \u00abEsa mujer entend\u00eda realmente las cosas, escrib\u00eda muchas frases separadas entre s\u00ed, pero muy verdaderas y profundas\u00bb (Rosenberg & Sellier, 1987). Enseguida me gust\u00f3 aquel \u00abrealmente\u00bb. Me gust\u00f3 aquel \u00abverdaderas y profundas\u00bb. Not\u00e9 en Amalia, que disfrutaba escribiendo y se consideraba buena, una admiraci\u00f3n incontenible por los intentos de escritura de Emilia. Incluso cre\u00ed percibir un sentimiento como la envidia ante un resultado que, pese a ser buena, Amalia sab\u00eda que no era capaz de conseguir.\u00a0<\/p><p>Empec\u00e9 a exagerar, como suele ocurrirme. Cavarero escrib\u00eda: \u00abNo conocemos las paginitas adoradas que Emilia guardaba en su bolso\u00bb. Pero no se amargaba ni por la p\u00e9rdida del texto de Amalia ni mucho menos por la p\u00e9rdida de los fragmentos de Emilia, que calificaba de \u00abtorpes intentos autobiogr\u00e1ficos\u00bb. Con un buen motivo: su investigaci\u00f3n tend\u00eda a subrayar los efectos positivos de la amistad narrativa entre dos mujeres, no se ocupaba de las din\u00e1micas entre los textos. Yo s\u00ed me amargu\u00e9 por no disponer de aquellos textos, los intu\u00eda pr\u00f3ximos a mis problemas de narradora, porque sab\u00eda bien qu\u00e9 es una escritura diligente y qu\u00e9 una escritura desbordada. Y fantaseaba, pensaba que si al menos hubiese tenido el texto de Amalia, habr\u00eda sido capaz de identificar en \u00e9l los arrebatos de las frases verdaderas y profundas de Emilia. En este momento estoy casi segura de que aquellas fantas\u00edas me llevaron a la din\u00e1mica entre la escritura de Lena y la escritura de Lila. De hecho, me hab\u00eda bastado con leer las palabras de admiraci\u00f3n de Amalia y enseguida \u2014debo confesar\u2014 las \u00abfrases sepa radas\u00bb de su amiga se hab\u00edan convertido en \u00abescritura ver dadera\u00bb, la escritura que llega por impulso (<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/poesia\/240181-libro-divina-comedia-infierno-purgatorio-paraiso-edicion-bilingue-9788491055235\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dante<\/a><\/span> la habr\u00eda definido como \u00abcasi como movida por s\u00ed misma\u00bb) y que m\u00e1s tarde acaba bellamente encerrada entre las l\u00edneas rojas de alg\u00fan cuaderno. En fin, imagin\u00e9 que con su saber escribir bien Amalia hab\u00eda domesticado los fragmentos de Emilia y que precisamente esa domesticaci\u00f3n hab\u00eda hecho feliz a Emilia, la otra necesaria.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kt7id1q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMe pareci\u00f3 maravilloso que una mujer, Gertrude Stein, la mujer cuya firma sal\u00eda en la cubierta, se definiera audazmente, por boca de su \\\"otra necesaria\\\", como genio y, al mencionarse junto a dos hombres, se colocase en primer lugar. Me pareci\u00f3 de un descaro inigualable y me ech\u00e9 a re\u00edr, fue una risa de simpat\u00eda\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"625xwtp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A estas alturas debo decir que Cavarero no utiliza esa f\u00f3rmula con Emilia, sino que lo hace con Alice B. Toklas, la persona cuya autobiograf\u00eda \u2014f\u00edjense bien, autobiograf\u00eda, no biograf\u00eda\u2014 escribe <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/875-gertrude-stein\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gertrude Stein<\/a><\/span>. Pues bien: decenas de a\u00f1os antes yo hab\u00eda le\u00eddo mal <em>Autobiograf\u00eda<\/em> de Alice B. Toklas, muy mal. La rele\u00ed en la \u00e9poca en que estuve escribiendo mi largo borrador a partir de las p\u00e1ginas que le dedicaba Adriana Cavarero. Y quiero decirles que, de jovencita, no hab\u00eda entendido nada; Autobiograf\u00eda de Alice B. Toklas es un libro maravilloso, fundacional, por su estructura, por su ejecuci\u00f3n. Les transcribir\u00e9 algunas de las frases de Cavarero que me impulsaron a volver a mirar dentro de ellas. Son estas:<\/p><p><em>El g\u00e9nero autobiogr\u00e1fico y el g\u00e9nero biogr\u00e1fico se superponen. [\u2026] Gertrude escribe la historia de su vida haciendo que la cuente otra: Alice, su amiga y conviviente, su amante [\u2026]. El gigantesco egotismo de Gertrude Stein consigue crear as\u00ed una ficci\u00f3n literaria de historias entrecruzadas donde ella misma destaca y donde Alice, sin embargo, aparece como la otra que la mira y la otra que la narra\u2026<\/em><\/p><p>Es probable que partiendo de aqu\u00ed me resultara m\u00e1s clara la relaci\u00f3n entre Len\u00f9 y Lila, entre sus escrituras. Y es probable que partiendo de aqu\u00ed empezara a pensar que ser\u00eda capaz de salir de Olga, de Delia y, sobre todo, de Leda, trabajando en una especie de rec\u00edproca alteridad necesaria, es decir, narrando un v\u00ednculo entre dos personas tan unidas entre s\u00ed como irreductibles entre s\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p><p>En esta direcci\u00f3n me impuls\u00f3 con mayor motivo la relectura de la <em>Autobiograf\u00eda.<\/em> Ten\u00eda la impresi\u00f3n de que ese libro hab\u00eda salido tan bien porque en la escritura \u2014y tal vez tambi\u00e9n en la realidad\u2014 el egotismo de Gertrude, como lo llama Cavarero, se realiza a trav\u00e9s de una doble funci\u00f3n: la de la autora, Gertrude Stein, que firma el texto, y la del personaje al que la autora atribuye su nombre, Gertrude Stein, impreso en la cubierta. Pero cuidado: si leen o releen el libro, sigan el desarrollo, l\u00ednea a l\u00ednea, de Alice Toklas. En su calidad de yo narrador, ella destaca con lujo de detalles. No es casualidad que en las espl\u00e9ndidas l\u00edneas finales, cuando Gertrude, al ver que su amiga no se decide, prometa escribir la autobiograf\u00eda de Alice, promesa que queda as\u00ed formulada en la traducci\u00f3n de Pavese: \u00abLa scriver\u00f2 come Defoe scrisse l\u2019autobiografia di Robinson\u00bb (\u00abLa escribir\u00e9 del mismo modo que Defoe escribi\u00f3 la autobiograf\u00eda de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36565-libro-robinson-crusoe-9788491050223\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Robinson Crusoe<\/a><\/span>\u00bb)*. Es decir, mi querida amiga-amante-esposa, te tratar\u00e9 de la \u00fanica manera en que es posible escribir la autobiograf\u00eda de otro: haciendo una ficci\u00f3n en primera persona, tu primera persona de protagonista, una Robinson, desde luego no una Viernes. Por lo dem\u00e1s, aunque es la esposa y la elegida para escribir sobre las esposas de los genios, \u00bfc\u00f3mo podr\u00eda Alice, en la econom\u00eda del texto, sin la talla literaria necesaria, reconocer y representar con veros\u00edmil habilidad no solo a las esposas de los genios \u2014algo que, por lo dem\u00e1s, hace muy bien\u2014, sino tambi\u00e9n a una esposa genial, Gertrude, narrada en tercera persona entre varones geniales?\u00a0<\/p><p>Quiero acabar citando un p\u00e1rrafo famoso en el que Alice escribe sobre la primera vez que vio a Gertrude:<\/p><p><em>Lo que m\u00e1s me impresion\u00f3 fue el broche de coral que llevaba y su voz. Debo decir que en mi vida solo he conocido a tres genios, y en las tres ocasiones son\u00f3 una campanilla dentro de m\u00ed y no me equivoqu\u00e9, y debo decir que en los tres casos ocurri\u00f3 antes de que consiguieran la consideraci\u00f3n general de genios. Los tres genios de quienes quiero hablar son Gertrude Stein, Pablo Picasso y Alfred Whitehead.<\/em><\/p><p>Subrayo aqu\u00ed solo una cosa. Me pareci\u00f3 maravilloso que una mujer, la mujer cuya firma sal\u00eda en la cubierta, se definiera audazmente, por boca de su \u00abotra necesaria\u00bb, como genio y, al mencionarse junto a dos hombres, se colocase en primer lugar. Me pareci\u00f3 de un descaro inigualable y me ech\u00e9 a re\u00edr, fue una risa de simpat\u00eda. No puedo jurarlo, pero creo que desde aquel instante, tras haber puesto durante un tiempo a mi cartapacio el t\u00edtulo de <em>La amiga necesaria, pas\u00e9 despu\u00e9s a titularlo <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/260262-libro-saga-dos-amigas-la-amiga-estupenda-un-mal-nombre-las-deudas-del-cuerpo-la-nina-perdida-9788466357913\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">L'amica geniale<\/a>.<\/em><\/p><p><br \/>*Cita de <em>Autobiograf\u00eda<\/em>, de Gertrude Stein: trad. de Andr\u00e9s Boch, Barcelona, Lumen, 2016.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/elena-ferrante-dos-amigas-cronicas-del-desamor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Por qu\u00e9 todas las historias de familia que narra Elena Ferrante son tambi\u00e9n historias de dinero<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/donald-ray-pollock-guillermo-saccomanno\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Donald Ray Pollock por Guillermo Saccomanno: un predicador en la noche oscura<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La muerte de Virginia Woolf por Leonard Woolf: la contemplaci\u00f3n 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10 minutos
Olivia Colman en la adaptación al cine de «La hija oscura». Cortesía de Vértigo Films.

Olivia Colman en la adaptación al cine de «La hija oscura». Cortesía de Vértigo Films.

Durante unos años consideré La hija oscura un libro definitivo, o, en cualquier caso, el último que publicaría. Mi afán adolescente de realismo absoluto había quedado satisfecho. De pasaje en pasaje solo había seguido en pie un deseo de verdad que me llevaba a rechazar el naturalismo cronístico con sus pinceladas de dialecto, la bella escritura que dora la píldora, los personajes femeninos siempre dispuestos a levantar la cabeza y vencer. A raíz de haberlas narrado y haberme narrado a mí misma en el único modo que me parecía veraz, mis mujeres habían desembocado sin que yo lo quisiera —insisto: no se narra sin los empujones de los demás; este viejo principio se ha mantenido bien firme— en una especie de solipsismo sin el cual, sin embargo, veía, para mí, autora, solo una regresión a historias inauténticas.

Después, de modo por completo ocasional, volví a un libro que leí en cuanto Feltrinelli lo publicó en 1997 o 1998, Tu che mi guardi, tu che mi racconti («Tú que me miras, tú que me narras»), de Adriana Cavarero. Aquella primera lectura no me había hecho bien; al contrario, había debilitado mi confianza en el camino que había emprendido con El amor molesto, aunque el análisis del impulso femenino por narrarse y el deseo de ser narradas me pareció muy apasionante. O al menos así lo recuerdo. No obstante, ahora no quiero hablar de aquella primera lectura, sino de la segunda. 

Intentaba superar el callejón sin salida de La hija oscura esbozando una nueva historia de madres e hijas, una historia desbordante que, según mis intenciones, debía extender se a lo largo de sesenta años, cuando volví al libro de Cavarero. Me pareció un libro nuevo, como si nunca lo hubiese leído, hasta en el uso que hace de Karen Blixen y del cuento de la cigüeña, relatado en Memorias de África. Pero lo que avivó mi imaginación fue una expresión: «la otra necesaria». La frase da título a todo un capítulo, va precedida por un diálogo articulado con Hannah Arendt, bordea el tema del narcisismo, y al final llega a la siguiente definición:

El otro necesario […] es un finito que sigue siendo irremediablemente otro en todo lo insustituible, frágil y no juzgable, de su existencia.

Sobre el placer de leer y escribir

Recuerdo que aquello me sacudió. Me pareció que necesitaba ese «otro» para salir de los tres libros anteriores y, no obstante, seguir dentro de ellos.

Quiero, sin embargo, proceder con orden. Entre los muchos libros que Cavarero utilizaba para desarrollar su argumentación, en un momento dado introducía Non credere di avere dei diritti («No creas que tienes derechos»), texto muy importante del feminismo italiano, preparado por la Libreria delle Donne de Milán. De él extrapolaba una breve historia de amistad. Se trataba del encuentro entre Emilia y Amalia en el marco de los años setenta y de la escuela de las ciento cincuenta horas, una conquista sindical que había dado origen a unos cursos trienales de contenido profesional y no profesional, de los que podían beneficiarse trabajadoras y trabajadores que habían abandonado los estudios. Amalia era una magnífica narradora natural y, al principio, encontraba a Emilia aburrida, porque siempre contaba las mismas cosas. Pero después, a fuerza de leerse mutuamente los ejercicios que hacían para el curso, Amalia había prestado más atención y se había interesado por la escritura fragmentada de Emilia. Y como Emilia apreciaba hasta las lágrimas lo buena que era Amalia, esta se sintió en la necesidad de escribir los hechos de la vida vivida por su amiga y regalarle el texto. Un regalo del que Emilia no se separaría y, que conmovida, llevaría siempre en el bolso.

«Intentaba superar el callejón sin salida de La hija oscura esbozando una nueva historia de madres e hijas, una historia desbordante que debía extenderse a lo largo de sesenta años, cuando volví al libro de Adriana Cavarero. Leí: "El otro necesario es un finito que sigue siendo irremediablemente otro en todo lo insustituible, frágil y no juzgable de su existencia". Aquello me sacudió. Necesitaba ese otro para salir de los tres libros anteriores y, no obstante, seguir dentro de ellos».

Yo había leído Non credere di avere dei diritti hacía muchos años, pero no me había fijado en Emilia y Amalia. Sin embargo, Cavarero sacaba aquellas tenues figuras de mujeres de las dos paginitas en las que se las describía y hablaba de ellas con gran inteligencia y sensibilidad. Escribía sobre el «carácter narrativo de las amistades femeninas». Escribía —fíjense bien—, sobre «el cruce de narraciones autobiográficas que se aseguran, al mismo tiempo, el resultado de un uso y disfrute biográfico recíproco». Escribía: «Funciona aquí […] un mecanismo de reciprocidad por el cual el yo narrable de cada una pasa a la autonarración para que la otra conozca una historia que, a su vez, puede contar a otros y a otras, claro, pero sobre todo puede contar de nuevo a quien la protagoniza». Sintetizaba: «Dicho de forma sencilla: yo te cuento mi historia para que tú me la cuentes a mí». Me entusiasmé. Era lo que yo intentaba plasmar, de modo mucho más sencillo, en mi borrador de novela interminable, centrada en dos amigas que entrelazaban los relatos de sus vivencias, de modo menos edificante que Emilia y Amalia.

Olivia Colman (de fondo) y Dakota Johnson en la adaptación al cine de «La hija oscura». Cortesía de Vértigo Films.

Olivia Colman (de fondo) y Dakota Johnson en la adaptación al cine de «La hija oscura». Cortesía de Vértigo Films.

Retomé Non credere di avere dei diritti. Las páginas en las que aparecían Emilia y Amalia resultaron importantes para la historia en la que yo estaba trabajando. Localicé un pasaje que Cavarero no había citado directamente, pero que desbocó mi imaginación. En un momento dado, Amalia, la buena narradora, decía de Emilia: «Esa mujer entendía realmente las cosas, escribía muchas frases separadas entre sí, pero muy verdaderas y profundas» (Rosenberg & Sellier, 1987). Enseguida me gustó aquel «realmente». Me gustó aquel «verdaderas y profundas». Noté en Amalia, que disfrutaba escribiendo y se consideraba buena, una admiración incontenible por los intentos de escritura de Emilia. Incluso creí percibir un sentimiento como la envidia ante un resultado que, pese a ser buena, Amalia sabía que no era capaz de conseguir. 

Empecé a exagerar, como suele ocurrirme. Cavarero escribía: «No conocemos las paginitas adoradas que Emilia guardaba en su bolso». Pero no se amargaba ni por la pérdida del texto de Amalia ni mucho menos por la pérdida de los fragmentos de Emilia, que calificaba de «torpes intentos autobiográficos». Con un buen motivo: su investigación tendía a subrayar los efectos positivos de la amistad narrativa entre dos mujeres, no se ocupaba de las dinámicas entre los textos. Yo sí me amargué por no disponer de aquellos textos, los intuía próximos a mis problemas de narradora, porque sabía bien qué es una escritura diligente y qué una escritura desbordada. Y fantaseaba, pensaba que si al menos hubiese tenido el texto de Amalia, habría sido capaz de identificar en él los arrebatos de las frases verdaderas y profundas de Emilia. En este momento estoy casi segura de que aquellas fantasías me llevaron a la dinámica entre la escritura de Lena y la escritura de Lila. De hecho, me había bastado con leer las palabras de admiración de Amalia y enseguida —debo confesar— las «frases sepa radas» de su amiga se habían convertido en «escritura ver dadera», la escritura que llega por impulso (Dante la habría definido como «casi como movida por sí misma») y que más tarde acaba bellamente encerrada entre las líneas rojas de algún cuaderno. En fin, imaginé que con su saber escribir bien Amalia había domesticado los fragmentos de Emilia y que precisamente esa domesticación había hecho feliz a Emilia, la otra necesaria.

«Me pareció maravilloso que una mujer, Gertrude Stein, la mujer cuya firma salía en la cubierta, se definiera audazmente, por boca de su "otra necesaria", como genio y, al mencionarse junto a dos hombres, se colocase en primer lugar. Me pareció de un descaro inigualable y me eché a reír, fue una risa de simpatía».

A estas alturas debo decir que Cavarero no utiliza esa fórmula con Emilia, sino que lo hace con Alice B. Toklas, la persona cuya autobiografía —fíjense bien, autobiografía, no biografía— escribe Gertrude Stein. Pues bien: decenas de años antes yo había leído mal Autobiografía de Alice B. Toklas, muy mal. La releí en la época en que estuve escribiendo mi largo borrador a partir de las páginas que le dedicaba Adriana Cavarero. Y quiero decirles que, de jovencita, no había entendido nada; Autobiografía de Alice B. Toklas es un libro maravilloso, fundacional, por su estructura, por su ejecución. Les transcribiré algunas de las frases de Cavarero que me impulsaron a volver a mirar dentro de ellas. Son estas:

El género autobiográfico y el género biográfico se superponen. […] Gertrude escribe la historia de su vida haciendo que la cuente otra: Alice, su amiga y conviviente, su amante […]. El gigantesco egotismo de Gertrude Stein consigue crear así una ficción literaria de historias entrecruzadas donde ella misma destaca y donde Alice, sin embargo, aparece como la otra que la mira y la otra que la narra…

Es probable que partiendo de aquí me resultara más clara la relación entre Lenù y Lila, entre sus escrituras. Y es probable que partiendo de aquí empezara a pensar que sería capaz de salir de Olga, de Delia y, sobre todo, de Leda, trabajando en una especie de recíproca alteridad necesaria, es decir, narrando un vínculo entre dos personas tan unidas entre sí como irreductibles entre sí. 

En esta dirección me impulsó con mayor motivo la relectura de la Autobiografía. Tenía la impresión de que ese libro había salido tan bien porque en la escritura —y tal vez también en la realidad— el egotismo de Gertrude, como lo llama Cavarero, se realiza a través de una doble función: la de la autora, Gertrude Stein, que firma el texto, y la del personaje al que la autora atribuye su nombre, Gertrude Stein, impreso en la cubierta. Pero cuidado: si leen o releen el libro, sigan el desarrollo, línea a línea, de Alice Toklas. En su calidad de yo narrador, ella destaca con lujo de detalles. No es casualidad que en las espléndidas líneas finales, cuando Gertrude, al ver que su amiga no se decide, prometa escribir la autobiografía de Alice, promesa que queda así formulada en la traducción de Pavese: «La scriverò come Defoe scrisse l’autobiografia di Robinson» («La escribiré del mismo modo que Defoe escribió la autobiografía de Robinson Crusoe»)*. Es decir, mi querida amiga-amante-esposa, te trataré de la única manera en que es posible escribir la autobiografía de otro: haciendo una ficción en primera persona, tu primera persona de protagonista, una Robinson, desde luego no una Viernes. Por lo demás, aunque es la esposa y la elegida para escribir sobre las esposas de los genios, ¿cómo podría Alice, en la economía del texto, sin la talla literaria necesaria, reconocer y representar con verosímil habilidad no solo a las esposas de los genios —algo que, por lo demás, hace muy bien—, sino también a una esposa genial, Gertrude, narrada en tercera persona entre varones geniales? 

Quiero acabar citando un párrafo famoso en el que Alice escribe sobre la primera vez que vio a Gertrude:

Lo que más me impresionó fue el broche de coral que llevaba y su voz. Debo decir que en mi vida solo he conocido a tres genios, y en las tres ocasiones sonó una campanilla dentro de mí y no me equivoqué, y debo decir que en los tres casos ocurrió antes de que consiguieran la consideración general de genios. Los tres genios de quienes quiero hablar son Gertrude Stein, Pablo Picasso y Alfred Whitehead.

Subrayo aquí solo una cosa. Me pareció maravilloso que una mujer, la mujer cuya firma salía en la cubierta, se definiera audazmente, por boca de su «otra necesaria», como genio y, al mencionarse junto a dos hombres, se colocase en primer lugar. Me pareció de un descaro inigualable y me eché a reír, fue una risa de simpatía. No puedo jurarlo, pero creo que desde aquel instante, tras haber puesto durante un tiempo a mi cartapacio el título de La amiga necesaria, pasé después a titularlo L'amica geniale.


*Cita de Autobiografía, de Gertrude Stein: trad. de Andrés Boch, Barcelona, Lumen, 2016.



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