Literatura

Los otros Saramago

Cuando José Luís Peixoto ganó el Premio Saramago tenía 26 años y el mismo Saramago tenía 75. La vida de los dos estaba por cambiar: poco después, llegaría el Nobel. A partir de entonces, ambos forjaron una amistad cada vez más cercana. En vísperas de los homenajes por el centenario de su nacimiento el año que viene, Alfaguara recupera «La viuda», el debut literario de Saramago que en 1947 se publicó con el título «Terra do pecado», inédita hasta ahora en castellano. Y el propio Peixoto no sólo recuerda al Saramago que quedó en la memoria de todos, sino que se aventura a visitar a los otros Saramago que viven en aquellos primeros libros de juventud.
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La vida de los dos estaba por cambiar: poco despu\u00e9s, llegar\u00eda el Nobel. A partir de entonces, ambos forjaron una amistad cada vez m\u00e1s cercana. En v\u00edsperas de los homenajes por el centenario de su nacimiento el a\u00f1o que viene, Alfaguara recupera \u00abLa viuda\u00bb, el debut literario de Saramago que en 1947 se public\u00f3 con el t\u00edtulo \u00abTerra do pecado\u00bb, in\u00e9dita hasta ahora en castellano. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Jos\u00e9 Saramago, a\u00f1o 2004. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4478-jose-luis-peixoto\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">JOS\u00c9 LU\u00cdS PEIXOTO<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4241-jose-carlos-yrigoyen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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primera vez que estuve con\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6185-jose-saramago\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jos\u00e9 Saramago<\/a><\/span> en persona fue el 19 de abril de 1997. No recuerdo la fecha de memoria, la tengo escrita en la dedicatoria que le ped\u00ed en un ejemplar de la novela <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/34958-memorial-del-convento-9788490628676\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Memorial del convento.<\/em><\/a><\/span> Aun as\u00ed, guardo muchas im\u00e1genes en el recuerdo: est\u00e1bamos en una biblioteca de Coimbra, me acuerdo de estar en la cola de los aut\u00f3grafos, del momento en que me pregunt\u00f3 el nombre y, despu\u00e9s, del anticl\u00edmax cuando, ya lejos, abr\u00ed la p\u00e1gina de la dedicatoria y vi que hab\u00eda entendido mal mi apellido. <strong>As\u00ed que tengo una novela dedicada a Jos\u00e9 Lu\u00eds Pacheco \u00abcon la simpat\u00eda de Jos\u00e9 Saramago\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p>Hoy, aquel malentendido me resulta divertido. Sobre todo porque, en la siguiente ocasi\u00f3n en que estuve con \u00e9l, el 8 de octubre de 2001, nos abrazamos. Aunque esa fecha est\u00e1 escrita en muchos sitios, no necesito consultar papeles para recordarla, c<strong>onservo muchas im\u00e1genes de esa ocasi\u00f3n en la memoria, creo que nunca se borrar\u00e1n.<\/strong> Ese fue el d\u00eda en que mi primera novela recibi\u00f3 el Premio Literario Jos\u00e9 Saramago. Por muchas razones, ese d\u00eda cambi\u00f3 mi vida.<\/p><p>Entre esos dos momentos, en los \u00faltimos meses de 1998, Saramago recibi\u00f3\u00a0<strong> el primero concedido nunca a un autor de lengua portuguesa<\/strong> e, incre\u00edblemente, m\u00e1s de veinte a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, el \u00fanico hasta ahora. Tambi\u00e9n, por muchas razones, ese premio cambi\u00f3 su vida.<\/p><p>Yo acababa de cumplir veintis\u00e9is a\u00f1os cuando recib\u00ed el premio literario con el nombre de Saramago, es comprensible que un premio as\u00ed, para todos los pa\u00edses de habla portuguesa, cambie el destino de un joven autor. Pero Jos\u00e9 Saramago ten\u00eda setenta y ocho cuando recibi\u00f3 la medalla del Nobel en Estocolmo. \u00bfC\u00f3mo entender que, con esa edad, su vida estuviese todav\u00eda disponible para grandes cambios? 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es una de las claves para <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26513-autobiografia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">entender su biograf\u00eda<\/a><\/span>. Una cronolog\u00eda como la suya es bastante rara. En 1980 public\u00f3 <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/34957-levantado-del-suelo-9788490628669\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Levantado del suelo<\/a><\/span><\/em>, la novela que suele considerarse el inicio de su estilo, la voz que sacudir\u00eda la literatura escrita en portugu\u00e9s. Le faltaban pocos meses para cumplir cincuenta y ocho. En menos de dos d\u00e9cadas alcanzar\u00eda el Premio Nobel e, incluso despu\u00e9s, sigui\u00f3 publicando con gran regularidad y se impuso una intensa agenda literaria y c\u00edvica.\u00a0<\/p><p>A partir de 2001, lo que m\u00e1s me impresion\u00f3 fue la energ\u00eda y el entusiasmo con que afrontaba todo lo que ten\u00eda que hacer. Le acompa\u00f1\u00e9 en muchos encuentros con lectores, dentro y fuera del pa\u00eds, a menudo debat\u00ed con \u00e9l sobre literatura, en p\u00fablico y en privado, y siempre reconoc\u00ed en \u00e9l un esp\u00edritu del que yo, con menos de cincuenta a\u00f1os, a menudo carec\u00eda. <strong>La fuerza de sus convicciones era una fuente inagotable.<\/strong> La \u00faltima vez que estuvimos juntos, lo encontr\u00e9 muy fr\u00e1gil; la salud lo estaba abandonando. Le di la mano y le dije que\u00a0todav\u00eda quedaba mucha obra por hacer, que volver\u00edamos a encontrarnos muchas veces. No soy capaz de describir completamente su cara en aquel momento, pero a\u00fan puedo ver claramente la sonrisa que fue a buscar en lo m\u00e1s profundo de su ser, una sonrisa infantil en un rostro envejecido.\u00a0<\/p><p>En 2017, cuando empec\u00e9 a escribir la novela que he titulado\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26513-autobiografia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Autobiograf\u00eda<\/a><\/em><\/span> y que tiene a Saramago como personaje central, me dediqu\u00e9 a leer en profundidad lo que me faltaba por leer, as\u00ed como todos los textos hist\u00f3ricos y biogr\u00e1ficos que encontr\u00e9 sobre mi amigo. <strong>Fue entonces cuando descubr\u00ed a otro Jos\u00e9 Saramago.<\/strong> Me di cuenta de que, por haberlo conocido en ese periodo de su vida y, tambi\u00e9n, porque su obra se hab\u00eda desarrollado ya a una edad avanzada, solo ten\u00eda la idea de un Saramago de sesenta, setenta, ochenta a\u00f1os. Incluso creo que ese es el retrato que est\u00e1 m\u00e1s inscrito con m\u00e1s fuerza en el imaginario colectivo. Pero nadie llega a una edad sin pasar por las 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pesar de que haya muchas descripciones de su infancia y juventud en las p\u00e1ginas de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/7388-las-pequenas-memorias-9788420471297\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Las peque\u00f1as memorias<\/em><\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/7388-las-pequenas-memorias-9788420471297\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a>o en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/14950-cuadernos-de-lanzarote-i-1993-1995\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuadernos de Lanzarote<\/a><\/em><\/span>, por ejemplo, no nos resulta f\u00e1cil retener con la misma intensidad la imagen de aquel ni\u00f1o asustado, descrita con palabras, comparada con la imagen que conservamos de <strong>aquel hombre rotundo con gafas, al que ve\u00edamos tantas veces defendiendo ideas con las que est\u00e1bamos de acuerdo o en desacuerdo.<\/strong> Es a\u00fan m\u00e1s dif\u00edcil imaginar al Jos\u00e9 Saramago de treinta o cuarenta a\u00f1os, intentando escribir novelas y fracasando, padre de familia, funcionario p\u00fablico y, m\u00e1s tarde, trabajador de una editorial, traductor discreto, sobrio militante del partido comunista desde 1969, un hombre corriente y humilde. Con todo, esa persona es fundamental para entender toda su carrera.<\/p><p><strong>\u00abHay que elegir. \u00bfMemoria o novela? \u00bfConfesi\u00f3n o ficci\u00f3n? (...) Soy un hombre sencillo, vacilante y miserable, mortificado por la vida y la cobard\u00eda. No hay nada en m\u00ed que haga grandes a los hombres\u00bb.<\/strong> Son palabras extra\u00eddas de los cuadernos de Jos\u00e9 Saramago de principios de la d\u00e9cada de los cincuenta, donde tambi\u00e9n dej\u00f3 escrito: \u00ab\u00bfPara qu\u00e9 escribo? \u00a1\u00bfEscritor?! S\u00f3lo para la iron\u00eda. Me falta todo para ser escritor. (...) Escribo mal, lo s\u00e9, tengo un vocabulario de portero\u00bb.<\/p><p>Es extraordinario c\u00f3mo estos fragmentos divergen de la confianza que encontramos m\u00e1s tarde en el escritor de setenta u ochenta a\u00f1os. El contraste es tan marcado que casi parece que no son la misma persona. Durante ese periodo, cuando ten\u00eda alrededor de treinta a\u00f1os, Jos\u00e9 Saramago hizo varios intentos de escritura, novelas que dej\u00f3 incompletas, como <em>La miel y la hiel,<\/em> de 141 p\u00e1ginas, o <em>Los emparedados,<\/em> de 61 p\u00e1ginas, entre otras. <strong>Es incre\u00edble comparar el registro de esa \u00e9poca con las descripciones que hace de la escritura en las \u00faltimas d\u00e9cadas de su vida, cuando menciona el h\u00e1bito infalible de escribir dos p\u00e1ginas al d\u00eda.<\/strong> Sin angustia ni excentricidades, dos p\u00e1ginas exactas al d\u00eda, ni m\u00e1s ni menos, como una m\u00e1quina.<\/p><p><strong>Hay que hacer el esfuerzo de imaginar a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6185-jose-saramago\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jos\u00e9 Saramago<\/a><\/span> con treinta a\u00f1os, humilde y vulnerable.<\/strong> Esa imagen no lo hace inferior, al contrario. Este punto de su trayectoria lo humaniza enormemente y demuestra de d\u00f3nde proced\u00eda. Tiempo antes, en 1947, Jos\u00e9 Saramago hab\u00eda publicado su primera novela,\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/258731-la-viuda-9788420456553\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Tierra de pecado<\/span><\/em>, <\/a>que quedar\u00eda como una isla en su bibliograf\u00eda. Ten\u00eda entonces veinticinco a\u00f1os y \u00abtodos los sue\u00f1os del mundo\u00bb, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9035-fernando-pessoa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">citando a Pessoa<\/a><\/span>, que lo visitar\u00eda mucho m\u00e1s tarde en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/13820-el-ano-de-la-muerte-de-ricardo-reis\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">El a\u00f1o de la muerte de Ricardo Reis<\/span><\/em>.<\/a> Sin embargo, solo un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s de esa primera publicaci\u00f3n, en 1948, muri\u00f3 su abuelo Jer\u00f3nimo, el mismo al que Saramago se referir\u00eda en diciembre de 1998 en su discurso del Nobel, calific\u00e1ndolo como <strong>\u00abel hombre m\u00e1s sabio que he conocido en mi vida\u00bb<\/strong> y uniendo as\u00ed dos puntos dispares de la larga historia que vivi\u00f3.<\/p><p>Ahora que celebraremos su centenario, tenemos todo este tiempo para reflexionar. Parece una vida habitada por varias personas porque es un tiempo pleno, humano, con altibajos, con desahogo. El ni\u00f1o que corr\u00eda por las calles de la aldea de Azinhaga, que vivi\u00f3 en casas compartidas con otras familias en Lisboa, fue tambi\u00e9n el que dud\u00f3, el que pas\u00f3 por pruebas, el que vivi\u00f3 intensamente el 25 de abril, el que se dedic\u00f3 al trabajo de las palabras, el que pronunci\u00f3 discursos ante multitudes, el que am\u00f3 y fue amado, el que dio voz a la conciencia colectiva de un pueblo. <strong>Celebr\u00e9moslo en su totalidad.<\/strong><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/Plagio-Hector-Aguilar-Camin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ning\u00fan derecho reservado: unos apuntes sobre el plagio en la literatura<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ricardo Piglia y Hemingway: el \u00faltimo (re)lector<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La campa\u00f1a de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura 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10 minutos

José Saramago, año 2004. Crédito: Getty Images.

La primera vez que estuve con José Saramago en persona fue el 19 de abril de 1997. No recuerdo la fecha de memoria, la tengo escrita en la dedicatoria que le pedí en un ejemplar de la novela Memorial del convento. Aun así, guardo muchas imágenes en el recuerdo: estábamos en una biblioteca de Coimbra, me acuerdo de estar en la cola de los autógrafos, del momento en que me preguntó el nombre y, después, del anticlímax cuando, ya lejos, abrí la página de la dedicatoria y vi que había entendido mal mi apellido. Así que tengo una novela dedicada a José Luís Pacheco «con la simpatía de José Saramago».

Hoy, aquel malentendido me resulta divertido. Sobre todo porque, en la siguiente ocasión en que estuve con él, el 8 de octubre de 2001, nos abrazamos. Aunque esa fecha está escrita en muchos sitios, no necesito consultar papeles para recordarla, conservo muchas imágenes de esa ocasión en la memoria, creo que nunca se borrarán. Ese fue el día en que mi primera novela recibió el Premio Literario José Saramago. Por muchas razones, ese día cambió mi vida.

Entre esos dos momentos, en los últimos meses de 1998, Saramago recibió  el primero concedido nunca a un autor de lengua portuguesa e, increíblemente, más de veinte años después, el único hasta ahora. También, por muchas razones, ese premio cambió su vida.

Yo acababa de cumplir veintiséis años cuando recibí el premio literario con el nombre de Saramago, es comprensible que un premio así, para todos los países de habla portuguesa, cambie el destino de un joven autor. Pero José Saramago tenía setenta y ocho cuando recibió la medalla del Nobel en Estocolmo. ¿Cómo entender que, con esa edad, su vida estuviese todavía disponible para grandes cambios? Pues lo estaba. A los setenta y ocho años, José Saramago estaba absolutamente activo, viviendo al máximo.

Esa es una de las claves para entender su biografía. Una cronología como la suya es bastante rara. En 1980 publicó Levantado del suelo, la novela que suele considerarse el inicio de su estilo, la voz que sacudiría la literatura escrita en portugués. Le faltaban pocos meses para cumplir cincuenta y ocho. En menos de dos décadas alcanzaría el Premio Nobel e, incluso después, siguió publicando con gran regularidad y se impuso una intensa agenda literaria y cívica. 

A partir de 2001, lo que más me impresionó fue la energía y el entusiasmo con que afrontaba todo lo que tenía que hacer. Le acompañé en muchos encuentros con lectores, dentro y fuera del país, a menudo debatí con él sobre literatura, en público y en privado, y siempre reconocí en él un espíritu del que yo, con menos de cincuenta años, a menudo carecía. La fuerza de sus convicciones era una fuente inagotable. La última vez que estuvimos juntos, lo encontré muy frágil; la salud lo estaba abandonando. Le di la mano y le dije que todavía quedaba mucha obra por hacer, que volveríamos a encontrarnos muchas veces. No soy capaz de describir completamente su cara en aquel momento, pero aún puedo ver claramente la sonrisa que fue a buscar en lo más profundo de su ser, una sonrisa infantil en un rostro envejecido. 

En 2017, cuando empecé a escribir la novela que he titulado Autobiografía y que tiene a Saramago como personaje central, me dediqué a leer en profundidad lo que me faltaba por leer, así como todos los textos históricos y biográficos que encontré sobre mi amigo. Fue entonces cuando descubrí a otro José Saramago. Me di cuenta de que, por haberlo conocido en ese periodo de su vida y, también, porque su obra se había desarrollado ya a una edad avanzada, solo tenía la idea de un Saramago de sesenta, setenta, ochenta años. Incluso creo que ese es el retrato que está más inscrito con más fuerza en el imaginario colectivo. Pero nadie llega a una edad sin pasar por las anteriores.

A pesar de que haya muchas descripciones de su infancia y juventud en las páginas de Las pequeñas memorias o en Cuadernos de Lanzarote, por ejemplo, no nos resulta fácil retener con la misma intensidad la imagen de aquel niño asustado, descrita con palabras, comparada con la imagen que conservamos de aquel hombre rotundo con gafas, al que veíamos tantas veces defendiendo ideas con las que estábamos de acuerdo o en desacuerdo. Es aún más difícil imaginar al José Saramago de treinta o cuarenta años, intentando escribir novelas y fracasando, padre de familia, funcionario público y, más tarde, trabajador de una editorial, traductor discreto, sobrio militante del partido comunista desde 1969, un hombre corriente y humilde. Con todo, esa persona es fundamental para entender toda su carrera.

«Hay que elegir. ¿Memoria o novela? ¿Confesión o ficción? (...) Soy un hombre sencillo, vacilante y miserable, mortificado por la vida y la cobardía. No hay nada en mí que haga grandes a los hombres». Son palabras extraídas de los cuadernos de José Saramago de principios de la década de los cincuenta, donde también dejó escrito: «¿Para qué escribo? ¡¿Escritor?! Sólo para la ironía. Me falta todo para ser escritor. (...) Escribo mal, lo sé, tengo un vocabulario de portero».

Es extraordinario cómo estos fragmentos divergen de la confianza que encontramos más tarde en el escritor de setenta u ochenta años. El contraste es tan marcado que casi parece que no son la misma persona. Durante ese periodo, cuando tenía alrededor de treinta años, José Saramago hizo varios intentos de escritura, novelas que dejó incompletas, como La miel y la hiel, de 141 páginas, o Los emparedados, de 61 páginas, entre otras. Es increíble comparar el registro de esa época con las descripciones que hace de la escritura en las últimas décadas de su vida, cuando menciona el hábito infalible de escribir dos páginas al día. Sin angustia ni excentricidades, dos páginas exactas al día, ni más ni menos, como una máquina.

Hay que hacer el esfuerzo de imaginar a José Saramago con treinta años, humilde y vulnerable. Esa imagen no lo hace inferior, al contrario. Este punto de su trayectoria lo humaniza enormemente y demuestra de dónde procedía. Tiempo antes, en 1947, José Saramago había publicado su primera novela, Tierra de pecado, que quedaría como una isla en su bibliografía. Tenía entonces veinticinco años y «todos los sueños del mundo», citando a Pessoa, que lo visitaría mucho más tarde en El año de la muerte de Ricardo Reis. Sin embargo, solo un año después de esa primera publicación, en 1948, murió su abuelo Jerónimo, el mismo al que Saramago se referiría en diciembre de 1998 en su discurso del Nobel, calificándolo como «el hombre más sabio que he conocido en mi vida» y uniendo así dos puntos dispares de la larga historia que vivió.

Ahora que celebraremos su centenario, tenemos todo este tiempo para reflexionar. Parece una vida habitada por varias personas porque es un tiempo pleno, humano, con altibajos, con desahogo. El niño que corría por las calles de la aldea de Azinhaga, que vivió en casas compartidas con otras familias en Lisboa, fue también el que dudó, el que pasó por pruebas, el que vivió intensamente el 25 de abril, el que se dedicó al trabajo de las palabras, el que pronunció discursos ante multitudes, el que amó y fue amado, el que dio voz a la conciencia colectiva de un pueblo. Celebrémoslo en su totalidad.



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