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La casa muerta: regreso a Chernóbil

En noviembre de 2016, tres décadas después de que ocurrió el peor accidente nuclear de la historia —que la Unión Soviética se esforzó en ocultar durante semanas, mientras la radiación alcanzaba todos los rincones de la Tierra—, Ucrania dio por terminada la construcción un inmenso sarcófago de 32 mil toneladas para mantener encerrados durante otros cien años los residuos radiactivos más peligrosos del mundo. En este fragmento del texto inédito «Y las abejas dejaron de zumbar», Carmen G. de la Cueva vuelve sobre los pasos de la premio Nobel bielorrusa Svetlana Alexiévich y su libro «Voces de Chernóbil» y recupera los recuerdos de aquel 26 de abril de 1986 en que los insectos ya no levantaron vuelo: fueron los primeros en darse cuenta de que la radiación flotaba muda e invisible en el aire.
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CARMEN G. DE LA CUEVA<\/strong><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.upf.edu\/es\/web\/humanitats\/entry\/-\/-\/15900\/404\/miquel-berga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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El sol brillaba alegre en el cielo, los huertos estaban cubiertos de flores y se o\u00eda el murmullo del agua al correr por el r\u00edo. A la vista, todo estaba como siempre: \u00abLa misma tierra, la misma agua, los mismos \u00e1rboles... En ellos, tanto las formas como los colores, as\u00ed como los olores, son eternos, y nadie ser\u00e1 capaz de cambiarlos, ni siquiera un poco\u00bb. Pero alguien le explic\u00f3 que no pod\u00eda arrancar las flores de la tierra, ni sentarse sobre la hierba, ni beber agua de los manantiales. Lo que sobrevive a la destrucci\u00f3n es solo aquello que resiste: la hierba, las flores silvestres, el canto de los p\u00e1jaros. Ese primer d\u00eda, al atardecer, observ\u00f3 c\u00f3mo un pastor intentaba dirigir su vacada al r\u00edo, y las reses, al acercarse al agua, daban media vuelta. El peligro estaba all\u00ed solo perceptible para los sentidos de los animales. La radiaci\u00f3n no se pod\u00eda ver ni tocar ni oler. \u00abLa muerte \u2014explica Alexi\u00e9vich\u2014 se escond\u00eda por todas partes. Una muerte con una nueva m\u00e1scara. Con aspecto falso\u00bb. Un mundo familiar que se desmoronaba. En su discurso de agradecimiento al Nobel de Literatura recordaba c\u00f3mo la gente mayor que hab\u00eda sobrevivido a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de nuevo, era evacuada y miraba al cielo sin comprender nada: \u00abEl sol brilla... No hay ni humo, ni gas. No disparan. No parece una guerra. 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26 de abril de 1986 a la una y veintitr\u00e9s minutos de la madrugada hubo una serie de explosiones en la Central El\u00e9ctrica At\u00f3mica de Chern\u00f3bil que destruyeron el reactor y el edificio del cuarto bloque energ\u00e9tico. La central se encuentra situada cerca de la frontera bielorrusa, un pa\u00eds que hasta entonces poco lugar hab\u00eda ocupado en la historia. Al comienzo de <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/11670-libro-voces-de-chernobil-9788499926261\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Voces de Chern\u00f3bil<\/span><\/a><\/em>, Svetlana Alexi\u00e9vich recoge una serie de datos sobre Belar\u00fas (Bielorrusia) aparecidos en distintos medios que ayudan a entender la magnitud del desastre. Por ejemplo, en 1986, Belar\u00fas ten\u00eda diez millones de habitantes y era un pa\u00eds agr\u00edcola sin ninguna central at\u00f3mica en su territorio. Pero despu\u00e9s de la cat\u00e1strofe nuclear, se perdieron cuatrocientas ochenta y cinco aldeas y pueblos, y setenta de ellos est\u00e1n enterrados bajo tierra como si la erupci\u00f3n de un volc\u00e1n los hubiera sorprendido de repente: todo est\u00e1 tal y como lo dejaron sus vecinos y permanece intacto en la oscuridad.<\/p><p>Veinte a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de la explosi\u00f3n del reactor, seg\u00fan la informaci\u00f3n que recoge Alexi\u00e9vich, uno de cada cinco habitantes de Belar\u00fas viv\u00eda en territorio contaminado. La escritora aporta datos m\u00e1s exactos: dos millones cien mil personas, de ellos, setecientos mil ni\u00f1os. En las regiones de G\u00f3mel y Moguiliov, la mortalidad ha superado a la natalidad en un veinte por ciento. Una cuarta parte de los bosques y m\u00e1s de la mitad de los prados en los m\u00e1rgenes de los r\u00edos Pr\u00edpiat, Dnepr y Sozh est\u00e1n en zonas radioactivas. La Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica envi\u00f3 a Chern\u00f3bil a unos ochocientos mil soldados y \u00abliquidadores\u00bb, hombres que se encargaban de apagar las llamas, matar a los animales y enterrarlo todo. La media de edad de estos hombres eran los treinta y tres a\u00f1os. Y desde 1990 hasta 2003 fallecieron ocho mil quinientos cincuenta y tres, un promedio de dos al d\u00eda. Los datos son todav\u00eda m\u00e1s abrumadores entre la poblaci\u00f3n civil: seis mil casos de enfermedades oncol\u00f3gicas por cada cien mil habitantes. La cifra ha aumentado en un setenta y cuatro por ciento despu\u00e9s de la cat\u00e1strofe. Trece de cada catorce personas que mueren tienen entre cuarenta y seis y cincuenta a\u00f1os. Casi nadie llega a viejo en 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el 26 de abril hasta el 6 de mayo de 1986, la radiaci\u00f3n alcanz\u00f3 todos los rincones de la tierra. En los d\u00edas siguientes al accidente, fueron cient\u00edficos suecos los primeros en detectar altos niveles de radiaci\u00f3n en el aire. A comienzos de mayo, se descubrieron cantidades significativas de rutenio y yodo en todas las regiones de Canad\u00e1. Pa\u00edses como Kuwait, India y Jap\u00f3n tambi\u00e9n se vieron afectados. El cuarto bloque de la central se cubri\u00f3 con decenas de toneladas de hormig\u00f3n. La estructura resultante pas\u00f3 a llamarse \u00abel sarc\u00f3fago\u00bb y deb\u00eda mantener todo bajo control durante treinta a\u00f1os. En noviembre de 2016, se inaugur\u00f3 un nuevo sarc\u00f3fago conocido como \u00abel arca\u00bb que deber\u00eda durar otros cien a\u00f1os.\u00a0<\/p><p>Alexi\u00e9vich nos pide que imaginemos \u00abuna casa sin habitantes, pero con sus enseres. Los muebles, la ropa, objetos que ya nadie podr\u00e1 usar de nuevo nunca\u00bb. Una casa donde sus habitantes han pasado toda una vida, el lugar de sus muertos. Esa casa muerta est\u00e1 en Chern\u00f3bil. Si por casualidad alguien, obviando todas las prohibiciones, pasea por el prado de enfrente a la hora tard\u00eda en que se hunde el sol y todo se vuelve p\u00e1lido, como en los versos del poeta griego Yannis Ritsos, \u00aba la hora en que todo parece perdido y todo parece posible\u00bb, entonces podr\u00e1 sentir cierta compasi\u00f3n por aquellos que viv\u00edan all\u00ed y que, resignados y con las manos manchadas de sombra, tuvieron que abandonarlo todo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ahora todo es silencio.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jah26pp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Alexi\u00e9vich nos pide que imaginemos \u00abuna casa sin habitantes, pero con sus enseres. Los muebles, la ropa, objetos que ya nadie podr\u00e1 usar de nuevo nunca\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"lfts00i\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Mientras la radiaci\u00f3n lo empapaba todo, se produjo una oscura pausa, \u00abun momento de mudez\u00bb, como lo defini\u00f3 Alexi\u00e9vich, en el que la gente ten\u00eda miedo. A todo aquel desastre le sigui\u00f3 un gran silencio. En aquellos meses de 1986, la hermana de la escritora agonizaba en un hospital de Minsk y ella pasaba el mayor tiempo posible a su lado. Uno de esos d\u00edas la telefone\u00f3 una amiga sueca que le habl\u00f3 de un grave accidente en una central nuclear. Y tres meses despu\u00e9s se encontr\u00f3 con el escritor Ales Adam\u00f3vich, quien le cont\u00f3 todo lo que sab\u00eda. Tres meses m\u00e1s tarde fue a visitar la zona. Lo que vio all\u00ed le record\u00f3 todo lo que le hab\u00edan contado sobre la guerra, pero m\u00e1s extra\u00f1o y doloroso si cabe. Un sue\u00f1o, una pesadilla, qui\u00e9n sabe si un mundo paralelo.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 guerra era aquella? \u2014se pregunt\u00f3\u2014. Est\u00e1bamos en Minsk bebiendo tranquilamente un caf\u00e9, mientras la Tercera Guerra Mundial, la guerra de Chern\u00f3bil, ya hab\u00eda comenzado. La radiaci\u00f3n se cern\u00eda sobre nosotros, nos iba matando a todos, pero ni la ve\u00edamos ni la o\u00edamos\u00bb. Su deseo fue escribir un libro inmediatamente despu\u00e9s de la cat\u00e1strofe. Entonces vio c\u00f3mo las ancianas se abrazaban a sus enseres sin entender por qu\u00e9 deb\u00edan abandonar sus hogares si el sol brillaba y las amapolas florec\u00edan en los campos. Esa imagen fue la que hizo que Alexi\u00e9vich comprendiera el profundo problema que ten\u00edan entre manos. No solo ten\u00eda que ver con la guerra o la muerte, sino con el fin de una cultura y la ausencia de respuestas para afrontarlo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tard\u00f3 cinco a\u00f1os en encontrar el camino para hablar sobre Chern\u00f3bil y veinte a\u00f1os en escribir un libro que tratar\u00eda sobre una nueva comprensi\u00f3n del mundo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wqkdc68\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 guerra era aquella? La radiaci\u00f3n se cern\u00eda sobre nosotros, nos iba matando a todos, pero ni la ve\u00edamos ni la o\u00edamos\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"lftdrmo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEn los primeros d\u00edas nadie se imaginaba el peligro que entra\u00f1aba lo que acababa de suceder. Ni siquiera los cient\u00edficos que fueron enviados en avi\u00f3n a Chern\u00f3bil lo conceb\u00edan. De hecho, viajaron sin sus \u00fatiles de aseo. Les dijeron que hab\u00eda tenido lugar un accidente en la central nuclear y pensaron que viajar\u00edan hasta all\u00ed, echar\u00edan un vistazo, dar\u00edan su opini\u00f3n y se marchar\u00edan tan panchos. \u00c9ramos tremendamente ingenuos. La gente tomaba el sol y pescaba como si nada. En Rusia la vida humana no vale nada\u00bb. Una noche, mientras hablaba sobre Tsiolkovski y Gorbachov, sobre Stalin y Hitler con los liquidadores de Chern\u00f3bil en su albergue, entr\u00f3 una mujer a dejar un tentempi\u00e9 en el centro de la mesa y Alexi\u00e9vich vio las manchas rojas que, atisbadas en las mu\u00f1ecas, parec\u00edan cubrirle los brazos.\u00a0<\/p><p>La escritora quiso saber qu\u00e9 ocultaba debajo de las mangas y ella le explic\u00f3 que, diariamente, ten\u00edan que lavar a mano los monos de trabajo de los liquidadores. Nunca les llevaron las lavadoras prometidas y cada d\u00eda frotaban y frotaban con sus propios dedos la radiaci\u00f3n de aquellos trajes. Alexi\u00e9vich se volvi\u00f3 hacia el jefe del grupo para preguntarle c\u00f3mo pod\u00eda ser aquello posible y \u00e9l, lac\u00f3nico y socarr\u00f3n, dijo: \u00abBueno, las promesas son promesas, ya sabe\u00bb. Y sigui\u00f3 con su ch\u00e1chara filos\u00f3fica, como si los problemas del mundo se resolvieran as\u00ed. \u00abYo estoy segura de que, en esa situaci\u00f3n, cualquier persona de un pa\u00eds occidental habr\u00eda estado hablando de las lavadoras y no de las locas ideas de Tsiolkovski. Y en Occidente esos hombres hubieran tenido a lavadoras lavando sus uniformes y no a sus mujeres 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Todos escrib\u00edan sobre Chern\u00f3bil y, precisamente ella, que conoc\u00eda bien la zona, que hund\u00eda sus ra\u00edces en la tierra blanca de Belar\u00fas, guardaba silencio: \u00abYo no sab\u00eda c\u00f3mo escribir sobre esto, con qu\u00e9 herramientas, desde d\u00f3nde enfocarlo. Si antes, cuando escrib\u00eda mis libros, me fijaba en los sufrimientos de los dem\u00e1s, a partir de entonces mi vida y yo nos convertimos en parte del suceso. Se fundieron en una sola cosa y no hab\u00eda manera de mantener una distancia\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfC\u00f3mo contar la cat\u00e1strofe? \u00bfC\u00f3mo contar la vida de aquella gente que entend\u00eda Chern\u00f3bil no como met\u00e1fora del fin del mundo, sino como el fin mismo de su vida tal y como la conoc\u00edan?<\/p><p>Podr\u00eda haber escrito un libro m\u00e1s, uno de esos que contaran el c\u00f3mo, el qu\u00e9 y el cu\u00e1ndo sin pararse a ahondar en el dolor del alma eslava. Hubo algo que la detuvo, \u00abla sensaci\u00f3n de misterio\u00bb, confesaba, la impresi\u00f3n como un rayo que lo atravesaba todo \u2014conversaciones, temores, cotidianidad\u2014. \u00abSencillamente, ya no bastaba con los hechos; aspirabas a asomarte a lo que hab\u00eda detr\u00e1s de ellos, a penetrar en el significado de lo que acontec\u00eda. Est\u00e1bamos bajo el efecto de la conmoci\u00f3n. Y yo estaba buscando a esa persona conmocionada\u00bb.<\/p><p>Al comienzo de <em>Voces de Chern\u00f3bil<\/em>, Svetlana Alexi\u00e9vich se entrevista a s\u00ed misma a prop\u00f3sito de su libro y de su escritura. En su literatura su propia voz tiene poca cabida porque est\u00e1 contenida en las de los otros.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero, como en unas breves y certeras notas en los m\u00e1rgenes, fuera del tiempo y del espacio de las cosas, la autora se toma un tiempo para explicar a los lectores la vocaci\u00f3n de su b\u00fasqueda: \u00abMe dedico a lo que he denominado la historia omitida, las huellas imperceptibles de nuestro paso por la tierra y por el tiempo. Escribo y recojo la cotidianidad de los sentimientos, los pensamientos y las palabras. Intento captar la vida cotidiana del alma. La vida de lo ordinario en unas gentes corrientes. Aqu\u00ed, en cambio, todo es extraordinario: tanto las inhabituales circunstancias como la gente\u00bb.<\/p><p>Han pasado treinta y tres a\u00f1os desde la cat\u00e1strofe y los radion\u00faclidos siguen diseminados por los bosques, en las orillas del r\u00edo, en las paredes de todas esas casas muertas, en las ra\u00edces de los pinos y en los pozos subterr\u00e1neos. Los radion\u00faclidos, desde el punto de vista del hombre, son eternos, como la literatura de Alexi\u00e9vich. Pasado, presente y futuro est\u00e1n contenidos en su escritura. \u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 somos capaces de entender? \u2014se pregunta\u2014. \u00bfEst\u00e1 dentro de nuestras capacidades alcanzar y reconocer un sentido en este horror del que seguimos ignor\u00e1ndolo casi todo?\u00bb. Chern\u00f3bil fue una cat\u00e1strofe del tiempo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9r815ui\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfC\u00f3mo contar la cat\u00e1strofe? \u00bfC\u00f3mo contar la vida de aquella gente que entend\u00eda Chern\u00f3bil no como met\u00e1fora del fin del mundo, sino como el fin mismo de su vida tal y como la conoc\u00edan?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wy5s16p\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Un viejo apicultor le cont\u00f3 a Alexi\u00e9vich que, cuando sali\u00f3 al jard\u00edn la ma\u00f1ana del 27 de abril de 1986, not\u00f3 que faltaba algo, un sonido del que sent\u00eda su ausencia. Aquello que faltaba era el zumbido de las abejas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las abejas se hab\u00edan dado cuenta de que la radiaci\u00f3n ca\u00eda sobre ellas y no levantaron el vuelo en mucho tiempo. Las abejas dejaron de zumbar y los hombres segu\u00edan con su vida como si no ocurriera nada porque nada supieron de lo terrible que fue aquella explosi\u00f3n hasta mucho tiempo despu\u00e9s. \u00bfY las lombrices? Un par de pescadores le confesaron a la escritora que esperaban una explicaci\u00f3n por la televisi\u00f3n. Las lombrices estaban a salvo. Hab\u00edan agujereado la tierra en profundos hoyos y permanec\u00edan escondidas all\u00ed abajo. Ellos cavaron y cavaron sin encontrar ni una sola lombriz para ir a pescar y no entend\u00edan nada. \u00bfC\u00f3mo pod\u00edan salvarse ellos?<\/p><p>\u00abEn la tierra de Chern\u00f3bil \u2014confiesa Alexi\u00e9vich\u2014 uno siente l\u00e1stima del hombre. Pero m\u00e1s pena dan los animales\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando la zona muerta se desaloj\u00f3, los habitantes hab\u00edan dejado sus vidas all\u00ed, sus casas, sus trastos y hasta a sus animales.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 es lo que qued\u00f3? Los llamados \u00abcementerios de animales\u00bb. Cuenta Alexi\u00e9vich c\u00f3mo en las aldeas vac\u00edas entraban los soldados y cazadores a matar a los animales a tiros. Los animales acud\u00edan al o\u00edr las voces humanas, desconcertados ante tanta mudez, y ellos los mataban all\u00ed mismo. \u00abEl recuerdo m\u00e1s insoportable que guardo de Chern\u00f3bil era ver a los hombres abandonar los bosques contaminados dejando atr\u00e1s a los animales. M\u00e1s tarde los soldados se encargaron de matarlos y enterrarlos en gigantescas tumbas despu\u00e9s de someter los cuerpos a tratamiento biol\u00f3gico. Los soldados entraban en las aldeas y los animales corr\u00edan al llamado de sus voces. A\u00fan no sab\u00edan que los hombres los hab\u00edan traicionado\u00bb.<\/p><p><\/p><p><\/p><p><strong><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuando las puertas se abrieron: a 32 a\u00f1os de la ca\u00edda del muro de Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sonriente y nuclear: Corea del Norte, la tierra del \u00faltimo l\u00edder comunista<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">M\u00f3nica Bernab\u00e9 y Afganist\u00e1n a 20 a\u00f1os del 11-S: en el cementerio de los imperios<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nvw2qdc\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

Una habitación en Chernóbil, con una máscara de gas y objetos que ya nadie podrá usar de nuevo a causa de la radiación que contienen. Crédito: Getty Images.

Por CARMEN G. DE LA CUEVA

En su primer viaje a la zona de exclusión de Chernóbil, la escritora bielorrusa Svetlana Alexiévich vio un mundo familiar, unas tierras que conocía bien. El sol brillaba alegre en el cielo, los huertos estaban cubiertos de flores y se oía el murmullo del agua al correr por el río. A la vista, todo estaba como siempre: «La misma tierra, la misma agua, los mismos árboles... En ellos, tanto las formas como los colores, así como los olores, son eternos, y nadie será capaz de cambiarlos, ni siquiera un poco». Pero alguien le explicó que no podía arrancar las flores de la tierra, ni sentarse sobre la hierba, ni beber agua de los manantiales. Lo que sobrevive a la destrucción es solo aquello que resiste: la hierba, las flores silvestres, el canto de los pájaros. Ese primer día, al atardecer, observó cómo un pastor intentaba dirigir su vacada al río, y las reses, al acercarse al agua, daban media vuelta. El peligro estaba allí solo perceptible para los sentidos de los animales. La radiación no se podía ver ni tocar ni oler. «La muerte —explica Alexiévich— se escondía por todas partes. Una muerte con una nueva máscara. Con aspecto falso». Un mundo familiar que se desmoronaba. En su discurso de agradecimiento al Nobel de Literatura recordaba cómo la gente mayor que había sobrevivido a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de nuevo, era evacuada y miraba al cielo sin comprender nada: «El sol brilla... No hay ni humo, ni gas. No disparan. No parece una guerra. Pero volvemos a ser refugiados».

El 26 de abril de 1986 a la una y veintitrés minutos de la madrugada hubo una serie de explosiones en la Central Eléctrica Atómica de Chernóbil que destruyeron el reactor y el edificio del cuarto bloque energético. La central se encuentra situada cerca de la frontera bielorrusa, un país que hasta entonces poco lugar había ocupado en la historia. Al comienzo de Voces de Chernóbil, Svetlana Alexiévich recoge una serie de datos sobre Belarús (Bielorrusia) aparecidos en distintos medios que ayudan a entender la magnitud del desastre. Por ejemplo, en 1986, Belarús tenía diez millones de habitantes y era un país agrícola sin ninguna central atómica en su territorio. Pero después de la catástrofe nuclear, se perdieron cuatrocientas ochenta y cinco aldeas y pueblos, y setenta de ellos están enterrados bajo tierra como si la erupción de un volcán los hubiera sorprendido de repente: todo está tal y como lo dejaron sus vecinos y permanece intacto en la oscuridad.

Veinte años después de la explosión del reactor, según la información que recoge Alexiévich, uno de cada cinco habitantes de Belarús vivía en territorio contaminado. La escritora aporta datos más exactos: dos millones cien mil personas, de ellos, setecientos mil niños. En las regiones de Gómel y Moguiliov, la mortalidad ha superado a la natalidad en un veinte por ciento. Una cuarta parte de los bosques y más de la mitad de los prados en los márgenes de los ríos Prípiat, Dnepr y Sozh están en zonas radioactivas. La Unión Soviética envió a Chernóbil a unos ochocientos mil soldados y «liquidadores», hombres que se encargaban de apagar las llamas, matar a los animales y enterrarlo todo. La media de edad de estos hombres eran los treinta y tres años. Y desde 1990 hasta 2003 fallecieron ocho mil quinientos cincuenta y tres, un promedio de dos al día. Los datos son todavía más abrumadores entre la población civil: seis mil casos de enfermedades oncológicas por cada cien mil habitantes. La cifra ha aumentado en un setenta y cuatro por ciento después de la catástrofe. Trece de cada catorce personas que mueren tienen entre cuarenta y seis y cincuenta años. Casi nadie llega a viejo en Belarús.

Desde el 26 de abril hasta el 6 de mayo de 1986, la radiación alcanzó todos los rincones de la tierra. En los días siguientes al accidente, fueron científicos suecos los primeros en detectar altos niveles de radiación en el aire. A comienzos de mayo, se descubrieron cantidades significativas de rutenio y yodo en todas las regiones de Canadá. Países como Kuwait, India y Japón también se vieron afectados. El cuarto bloque de la central se cubrió con decenas de toneladas de hormigón. La estructura resultante pasó a llamarse «el sarcófago» y debía mantener todo bajo control durante treinta años. En noviembre de 2016, se inauguró un nuevo sarcófago conocido como «el arca» que debería durar otros cien años. 

Alexiévich nos pide que imaginemos «una casa sin habitantes, pero con sus enseres. Los muebles, la ropa, objetos que ya nadie podrá usar de nuevo nunca». Una casa donde sus habitantes han pasado toda una vida, el lugar de sus muertos. Esa casa muerta está en Chernóbil. Si por casualidad alguien, obviando todas las prohibiciones, pasea por el prado de enfrente a la hora tardía en que se hunde el sol y todo se vuelve pálido, como en los versos del poeta griego Yannis Ritsos, «a la hora en que todo parece perdido y todo parece posible», entonces podrá sentir cierta compasión por aquellos que vivían allí y que, resignados y con las manos manchadas de sombra, tuvieron que abandonarlo todo. 

Ahora todo es silencio.

Alexiévich nos pide que imaginemos «una casa sin habitantes, pero con sus enseres. Los muebles, la ropa, objetos que ya nadie podrá usar de nuevo nunca».

Mientras la radiación lo empapaba todo, se produjo una oscura pausa, «un momento de mudez», como lo definió Alexiévich, en el que la gente tenía miedo. A todo aquel desastre le siguió un gran silencio. En aquellos meses de 1986, la hermana de la escritora agonizaba en un hospital de Minsk y ella pasaba el mayor tiempo posible a su lado. Uno de esos días la telefoneó una amiga sueca que le habló de un grave accidente en una central nuclear. Y tres meses después se encontró con el escritor Ales Adamóvich, quien le contó todo lo que sabía. Tres meses más tarde fue a visitar la zona. Lo que vio allí le recordó todo lo que le habían contado sobre la guerra, pero más extraño y doloroso si cabe. Un sueño, una pesadilla, quién sabe si un mundo paralelo. 

«¿Qué guerra era aquella? —se preguntó—. Estábamos en Minsk bebiendo tranquilamente un café, mientras la Tercera Guerra Mundial, la guerra de Chernóbil, ya había comenzado. La radiación se cernía sobre nosotros, nos iba matando a todos, pero ni la veíamos ni la oíamos». Su deseo fue escribir un libro inmediatamente después de la catástrofe. Entonces vio cómo las ancianas se abrazaban a sus enseres sin entender por qué debían abandonar sus hogares si el sol brillaba y las amapolas florecían en los campos. Esa imagen fue la que hizo que Alexiévich comprendiera el profundo problema que tenían entre manos. No solo tenía que ver con la guerra o la muerte, sino con el fin de una cultura y la ausencia de respuestas para afrontarlo. 

Tardó cinco años en encontrar el camino para hablar sobre Chernóbil y veinte años en escribir un libro que trataría sobre una nueva comprensión del mundo.

«¿Qué guerra era aquella? La radiación se cernía sobre nosotros, nos iba matando a todos, pero ni la veíamos ni la oíamos».

«En los primeros días nadie se imaginaba el peligro que entrañaba lo que acababa de suceder. Ni siquiera los científicos que fueron enviados en avión a Chernóbil lo concebían. De hecho, viajaron sin sus útiles de aseo. Les dijeron que había tenido lugar un accidente en la central nuclear y pensaron que viajarían hasta allí, echarían un vistazo, darían su opinión y se marcharían tan panchos. Éramos tremendamente ingenuos. La gente tomaba el sol y pescaba como si nada. En Rusia la vida humana no vale nada». Una noche, mientras hablaba sobre Tsiolkovski y Gorbachov, sobre Stalin y Hitler con los liquidadores de Chernóbil en su albergue, entró una mujer a dejar un tentempié en el centro de la mesa y Alexiévich vio las manchas rojas que, atisbadas en las muñecas, parecían cubrirle los brazos. 

La escritora quiso saber qué ocultaba debajo de las mangas y ella le explicó que, diariamente, tenían que lavar a mano los monos de trabajo de los liquidadores. Nunca les llevaron las lavadoras prometidas y cada día frotaban y frotaban con sus propios dedos la radiación de aquellos trajes. Alexiévich se volvió hacia el jefe del grupo para preguntarle cómo podía ser aquello posible y él, lacónico y socarrón, dijo: «Bueno, las promesas son promesas, ya sabe». Y siguió con su cháchara filosófica, como si los problemas del mundo se resolvieran así. «Yo estoy segura de que, en esa situación, cualquier persona de un país occidental habría estado hablando de las lavadoras y no de las locas ideas de Tsiolkovski. Y en Occidente esos hombres hubieran tenido a lavadoras lavando sus uniformes y no a sus mujeres kamikazes».

Un parque de diversiones de Prípiat abandonado en 1986. Crédito: Getty Images.

Un año después del desastre nuclear, alguien le preguntó por qué no escribía. Todos escribían sobre Chernóbil y, precisamente ella, que conocía bien la zona, que hundía sus raíces en la tierra blanca de Belarús, guardaba silencio: «Yo no sabía cómo escribir sobre esto, con qué herramientas, desde dónde enfocarlo. Si antes, cuando escribía mis libros, me fijaba en los sufrimientos de los demás, a partir de entonces mi vida y yo nos convertimos en parte del suceso. Se fundieron en una sola cosa y no había manera de mantener una distancia». 

¿Cómo contar la catástrofe? ¿Cómo contar la vida de aquella gente que entendía Chernóbil no como metáfora del fin del mundo, sino como el fin mismo de su vida tal y como la conocían?

Podría haber escrito un libro más, uno de esos que contaran el cómo, el qué y el cuándo sin pararse a ahondar en el dolor del alma eslava. Hubo algo que la detuvo, «la sensación de misterio», confesaba, la impresión como un rayo que lo atravesaba todo —conversaciones, temores, cotidianidad—. «Sencillamente, ya no bastaba con los hechos; aspirabas a asomarte a lo que había detrás de ellos, a penetrar en el significado de lo que acontecía. Estábamos bajo el efecto de la conmoción. Y yo estaba buscando a esa persona conmocionada».

Al comienzo de Voces de Chernóbil, Svetlana Alexiévich se entrevista a sí misma a propósito de su libro y de su escritura. En su literatura su propia voz tiene poca cabida porque está contenida en las de los otros. 

Pero, como en unas breves y certeras notas en los márgenes, fuera del tiempo y del espacio de las cosas, la autora se toma un tiempo para explicar a los lectores la vocación de su búsqueda: «Me dedico a lo que he denominado la historia omitida, las huellas imperceptibles de nuestro paso por la tierra y por el tiempo. Escribo y recojo la cotidianidad de los sentimientos, los pensamientos y las palabras. Intento captar la vida cotidiana del alma. La vida de lo ordinario en unas gentes corrientes. Aquí, en cambio, todo es extraordinario: tanto las inhabituales circunstancias como la gente».

Han pasado treinta y tres años desde la catástrofe y los radionúclidos siguen diseminados por los bosques, en las orillas del río, en las paredes de todas esas casas muertas, en las raíces de los pinos y en los pozos subterráneos. Los radionúclidos, desde el punto de vista del hombre, son eternos, como la literatura de Alexiévich. Pasado, presente y futuro están contenidos en su escritura. «¿Qué somos capaces de entender? —se pregunta—. ¿Está dentro de nuestras capacidades alcanzar y reconocer un sentido en este horror del que seguimos ignorándolo casi todo?». Chernóbil fue una catástrofe del tiempo.

¿Cómo contar la catástrofe? ¿Cómo contar la vida de aquella gente que entendía Chernóbil no como metáfora del fin del mundo, sino como el fin mismo de su vida tal y como la conocían?

Un viejo apicultor le contó a Alexiévich que, cuando salió al jardín la mañana del 27 de abril de 1986, notó que faltaba algo, un sonido del que sentía su ausencia. Aquello que faltaba era el zumbido de las abejas. 

Las abejas se habían dado cuenta de que la radiación caía sobre ellas y no levantaron el vuelo en mucho tiempo. Las abejas dejaron de zumbar y los hombres seguían con su vida como si no ocurriera nada porque nada supieron de lo terrible que fue aquella explosión hasta mucho tiempo después. ¿Y las lombrices? Un par de pescadores le confesaron a la escritora que esperaban una explicación por la televisión. Las lombrices estaban a salvo. Habían agujereado la tierra en profundos hoyos y permanecían escondidas allí abajo. Ellos cavaron y cavaron sin encontrar ni una sola lombriz para ir a pescar y no entendían nada. ¿Cómo podían salvarse ellos?

«En la tierra de Chernóbil —confiesa Alexiévich— uno siente lástima del hombre. Pero más pena dan los animales». 

Cuando la zona muerta se desalojó, los habitantes habían dejado sus vidas allí, sus casas, sus trastos y hasta a sus animales. 

¿Qué es lo que quedó? Los llamados «cementerios de animales». Cuenta Alexiévich cómo en las aldeas vacías entraban los soldados y cazadores a matar a los animales a tiros. Los animales acudían al oír las voces humanas, desconcertados ante tanta mudez, y ellos los mataban allí mismo. «El recuerdo más insoportable que guardo de Chernóbil era ver a los hombres abandonar los bosques contaminados dejando atrás a los animales. Más tarde los soldados se encargaron de matarlos y enterrarlos en gigantescas tumbas después de someter los cuerpos a tratamiento biológico. Los soldados entraban en las aldeas y los animales corrían al llamado de sus voces. Aún no sabían que los hombres los habían traicionado».


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