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De Varsovia a Kyiv: manual para asesinar una ciudad

Un fantasma vuelve a recorrer Europa desde que Rusia invadió Ucrania a comienzos de 2022: el de ciudades destruidas por la guerra y civiles ejecutados en las calles por soldados enemigos. Reproducimos a continuación un fragmento sobre la brutal ocupación alemana de Varsovia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial incluido en «Metrópolis. Una historia de la ciudad, el mayor invento de la humanidad» (Debate). Allí, el historiador Ben Wilson reconstruye la obsesión de Adolf Hitler con la aniquilación de la capital polaca y renueva la vigencia de una de las grandes lecciones de la derrota nazi: las ciudades que ofrecen resistencia son, sin excepción, «cementerios de ambiciones militares».

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Kyiv,\u00a0la\u00a0capital de Ucrania,\u00a0bombardeada por misiles rusos en marzo de 2022.\u00a0Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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1: ocupaci\u00f3n<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 hace falta para destruir una ciudad? La humanidad ha dise\u00f1ado numerosos medios. Y entre 1939 y 1945, la mayor\u00eda de ellos se experimentaron en la capital polaca. Varsovia sufri\u00f3 el terror de los bombardeos a\u00e9reos desde el primer d\u00eda de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el 1 de septiembre de 1939. Durante las siguientes semanas, mientras el ej\u00e9rcito alem\u00e1n hac\u00eda retroceder a las fuerzas polacas y aterrorizaba a los refugiados que hu\u00edan hacia Varsovia, la ciudad estuvo sometida a continuos ataques a\u00e9reos. Se volvieron m\u00e1s y m\u00e1s feroces a medida que la Wehrmacht estrechaba el cerco a la capital. Bombardeos a\u00e9reos sin medida se combinaban con el asalto de la artiller\u00eda. \u00abLos da\u00f1os en Varsovia son colosales \u2014informaba el Correo de Varsovia el 28 de septiembre\u2014. No funcionan ni la electricidad, ni las tuber\u00edas, ni el alcantarillado, ni los tel\u00e9fonos. Todos los hospitales han sido bombardeados [...] no hay ni un solo edificio hist\u00f3rico o monumento que no est\u00e9 destruido o gravemente da\u00f1ado\u00bb. Ese fue el d\u00eda en que Varsovia capitul\u00f3 ante los nazis.<\/p><p>Los varsovianos salieron de los s\u00f3tanos a las ruinas humeantes, desconcertados de que la ciudad se hubiese rendido; si se lo hubiesen permitido, seguramente habr\u00edan luchado. Los alemanes entraron en Varsovia y la ocuparon el 1 de octubre. 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su guerra contra la vida urbana, los nazis le arrancaron el coraz\u00f3n a la ciudad, despoj\u00e1ndola sistem\u00e1ticamente de su significado cultural, pol\u00edtico y econ\u00f3mico y ejerciendo una brutal represi\u00f3n contra los ciudadanos ordinarios en una campa\u00f1a de terror.\u00a0<\/p><p>La poblaci\u00f3n pas\u00f3 hambre. Sobreviv\u00eda con las raciones m\u00e1s exiguas. La asignaci\u00f3n mensual era de 4,3 kilos de pan, cuatrocientos gramos de harina, cuatrocientos gramos de carne, setenta y cinco gramos de caf\u00e9 y un huevo. La cerveza, el vino, la mantequilla y los cigarrillos estaban fuera del men\u00fa, y el az\u00facar, solo en peque\u00f1as cantidades. Como se enfrentaban a la muerte por inanici\u00f3n, los varsovianos recurrieron al mercado negro, al estraperlo y los vendedores de vodka, que la Gestapo reprim\u00eda sin piedad. \u00abLos polacos se han atiborrado durante veinte a\u00f1os \u2014dec\u00edan\u2014, ahora tienen que vivir a pan y agua\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>A la poblaci\u00f3n de Varsovia se la redujo deliberadamente a la esclavitud, como preparaci\u00f3n para la futura demolici\u00f3n de su ciudad.<\/p><p>Por la noche, el toque de queda vaciaba las calles. Durante el d\u00eda, los altavoces tronaban con la m\u00fasica militar alemana y la propaganda en polaco. La Gestapo patrullaba la ciudad y manten\u00eda a la poblaci\u00f3n aterrorizada, ya que espor\u00e1dicamente rodeaba a hombres y chicos al azar y los llevaba a campos de trabajos forzados. A las muchachas y las mujeres se las secuestraba y violaba. La Gestapo irrump\u00eda en los edificios de apartamentos, arrestando a los sospechosos de resistencia a la ocupaci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>A partir de septiembre de 1943, el gobernador Frank orden\u00f3 que cada d\u00eda treinta o cuarenta personas al azar fuesen ejecutadas a la vez en las calles de Varsovia. Entre 1941 y agosto de 1944, se ejecut\u00f3 p\u00fablicamente a cuarenta mil polacos de la capital y se deport\u00f3 a ciento sesenta mil a los campos de trabajos forzados. Varsovia se convirti\u00f3 en una ciudad-prisi\u00f3n, gobernada por el miedo y con una poblaci\u00f3n esclava pr\u00e1cticamente muerta de hambre. Pero dentro de esa prisi\u00f3n urbana hab\u00eda otra mucho, mucho peor. En los meses que siguieron a la ocupaci\u00f3n, las autoridades alemanas impusieron trabajos forzosos a una comunidad jud\u00eda de cuatrocientos mil miembros, oblig\u00e1ndolos a limpiar los da\u00f1os causados por las bombas. Sus ahorros fueron confiscados y se prohibi\u00f3 el culto comunitario. El 1 de abril de 1940 comenzaron las obras de construcci\u00f3n de un muro alrededor de unos 3,5 kil\u00f3metros cuadrados de ciudad, en la parte norte del centro. Aunque estaba claramente destinado a un distrito cerrado para que residiesen los jud\u00edos, no se sab\u00eda qu\u00e9 iba a pasar. No fue hasta agosto de 1940 cuando se orden\u00f3 a los polacos gentiles que saliesen y a los jud\u00edos que entrasen.\u00a0<\/p><p>El 15 de noviembre se cerraron las puertas; el 30 por ciento de la poblaci\u00f3n de Varsovia estaba confinado en el 2,4 por ciento del \u00e1rea de la ciudad, completamente aislados del mundo exterior detr\u00e1s de tres metros de ladrillos y alambre de espinos.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ssm3q7g\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLos da\u00f1os en Varsovia son colosales \u2014informaba el <em>Correo de Varsovia<\/em> el 28 de septiembre\u2014. No funcionan ni la electricidad, ni las tuber\u00edas, ni el alcantarillado, ni los tel\u00e9fonos. Todos los hospitales han sido bombardeados [...] no hay ni un solo edificio hist\u00f3rico o monumento que no est\u00e9 destruido o gravemente da\u00f1ado\u00bb. Ese fue el d\u00eda en que Varsovia capitul\u00f3 ante los nazis.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pslfcgp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Parte 2: bombas<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p>Poco despu\u00e9s de la ca\u00edda de la ciudad, Hitler visit\u00f3 Varsovia. Recorri\u00f3 las ruinas de los bombardeos junto con un grupo de corresponsales extranjeros. \u00abCaballeros \u2014les dijo\u2014, han visto por ustedes mismos que tratar de defender esta ciudad era una locura y un crimen [...]. Solo deseo que ciertos mandatarios de otros pa\u00edses, que parecen querer convertir toda Europa en una segunda Varsovia, tengan la oportunidad de ver, como han hecho ustedes, el significado real de la guerra\u00bb.<\/p><p>Una ciudad es como un organismo vivo. Puede sobrevivir mientras le quede un aliento de vida, da igual lo grave que sea la destrucci\u00f3n. De todos los modos de matar una ciudad, los bombardeos de \u00e1rea son el menos efectivo. Las escenas de devastaci\u00f3n de ciudades europeas, con sus edificios bombardeados, son una visi\u00f3n terrible. Pero la parte f\u00edsica de una ciudad es la que m\u00e1s f\u00e1cilmente se repara. Las grandes metr\u00f3polis han demostrado ser capaces de soportar castigos de terribles dimensiones, en modos que eran inconcebibles antes de la guerra.\u00a0<\/p><p>Costaba mucho matar una ciudad, a pesar del horrendo n\u00famero de v\u00edctimas y las privaciones. Mientras las autoridades c\u00edvicas proporcionasen servicios, suministros y alimentos, la vida urbana continuaba.<\/p><p>Hasta el final definitivo de la guerra, cuando Alemania colaps\u00f3, millones de civiles siguieron recibiendo lo b\u00e1sico. Tanto Gran Breta\u00f1a como Alemania pusieron en marcha s\u00f3lidos sistemas que mitigaron los peores efectos del bombardeo de \u00e1rea. Estos iban desde refugios antia\u00e9reos hasta la prestaci\u00f3n urgente de servicios esenciales, desde el momento inmediatamente posterior a los ataques hasta bastante despu\u00e9s. En ambos pa\u00edses, las fuerzas de defensa civil se alinearon para defender el modo de vida de sus ciudades. Hab\u00eda voluntarios que ejerc\u00edan de vigilantes antia\u00e9reos y antincendio, bomberos, enfermeros, personal de primeros auxilios, mensajeros y dem\u00e1s. Se entren\u00f3 a la poblaci\u00f3n de las ciudades para tomar precauciones en caso de ataque a\u00e9reo, as\u00ed como para prestar primeros auxilios, eliminar bombas y extinguir fuegos provocados por aparatos incendiarios.<\/p><p>La sensaci\u00f3n de que todos estaban juntos en aquello y ten\u00edan un papel que desempe\u00f1ar en la guerra fortaleci\u00f3 la determinaci\u00f3n de la poblaci\u00f3n civil.\u00a0<\/p><p>Al pregunt\u00e1rseles por qu\u00e9 se perdi\u00f3 la guerra, solo el 15 por ciento de los alemanes dijo que era por los ataques a\u00e9reos. La dram\u00e1tica visi\u00f3n de los edificios destruidos no reflejaba la destrucci\u00f3n de la cohesi\u00f3n social, el esp\u00edritu de miles de ciudades mantenidas con vida por sus 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a0Varsovia, 1944, despu\u00e9s del levantamiento de agosto a octubre contra las fuerzas alemanas. Cr\u00e9dito:\u00a0Getty 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3: guerra total<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p>Hitler reconoci\u00f3 las limitaciones del bombardeo a\u00e9reo. Pero ten\u00eda otros medios m\u00e1s terror\u00edficos para destruir ciudades. Capturar una gran metr\u00f3polis a menudo significa ganar la guerra. Pero lo que se hace a continuaci\u00f3n es otro asunto.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las ciudades son tan resilientes que un conquistador debe eliminar todas y cada una de las partes de su sistema vital. Nada puede permanecer, y menos su memoria.\u00a0<\/p><p>En junio de 1941, Hitler lanz\u00f3 la operaci\u00f3n Barbarroja, la mayor acci\u00f3n militar de la historia. Una vez que se completase, Alemania se apropiar\u00eda de los recursos agr\u00edcolas de la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica y usar\u00eda el bot\u00edn para alimentar a su pueblo. Los alemanes calculaban que en Rusia morir\u00edan unos treinta millones de personas privadas de sus recursos alimenticios. La poblaci\u00f3n urbana rusa hab\u00eda aumentado en treinta millones entre la Primera Guerra Mundial y 1939. Por tanto, al usar la tierra rusa como fuente de alimento y combustible, Alemania empujar\u00eda a su enemigo de vuelta a su pasado preurbano, al eliminar su poblaci\u00f3n \u00absuperflua\u00bb. En los emplazamientos de las metr\u00f3polis rusas en ruinas habr\u00eda ciudades coloniales alemanas rodeadas de campos f\u00e9rtiles, un \u00abjard\u00edn del ed\u00e9n\u00bb ario.<\/p><p>La Wehrmacht ten\u00eda tres objetivos que atacar: Leningrado, Mosc\u00fa y Ucrania.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como esperaban un ataque directo, los ciudadanos de Leningrado cavaron enormes defensas alrededor de su ciudad. Pero los alemanes ten\u00edan otros planes: la ciudad iba a ser sitiada y sometida a trav\u00e9s del hambre.\u00a0<\/p><p>No se deb\u00eda dar cuartel, no se permitir\u00eda una rendici\u00f3n, porque la Alemania nazi no iba a ocuparse de realojar y alimentar a gente sin hogar: \u00abNo tenemos inter\u00e9s en mantener ni siquiera una parte de esta numerosa poblaci\u00f3n\u00bb. Seg\u00fan Hitler, la gran metr\u00f3polis y sus gentes \u00abdeb\u00edan desaparecer de la faz de la tierra\u00bb. Los alemanes esperaban que la victoria fuese r\u00e1pida. El objetivo era \u00abarrasar Mosc\u00fa y Leningrado y hacerlos inhabitables\u00bb.<\/p><p>Las \u00f3rdenes de Hitler eran que ning\u00fan alem\u00e1n muriese asaltando Leningrado, en luchas callejeras sin sentido. La victoria se alcanzar\u00eda al actuar como una boa constrictor: estrangulando la ciudad hasta la muerte. Solo llegaba comida con cuentagotas, en botes a trav\u00e9s del lago Ladoga, o en paraca\u00eddas. Los almacenes de comida de la ciudad, las centrales el\u00e9ctricas y las tuber\u00edas fueron destruidos. Tres millones de personas estaban encerradas en Leningrado esperando la muerte mientras se acercaba el invierno. \u00abHemos vuelto a la prehistoria \u2014escribi\u00f3 Elena Scriabina desde Leningrado\u2014. La vida se ha reducido a una cosa: buscar comida\u00bb.<\/p><p>Sin suministro de v\u00edveres, electricidad o combustible, Leningrado pas\u00f3 de ser una ciudad funcional a una trampa mortal en pocas semanas. Sus habitantes se asemejaban a lobos hambrientos, preocupados solo por sobrevivir e indiferentes a todo lo dem\u00e1s que pasaba a su alrededor. La gente perdi\u00f3 inter\u00e9s en la vida familiar, el sexo, incluso en las bombas que ca\u00edan del cielo todos los d\u00edas; sospechaban los unos de los otros. Con las escuelas cerradas, pocos trabajos a los que ir y casi nada para entretenerse, la vida se convirti\u00f3 en la monoton\u00eda de hacer cola para el pan y el agua y rebuscar entre la basura. Los primeros casos de canibalismo se denunciaron en diciembre.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para un ej\u00e9rcito, una ciudad determinada a resistir hasta el \u00faltimo hombre, mujer y ni\u00f1o es quiz\u00e1 el obst\u00e1culo m\u00e1s formidable del mundo, una espiral de destrucci\u00f3n. Las ciudades se pueden tragar ej\u00e9rcitos enteros. Existen cementerios de ambiciones militares. Napole\u00f3n zozobr\u00f3 en Mosc\u00fa en 1812 y, un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s, en Leipzig. A Hitler le plantaron cara en Leningrado, Mosc\u00fa y, de una manera desastrosa, en Stalingrado.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cm0zgp0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hitler reconoci\u00f3 las limitaciones del bombardeo a\u00e9reo. Pero ten\u00eda otros medios m\u00e1s terror\u00edficos para destruir ciudades. Capturar una gran metr\u00f3polis a menudo significa ganar la guerra. Pero lo que se hace a continuaci\u00f3n es otro asunto.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8bxapif\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pero, una vez m\u00e1s, Hitler estaba obsesionado con asolar una ciudad rusa con gran significado simb\u00f3lico y desvi\u00f3 combustible y aviones vitales desde el C\u00e1ucaso a la campa\u00f1a contra Stalingrado. Muchas ciudades y pueblos rusos se hab\u00edan rendido o hab\u00edan sido abandonados ante la guerra rel\u00e1mpago. Pero Stalin no iba a ceder un palmo de la ciudad bautizada en su honor.<\/p><p>La extensi\u00f3n de ruinas y escombros se convirti\u00f3 en uno de los campos de batalla m\u00e1s cruciales de la historia. Lo que normalmente otorgaba ventaja a la Wehrmacht \u2014ataques r\u00e1pidos y destructivos, maniobrabilidad\u2014 quedaba fuera de su alcance en los combates urbanos. La <em>Blitzkrieg<\/em>, guerra rel\u00e1mpago, se rebaj\u00f3 a lo que los soldados alemanes llamaban la <em>Rattenkrieg<\/em>, guerra de ratas. Cada palmo de calle, cada mont\u00f3n de escombros, cada edificio y cada habitaci\u00f3n ten\u00eda que ser peleado en un combate cuerpo a cuerpo. Hubo batallas en las alcantarillas; la Wehrmacht y el Ej\u00e9rcito Rojo luchaban, piso a piso, por edificios en ruinas y sin techo. En algunos sitios, el frente era un pasillo entre habitaciones.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los alemanes se abrieron paso en la ciudad, casa por casa, hasta que a mediados de noviembre la mayor parte de la ciudad estuvo en sus manos y quedaron solo algunos focos de resistencia rusa. En ese momento, antes de que los alemanes pudiesen reclamarla como suya, los sovi\u00e9ticos lanzaron la operaci\u00f3n Urano, un contrataque masivo que rode\u00f3 Stalingrado. El 6to Ej\u00e9rcito alem\u00e1n \u2014doscientos setenta mil hombres\u2014 estaba atrapado dentro.\u00a0<\/p><p>Mientras se agotaban las reservas de v\u00edveres y munici\u00f3n, los alemanes se enfrentaron a nuevos episodios de guerra urbana. Experimentaron lo que los ciudadanos de Leningrado y el gueto de Varsovia hab\u00edan sufrido a manos de los alemanes: el hambre y la enfermedad. El 31 de enero de 1943, lo que quedaba del 6to Ej\u00e9rcito se rindi\u00f3.<\/p><p>Hitler, que se autoproclam\u00f3 destructor de ciudades, fue destruido por las ciudades.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"09xbl3p\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo que normalmente otorgaba ventaja a la Wehrmacht \u2014ataques r\u00e1pidos y destructivos, maniobrabilidad\u2014 quedaba fuera de su alcance en los combates urbanos. La <em>Blitzkrieg<\/em>, guerra rel\u00e1mpago, se rebaj\u00f3 a lo que los soldados alemanes llamaban la <em>Rattenkrieg<\/em>, guerra de ratas.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"g8c678p\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Parte 4: genocidio, pillaje, deportaci\u00f3n y demolici\u00f3n<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p>En Varsovia, durante gran parte de la guerra sus ciudadanos no se enfrentaron a las bombas sino a un aparato de terror que min\u00f3 precisamente lo que manten\u00eda unidas a las ciudades bombardeadas y destruidas: el esp\u00edritu c\u00edvico y la solidaridad. Los nazis programaron la destrucci\u00f3n de Varsovia, pero solo una vez que se exprimiesen las \u00faltimas gotas de energ\u00eda de la poblaci\u00f3n que deb\u00eda producir municiones y materiales para el frente oriental.<\/p><p>Y mientras muchos trataban de mantener la vida urbana, la llegada de un flujo constante de deportados de toda Europa exacerbaba el hambre y empeoraba las condiciones de marginalidad.<\/p><p>En las reuniones que se celebraron entre el 7 y el 18 de diciembre de 1941, Hitler dej\u00f3 claro que se deb\u00eda castigar a los jud\u00edos por la guerra. Deb\u00eda aplicarse la Soluci\u00f3n Final a los jud\u00edos europeos.<\/p><p>Tras las deportaciones, los treinta y seis mil jud\u00edos que permanecieron en el gueto de Varsovia como trabajadores esclavos habitaban una ciudad fantasma. Muchas de sus esposas, hijos, familiares y amigos les hab\u00edan sido arrebatados y llevados a Treblinka. Sufr\u00edan una agon\u00eda de culpa y verg\u00fcenza. En cuesti\u00f3n de semanas, la poblaci\u00f3n de una ciudad entera hab\u00eda sido destruida por un punado de alemanes y sus colaboradores forzosos de la polic\u00eda jud\u00eda. Lo \u00fanico que se pod\u00eda hacer era resistir. Los combatientes de la resistencia sab\u00edan que iban a morir. Sin embargo, quer\u00edan elegir c\u00f3mo y rescatar el honor del pueblo jud\u00edo.<\/p><p>Al final, los alemanes deportaron a 53.667 jud\u00edos, la mayor\u00eda enviados a Majdanek y Treblinka. Todo el gueto estaba reducido a escombros.<\/p><p>Se construy\u00f3 un campo de concentraci\u00f3n en las ruinas y nuevos grupos de jud\u00edos trasladados desde otros lugares de Europa fueron obligados a limpiar decenas de millones de ladrillos, hasta que no qued\u00f3 rastro de la ciudad dentro de la ciudad.<\/p><p>Un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s del levantamiento del gueto contra los alemanes, el resto de Varsovia se rebel\u00f3. Las circunstancias eran totalmente diferentes.<\/p><p>A medida que el Ej\u00e9rcito Rojo se acercaba a la ciudad, tras el \u00e9xito arrollador de la operaci\u00f3n Bagrati\u00f3n, los l\u00edderes polacos se sent\u00edan en el deber de reivindicar su papel en el futuro del pa\u00eds antes de caer bajo el dominio sovi\u00e9tico.<\/p><p>Pobremente armados, c\u00f3ctel molotov en mano, la resistencia polaca se levant\u00f3 a las cinco de la ma\u00f1ana del 1 de agosto de 1944.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La mayor parte de Varsovia estaba en manos polacas por primera vez en mucho tiempo.<\/p><p>Al principio, Hitler quer\u00eda sacar a las tropas alemanas, rodear la ciudad y bombardearla hasta convertirla en polvo. Pero era militarmente inviable.<\/p><p>En su lugar, Hitler y Himmler emitieron la Orden para Varsovia el 1 de agosto: \u00abTodos los ciudadanos de Varsovia deben morir, incluyendo hombres, mujeres y ni\u00f1os. Varsovia debe ser arrasada, convertirse en un ejemplo aterrador para el resto de Europa\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo que sucedi\u00f3 a continuaci\u00f3n supuso la destrucci\u00f3n sistem\u00e1tica de toda una ciudad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"w9h9aat\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Aplastar el levantamiento de Varsovia ten\u00eda un valor \u00ednfimo en t\u00e9rminos militares. Pero Hitler hab\u00eda emprendido una cruzada mesi\u00e1nica para arrasar la metr\u00f3polis a cualquier precio. Su mejor equipamiento fue retirado del frente y se envi\u00f3 a la ciudad para perpetrar una carnicer\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q8awy6o\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La reconquista y destrucci\u00f3n de Varsovia se encomend\u00f3 al Obergruppenf\u00fchrer de las SS Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, un hombre que hab\u00eda supervisado el asesinato en masa de jud\u00edos durante la operaci\u00f3n Barbarroja y acciones de genocidio contra partisanos. Himmler lo envi\u00f3 al conjunto de las unidades de las SS m\u00e1s sanguinarias y temidas de todo el Reich. Entre ellas estaba la tropa comandada por Oscar Dirlewanger, constituida por prisioneros liberados de c\u00e1rceles alemanas, soldados considerados demasiado trastornados para el ej\u00e9rcito regular, desertores del Ej\u00e9rcito Rojo, azer\u00edes y combatientes musulmanes del C\u00e1ucaso. La Brigada Dirlewanger se hab\u00eda desplazado desde Europa oriental saqueando, violando, torturando y asesinando, masacrando jud\u00edos, presuntos partisanos y mujeres y ni\u00f1os inocentes en n\u00fameros que revuelven el est\u00f3mago.<\/p><p>Se cumpl\u00edan las \u00f3rdenes de Hitler y Himmler: primero fueron masacrados los ciudadanos de Varsovia, despu\u00e9s se destruyeron los edificios. Sin embargo, las matanzas indiscriminadas pararon llegado un cierto momento. Los l\u00edderes nazis decidieron que quer\u00edan que todos los habitantes trabajasen como esclavos.\u00a0<\/p><p>La Brigada Dirlewanger y el RONA se marcharon. En su lugar llegaron algunos de los equipamientos militares m\u00e1s destructivos que se hayan desplegado en las calles de una ciudad. Las calles del casco antiguo de Varsovia eran demasiado estrechas para los tanques normales.<\/p><p>Miles de polacos se escond\u00edan all\u00ed, en una fortaleza aparentemente inexpugnable de edificios y callejuelas. A una orden de Hitler, un mort\u00edfero arsenal de armamento se trajo desde lugares lejanos para ayudar en la destrucci\u00f3n de la ciudad. Aplastar el levantamiento de Varsovia ten\u00eda un valor \u00ednfimo en t\u00e9rminos militares. Pero Hitler hab\u00eda emprendido una cruzada mesi\u00e1nica para arrasar la metr\u00f3polis a cualquier precio. Su mejor equipamiento fue retirado del frente y se envi\u00f3 a la ciudad para perpetrar una carnicer\u00eda.<\/p><p>El arma m\u00e1s aterradora era el lanzacohetes Nebelwerfer de seis cilindros, capaz de disparar sin parar conjuntos de bombas incendiarias.<\/p><p>Los polacos las llamaban <em>krowy<\/em>, \u00abvacas\u00bb, ya que sonaban como un rebano mugiendo ag\u00f3nicamente. Todo esto, todo el poder de la tecnolog\u00eda de asedio nazi al completo, se us\u00f3 para destruir Varsovia edificio a edificio.<\/p><p>Durante sesenta y tres d\u00edas, los alemanes lucharon para recuperar la ciudad. Finalmente, el 2 de octubre, cuando estaba claro que el Ej\u00e9rcito Rojo no iba a llegar al rescate, los polacos se rindieron.<\/p><p>Al principio del levantamiento, quedaban m\u00e1s de 700.000 personas viviendo en Varsovia. Las muertes de civiles en el levantamiento ascendieron a 150.000. De los supervivientes, 55.000 se transfirieron a Auschwitz y otros campos de concentraci\u00f3n; 150.000 viajaron al Reich como esclavos; 17.000 fueron encarcelados como prisioneros de guerra y se deport\u00f3 a 350.000 a otros puntos de Polonia. Seg\u00fan la novelista Zofia Na\u0142kowska, Varsovia se convirti\u00f3 en \u00abuna de las muchas ciudades muertas de la historia\u00bb, y sus gentes \u00ablos nuevos sintecho\u00bb.<\/p><p>\u00abLa ciudad debe desaparecer por completo de la faz de la tierra \u2014orden\u00f3 Himmler\u2014. Que no quede piedra sobre piedra. Todos los edificios deben ser demolidos hasta los cimientos\u00bb. Todo lo que pod\u00eda ser arrancado de la ciudad se carg\u00f3 en m\u00e1s de cuarenta mil vagones de tren y se envi\u00f3 a Alemania. Se lo llevaron todo: desde tesoros y obras de arte hasta cuerdas, papel, velas y virutas de metal. Despu\u00e9s, llegaron los equipos especialistas en demolici\u00f3n llamados <em>Verbrennungskommandos<\/em> (\u00abcomandos de aniquilaci\u00f3n\u00bb). Lo que qued\u00f3 de la ciudad se destruy\u00f3 met\u00f3dicamente.\u00a0<\/p><p>En enero, el 93 por ciento de la ciudad ya no exist\u00eda.<\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La casa muerta: regreso a Chern\u00f3bil<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Primero, la rebeli\u00f3n; despu\u00e9s, el futuro: la improbable g\u00e9nesis de \u00ab1984\u00bb, la obra magna de George 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15 minutos
Copias históricas de Mein Kampf (Mi lucha), el primer libro de Adolf Hitler.

Kyiv, la capital de Ucrania, bombardeada por misiles rusos en marzo de 2022. Crédito: Getty Images.

Parte 1: ocupación

¿Qué hace falta para destruir una ciudad? La humanidad ha diseñado numerosos medios. Y entre 1939 y 1945, la mayoría de ellos se experimentaron en la capital polaca. Varsovia sufrió el terror de los bombardeos aéreos desde el primer día de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el 1 de septiembre de 1939. Durante las siguientes semanas, mientras el ejército alemán hacía retroceder a las fuerzas polacas y aterrorizaba a los refugiados que huían hacia Varsovia, la ciudad estuvo sometida a continuos ataques aéreos. Se volvieron más y más feroces a medida que la Wehrmacht estrechaba el cerco a la capital. Bombardeos aéreos sin medida se combinaban con el asalto de la artillería. «Los daños en Varsovia son colosales —informaba el Correo de Varsovia el 28 de septiembre—. No funcionan ni la electricidad, ni las tuberías, ni el alcantarillado, ni los teléfonos. Todos los hospitales han sido bombardeados [...] no hay ni un solo edificio histórico o monumento que no esté destruido o gravemente dañado». Ese fue el día en que Varsovia capituló ante los nazis.

Los varsovianos salieron de los sótanos a las ruinas humeantes, desconcertados de que la ciudad se hubiese rendido; si se lo hubiesen permitido, seguramente habrían luchado. Los alemanes entraron en Varsovia y la ocuparon el 1 de octubre. El día 15, la ciudad fue entregada a la administración colonial nazi, comandada por Heinrich Himmler.

En su guerra contra la vida urbana, los nazis le arrancaron el corazón a la ciudad, despojándola sistemáticamente de su significado cultural, político y económico y ejerciendo una brutal represión contra los ciudadanos ordinarios en una campaña de terror. 

La población pasó hambre. Sobrevivía con las raciones más exiguas. La asignación mensual era de 4,3 kilos de pan, cuatrocientos gramos de harina, cuatrocientos gramos de carne, setenta y cinco gramos de café y un huevo. La cerveza, el vino, la mantequilla y los cigarrillos estaban fuera del menú, y el azúcar, solo en pequeñas cantidades. Como se enfrentaban a la muerte por inanición, los varsovianos recurrieron al mercado negro, al estraperlo y los vendedores de vodka, que la Gestapo reprimía sin piedad. «Los polacos se han atiborrado durante veinte años —decían—, ahora tienen que vivir a pan y agua». 

A la población de Varsovia se la redujo deliberadamente a la esclavitud, como preparación para la futura demolición de su ciudad.

Por la noche, el toque de queda vaciaba las calles. Durante el día, los altavoces tronaban con la música militar alemana y la propaganda en polaco. La Gestapo patrullaba la ciudad y mantenía a la población aterrorizada, ya que esporádicamente rodeaba a hombres y chicos al azar y los llevaba a campos de trabajos forzados. A las muchachas y las mujeres se las secuestraba y violaba. La Gestapo irrumpía en los edificios de apartamentos, arrestando a los sospechosos de resistencia a la ocupación.

A partir de septiembre de 1943, el gobernador Frank ordenó que cada día treinta o cuarenta personas al azar fuesen ejecutadas a la vez en las calles de Varsovia. Entre 1941 y agosto de 1944, se ejecutó públicamente a cuarenta mil polacos de la capital y se deportó a ciento sesenta mil a los campos de trabajos forzados. Varsovia se convirtió en una ciudad-prisión, gobernada por el miedo y con una población esclava prácticamente muerta de hambre. Pero dentro de esa prisión urbana había otra mucho, mucho peor. En los meses que siguieron a la ocupación, las autoridades alemanas impusieron trabajos forzosos a una comunidad judía de cuatrocientos mil miembros, obligándolos a limpiar los daños causados por las bombas. Sus ahorros fueron confiscados y se prohibió el culto comunitario. El 1 de abril de 1940 comenzaron las obras de construcción de un muro alrededor de unos 3,5 kilómetros cuadrados de ciudad, en la parte norte del centro. Aunque estaba claramente destinado a un distrito cerrado para que residiesen los judíos, no se sabía qué iba a pasar. No fue hasta agosto de 1940 cuando se ordenó a los polacos gentiles que saliesen y a los judíos que entrasen. 

El 15 de noviembre se cerraron las puertas; el 30 por ciento de la población de Varsovia estaba confinado en el 2,4 por ciento del área de la ciudad, completamente aislados del mundo exterior detrás de tres metros de ladrillos y alambre de espinos. 

«Los daños en Varsovia son colosales —informaba el Correo de Varsovia el 28 de septiembre—. No funcionan ni la electricidad, ni las tuberías, ni el alcantarillado, ni los teléfonos. Todos los hospitales han sido bombardeados [...] no hay ni un solo edificio histórico o monumento que no esté destruido o gravemente dañado». Ese fue el día en que Varsovia capituló ante los nazis.

Parte 2: bombas

Poco después de la caída de la ciudad, Hitler visitó Varsovia. Recorrió las ruinas de los bombardeos junto con un grupo de corresponsales extranjeros. «Caballeros —les dijo—, han visto por ustedes mismos que tratar de defender esta ciudad era una locura y un crimen [...]. Solo deseo que ciertos mandatarios de otros países, que parecen querer convertir toda Europa en una segunda Varsovia, tengan la oportunidad de ver, como han hecho ustedes, el significado real de la guerra».

Una ciudad es como un organismo vivo. Puede sobrevivir mientras le quede un aliento de vida, da igual lo grave que sea la destrucción. De todos los modos de matar una ciudad, los bombardeos de área son el menos efectivo. Las escenas de devastación de ciudades europeas, con sus edificios bombardeados, son una visión terrible. Pero la parte física de una ciudad es la que más fácilmente se repara. Las grandes metrópolis han demostrado ser capaces de soportar castigos de terribles dimensiones, en modos que eran inconcebibles antes de la guerra. 

Costaba mucho matar una ciudad, a pesar del horrendo número de víctimas y las privaciones. Mientras las autoridades cívicas proporcionasen servicios, suministros y alimentos, la vida urbana continuaba.

Hasta el final definitivo de la guerra, cuando Alemania colapsó, millones de civiles siguieron recibiendo lo básico. Tanto Gran Bretaña como Alemania pusieron en marcha sólidos sistemas que mitigaron los peores efectos del bombardeo de área. Estos iban desde refugios antiaéreos hasta la prestación urgente de servicios esenciales, desde el momento inmediatamente posterior a los ataques hasta bastante después. En ambos países, las fuerzas de defensa civil se alinearon para defender el modo de vida de sus ciudades. Había voluntarios que ejercían de vigilantes antiaéreos y antincendio, bomberos, enfermeros, personal de primeros auxilios, mensajeros y demás. Se entrenó a la población de las ciudades para tomar precauciones en caso de ataque aéreo, así como para prestar primeros auxilios, eliminar bombas y extinguir fuegos provocados por aparatos incendiarios.

La sensación de que todos estaban juntos en aquello y tenían un papel que desempeñar en la guerra fortaleció la determinación de la población civil. 

Al preguntárseles por qué se perdió la guerra, solo el 15 por ciento de los alemanes dijo que era por los ataques aéreos. La dramática visión de los edificios destruidos no reflejaba la destrucción de la cohesión social, el espíritu de miles de ciudades mantenidas con vida por sus gentes.

Portada de The New English Weekly del 21 de marzo de 1940, ejemplar en el que Orwell publicó este texto sobre Mein Kampf.

 Varsovia, 1944, después del levantamiento de agosto a octubre contra las fuerzas alemanas. Crédito: Getty Images.

Parte 3: guerra total

Hitler reconoció las limitaciones del bombardeo aéreo. Pero tenía otros medios más terroríficos para destruir ciudades. Capturar una gran metrópolis a menudo significa ganar la guerra. Pero lo que se hace a continuación es otro asunto. 

Las ciudades son tan resilientes que un conquistador debe eliminar todas y cada una de las partes de su sistema vital. Nada puede permanecer, y menos su memoria. 

En junio de 1941, Hitler lanzó la operación Barbarroja, la mayor acción militar de la historia. Una vez que se completase, Alemania se apropiaría de los recursos agrícolas de la Unión Soviética y usaría el botín para alimentar a su pueblo. Los alemanes calculaban que en Rusia morirían unos treinta millones de personas privadas de sus recursos alimenticios. La población urbana rusa había aumentado en treinta millones entre la Primera Guerra Mundial y 1939. Por tanto, al usar la tierra rusa como fuente de alimento y combustible, Alemania empujaría a su enemigo de vuelta a su pasado preurbano, al eliminar su población «superflua». En los emplazamientos de las metrópolis rusas en ruinas habría ciudades coloniales alemanas rodeadas de campos fértiles, un «jardín del edén» ario.

La Wehrmacht tenía tres objetivos que atacar: Leningrado, Moscú y Ucrania. 

Como esperaban un ataque directo, los ciudadanos de Leningrado cavaron enormes defensas alrededor de su ciudad. Pero los alemanes tenían otros planes: la ciudad iba a ser sitiada y sometida a través del hambre. 

No se debía dar cuartel, no se permitiría una rendición, porque la Alemania nazi no iba a ocuparse de realojar y alimentar a gente sin hogar: «No tenemos interés en mantener ni siquiera una parte de esta numerosa población». Según Hitler, la gran metrópolis y sus gentes «debían desaparecer de la faz de la tierra». Los alemanes esperaban que la victoria fuese rápida. El objetivo era «arrasar Moscú y Leningrado y hacerlos inhabitables».

Las órdenes de Hitler eran que ningún alemán muriese asaltando Leningrado, en luchas callejeras sin sentido. La victoria se alcanzaría al actuar como una boa constrictor: estrangulando la ciudad hasta la muerte. Solo llegaba comida con cuentagotas, en botes a través del lago Ladoga, o en paracaídas. Los almacenes de comida de la ciudad, las centrales eléctricas y las tuberías fueron destruidos. Tres millones de personas estaban encerradas en Leningrado esperando la muerte mientras se acercaba el invierno. «Hemos vuelto a la prehistoria —escribió Elena Scriabina desde Leningrado—. La vida se ha reducido a una cosa: buscar comida».

Sin suministro de víveres, electricidad o combustible, Leningrado pasó de ser una ciudad funcional a una trampa mortal en pocas semanas. Sus habitantes se asemejaban a lobos hambrientos, preocupados solo por sobrevivir e indiferentes a todo lo demás que pasaba a su alrededor. La gente perdió interés en la vida familiar, el sexo, incluso en las bombas que caían del cielo todos los días; sospechaban los unos de los otros. Con las escuelas cerradas, pocos trabajos a los que ir y casi nada para entretenerse, la vida se convirtió en la monotonía de hacer cola para el pan y el agua y rebuscar entre la basura. Los primeros casos de canibalismo se denunciaron en diciembre. 

Para un ejército, una ciudad determinada a resistir hasta el último hombre, mujer y niño es quizá el obstáculo más formidable del mundo, una espiral de destrucción. Las ciudades se pueden tragar ejércitos enteros. Existen cementerios de ambiciones militares. Napoleón zozobró en Moscú en 1812 y, un año después, en Leipzig. A Hitler le plantaron cara en Leningrado, Moscú y, de una manera desastrosa, en Stalingrado.

Hitler reconoció las limitaciones del bombardeo aéreo. Pero tenía otros medios más terroríficos para destruir ciudades. Capturar una gran metrópolis a menudo significa ganar la guerra. Pero lo que se hace a continuación es otro asunto. 

Pero, una vez más, Hitler estaba obsesionado con asolar una ciudad rusa con gran significado simbólico y desvió combustible y aviones vitales desde el Cáucaso a la campaña contra Stalingrado. Muchas ciudades y pueblos rusos se habían rendido o habían sido abandonados ante la guerra relámpago. Pero Stalin no iba a ceder un palmo de la ciudad bautizada en su honor.

La extensión de ruinas y escombros se convirtió en uno de los campos de batalla más cruciales de la historia. Lo que normalmente otorgaba ventaja a la Wehrmacht —ataques rápidos y destructivos, maniobrabilidad— quedaba fuera de su alcance en los combates urbanos. La Blitzkrieg, guerra relámpago, se rebajó a lo que los soldados alemanes llamaban la Rattenkrieg, guerra de ratas. Cada palmo de calle, cada montón de escombros, cada edificio y cada habitación tenía que ser peleado en un combate cuerpo a cuerpo. Hubo batallas en las alcantarillas; la Wehrmacht y el Ejército Rojo luchaban, piso a piso, por edificios en ruinas y sin techo. En algunos sitios, el frente era un pasillo entre habitaciones. 

Los alemanes se abrieron paso en la ciudad, casa por casa, hasta que a mediados de noviembre la mayor parte de la ciudad estuvo en sus manos y quedaron solo algunos focos de resistencia rusa. En ese momento, antes de que los alemanes pudiesen reclamarla como suya, los soviéticos lanzaron la operación Urano, un contrataque masivo que rodeó Stalingrado. El 6to Ejército alemán —doscientos setenta mil hombres— estaba atrapado dentro. 

Mientras se agotaban las reservas de víveres y munición, los alemanes se enfrentaron a nuevos episodios de guerra urbana. Experimentaron lo que los ciudadanos de Leningrado y el gueto de Varsovia habían sufrido a manos de los alemanes: el hambre y la enfermedad. El 31 de enero de 1943, lo que quedaba del 6to Ejército se rindió.

Hitler, que se autoproclamó destructor de ciudades, fue destruido por las ciudades. 

Lo que normalmente otorgaba ventaja a la Wehrmacht —ataques rápidos y destructivos, maniobrabilidad— quedaba fuera de su alcance en los combates urbanos. La Blitzkrieg, guerra relámpago, se rebajó a lo que los soldados alemanes llamaban la Rattenkrieg, guerra de ratas. 

Parte 4: genocidio, pillaje, deportación y demolición

En Varsovia, durante gran parte de la guerra sus ciudadanos no se enfrentaron a las bombas sino a un aparato de terror que minó precisamente lo que mantenía unidas a las ciudades bombardeadas y destruidas: el espíritu cívico y la solidaridad. Los nazis programaron la destrucción de Varsovia, pero solo una vez que se exprimiesen las últimas gotas de energía de la población que debía producir municiones y materiales para el frente oriental.

Y mientras muchos trataban de mantener la vida urbana, la llegada de un flujo constante de deportados de toda Europa exacerbaba el hambre y empeoraba las condiciones de marginalidad.

En las reuniones que se celebraron entre el 7 y el 18 de diciembre de 1941, Hitler dejó claro que se debía castigar a los judíos por la guerra. Debía aplicarse la Solución Final a los judíos europeos.

Tras las deportaciones, los treinta y seis mil judíos que permanecieron en el gueto de Varsovia como trabajadores esclavos habitaban una ciudad fantasma. Muchas de sus esposas, hijos, familiares y amigos les habían sido arrebatados y llevados a Treblinka. Sufrían una agonía de culpa y vergüenza. En cuestión de semanas, la población de una ciudad entera había sido destruida por un punado de alemanes y sus colaboradores forzosos de la policía judía. Lo único que se podía hacer era resistir. Los combatientes de la resistencia sabían que iban a morir. Sin embargo, querían elegir cómo y rescatar el honor del pueblo judío.

Al final, los alemanes deportaron a 53.667 judíos, la mayoría enviados a Majdanek y Treblinka. Todo el gueto estaba reducido a escombros.

Se construyó un campo de concentración en las ruinas y nuevos grupos de judíos trasladados desde otros lugares de Europa fueron obligados a limpiar decenas de millones de ladrillos, hasta que no quedó rastro de la ciudad dentro de la ciudad.

Un año después del levantamiento del gueto contra los alemanes, el resto de Varsovia se rebeló. Las circunstancias eran totalmente diferentes.

A medida que el Ejército Rojo se acercaba a la ciudad, tras el éxito arrollador de la operación Bagratión, los líderes polacos se sentían en el deber de reivindicar su papel en el futuro del país antes de caer bajo el dominio soviético.

Pobremente armados, cóctel molotov en mano, la resistencia polaca se levantó a las cinco de la mañana del 1 de agosto de 1944.  

La mayor parte de Varsovia estaba en manos polacas por primera vez en mucho tiempo.

Al principio, Hitler quería sacar a las tropas alemanas, rodear la ciudad y bombardearla hasta convertirla en polvo. Pero era militarmente inviable.

En su lugar, Hitler y Himmler emitieron la Orden para Varsovia el 1 de agosto: «Todos los ciudadanos de Varsovia deben morir, incluyendo hombres, mujeres y niños. Varsovia debe ser arrasada, convertirse en un ejemplo aterrador para el resto de Europa». 

Lo que sucedió a continuación supuso la destrucción sistemática de toda una ciudad.

Aplastar el levantamiento de Varsovia tenía un valor ínfimo en términos militares. Pero Hitler había emprendido una cruzada mesiánica para arrasar la metrópolis a cualquier precio. Su mejor equipamiento fue retirado del frente y se envió a la ciudad para perpetrar una carnicería.

La reconquista y destrucción de Varsovia se encomendó al Obergruppenführer de las SS Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, un hombre que había supervisado el asesinato en masa de judíos durante la operación Barbarroja y acciones de genocidio contra partisanos. Himmler lo envió al conjunto de las unidades de las SS más sanguinarias y temidas de todo el Reich. Entre ellas estaba la tropa comandada por Oscar Dirlewanger, constituida por prisioneros liberados de cárceles alemanas, soldados considerados demasiado trastornados para el ejército regular, desertores del Ejército Rojo, azeríes y combatientes musulmanes del Cáucaso. La Brigada Dirlewanger se había desplazado desde Europa oriental saqueando, violando, torturando y asesinando, masacrando judíos, presuntos partisanos y mujeres y niños inocentes en números que revuelven el estómago.

Se cumplían las órdenes de Hitler y Himmler: primero fueron masacrados los ciudadanos de Varsovia, después se destruyeron los edificios. Sin embargo, las matanzas indiscriminadas pararon llegado un cierto momento. Los líderes nazis decidieron que querían que todos los habitantes trabajasen como esclavos. 

La Brigada Dirlewanger y el RONA se marcharon. En su lugar llegaron algunos de los equipamientos militares más destructivos que se hayan desplegado en las calles de una ciudad. Las calles del casco antiguo de Varsovia eran demasiado estrechas para los tanques normales.

Miles de polacos se escondían allí, en una fortaleza aparentemente inexpugnable de edificios y callejuelas. A una orden de Hitler, un mortífero arsenal de armamento se trajo desde lugares lejanos para ayudar en la destrucción de la ciudad. Aplastar el levantamiento de Varsovia tenía un valor ínfimo en términos militares. Pero Hitler había emprendido una cruzada mesiánica para arrasar la metrópolis a cualquier precio. Su mejor equipamiento fue retirado del frente y se envió a la ciudad para perpetrar una carnicería.

El arma más aterradora era el lanzacohetes Nebelwerfer de seis cilindros, capaz de disparar sin parar conjuntos de bombas incendiarias.

Los polacos las llamaban krowy, «vacas», ya que sonaban como un rebano mugiendo agónicamente. Todo esto, todo el poder de la tecnología de asedio nazi al completo, se usó para destruir Varsovia edificio a edificio.

Durante sesenta y tres días, los alemanes lucharon para recuperar la ciudad. Finalmente, el 2 de octubre, cuando estaba claro que el Ejército Rojo no iba a llegar al rescate, los polacos se rindieron.

Al principio del levantamiento, quedaban más de 700.000 personas viviendo en Varsovia. Las muertes de civiles en el levantamiento ascendieron a 150.000. De los supervivientes, 55.000 se transfirieron a Auschwitz y otros campos de concentración; 150.000 viajaron al Reich como esclavos; 17.000 fueron encarcelados como prisioneros de guerra y se deportó a 350.000 a otros puntos de Polonia. Según la novelista Zofia Nałkowska, Varsovia se convirtió en «una de las muchas ciudades muertas de la historia», y sus gentes «los nuevos sintecho».

«La ciudad debe desaparecer por completo de la faz de la tierra —ordenó Himmler—. Que no quede piedra sobre piedra. Todos los edificios deben ser demolidos hasta los cimientos». Todo lo que podía ser arrancado de la ciudad se cargó en más de cuarenta mil vagones de tren y se envió a Alemania. Se lo llevaron todo: desde tesoros y obras de arte hasta cuerdas, papel, velas y virutas de metal. Después, llegaron los equipos especialistas en demolición llamados Verbrennungskommandos («comandos de aniquilación»). Lo que quedó de la ciudad se destruyó metódicamente. 

En enero, el 93 por ciento de la ciudad ya no existía.




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