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Cuando las puertas se abrieron: a 32 años de la caída del muro de Berlín

La noche del 9 de noviembre de 1989 una decisión burocrática puso fin al siglo XX. Apenas pasadas las 23.30, los guardias fronterizos de Alemania Oriental ejecutaron una orden aprobada horas antes por el Politburó que autorizaba la «salida permanente» de los ciudadanos del país y permitieron que una multitud de berlineses orientales atravesaran la frontera de forma pacífica y se encaramaran, junto con otros tantos berlineses occidentales, a la muralla que los había dividido durante tres décadas. La Unión Soviética sobreviviría dos años, la Guerra Fría había terminado. En «Gorbachov» (Debate), la biografía del último líder soviético que con sus reformas políticas quiso transformar el comunismo para salvarlo y terminó precipitando su final, el ganador del Pulitzer William Taubman revela que aquel desenlace era el «sueño oculto» de Gorby: «despertar una mañana y enterarse de que el muro había caído por su propio peso».
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Apenas pasadas las 23.30, los guardias fronterizos de Alemania Oriental ejecutaron una orden aprobada horas antes por el Politbur\u00f3 que autorizaba la \u00absalida permanente\u00bb de los ciudadanos del pa\u00eds y permitieron que una multitud de berlineses orientales atravesaran la frontera de forma pac\u00edfica y se encaramaran, junto con otros tantos berlineses occidentales, a la muralla que los hab\u00eda dividido durante tres d\u00e9cadas. La Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica sobrevivir\u00eda dos a\u00f1os, la Guerra Fr\u00eda hab\u00eda terminado. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/7760-william-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">WILLIAM TAUBMAN<\/a><\/span><\/strong><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.upf.edu\/es\/web\/humanitats\/entry\/-\/-\/15900\/404\/miquel-berga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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largo plazo, la ca\u00edda del Muro de Berl\u00edn era algo inevitable. \u00bfC\u00f3mo pod\u00eda mantenerse para siempre divididos a los alemanes al estar estos tan apegados (a veces demasiado) a su patria com\u00fan? Pero la fecha y el modo en que caer\u00eda el muro no eran igual de previsibles. No lo hab\u00eda hecho, por ejemplo, cuando en el verano de 1987 el presidente Reagan dijo: \u00ab\u00a1Se\u00f1or Gorbachov, derribe este muro!\u00bb. Ni tampoco porque Gorbachov decidiera por su cuenta y riesgo ordenarles a los alemanes del Este que lo hicieran. La ca\u00edda real se asemej\u00f3 m\u00e1s bien al teatro del absurdo.<\/p><p>Presionado por manifestaciones multitudinarias a principios de noviembre de 1989, el Politbur\u00f3 de Alemania Oriental opt\u00f3 por instaurar normas nuevas y transitorias respecto a los viajes de sus ciudadanos, permitiendo la \u00absalida permanente\u00bb de la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana. La redacci\u00f3n de las nuevas regulaciones se le encarg\u00f3 al aparato burocr\u00e1tico, que autoriz\u00f3 a viajar solo a quienes tuvieran pasaporte y obtuvieran adem\u00e1s un visado, un proceso que tardar\u00eda al menos otras cuatro semanas. Las nuevas reglas ser\u00edan anunciadas a las cuatro de la madrugada del 10 de noviembre, hora a la cual los funcionarios encargados de revisar las solicitudes de un visado estar\u00edan preparados para afrontar la oleada inicial.<\/p><p>Algunos miembros del Politbur\u00f3 germano oriental (pero no todos) aprobaron el borrador durante un receso para fumar en mitad de una reuni\u00f3n que dur\u00f3 todo el d\u00eda, celebrada por el Comit\u00e9 Central el 9 de noviembre. Egon Krenz, que hab\u00eda reemplazado en octubre a Honecker como l\u00edder del partido, entreg\u00f3 el borrador a otro miembro del Politbur\u00f3, G\u00fcnter Schabowski, con instrucciones de mencionarlo en una conferencia ante la prensa extranjera a las seis de la tarde. 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\u00abEsta normativa sobre los viajes... no est\u00e1 a\u00fan en vigor, es solo un borrador. Hoy se ha tomado una decisi\u00f3n, hasta donde yo s\u00e9... que permite a todo ciudadano de la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana... eh... abandonar... eh... la RDA por cualquiera de los puntos fronterizos\u00bb.<\/p><p>Periodista: \u00ab\u00bfCu\u00e1ndo va a entrar eso en vigor?... \u00bfSin un pasaporte?\u00bb.<\/p><p>Schabowski, rasc\u00e1ndose la cabeza: \u00abVer\u00e9is, camaradas, solo me han informado hoy [se pone las gafas mientras sigue hablando] de que este anuncio hab\u00eda sido...eh... distribuido hoy m\u00e1s temprano\u00bb. Schabowski lee: \u00abLa salida permanente es posible a trav\u00e9s de todos los puntos fronterizos entre la RDA y la Rep\u00fablica Federal Alemana\u00bb.<\/p><p>Pregunta: \u00ab\u00bfCu\u00e1ndo entra eso en vigor?\u00bb.<\/p><p>Schabowski examina sus papeles: \u00abEso entra en vigor, de acuerdo con mis informaciones, ahora mismo, de inmediato\u00bb.<\/p><p>Pregunta: \u00ab\u00bfTambi\u00e9n se aplica a Berl\u00edn Oeste?\u00bb.<\/p><p>Schabowski se encoge de hombros, frunce el ce\u00f1o y examina sus papeles: \u00abAs\u00ed que... eh...\u00bb. Lee en voz alta: \u00abLa salida permanente puede tener lugar por todos los puntos fronterizos entre la RDA y la Rep\u00fablica Federal Alemana y Berl\u00edn Occidental, respectivamente\u00bb.<\/p><p>En la estancia estalla un revuelo. Preguntas de todos lados.<\/p><p>Schabowski: \u00abMe estoy expresando con cautela porque no estoy al d\u00eda sobre este asunto. La informaci\u00f3n me ha sido transmitida solo antes de comparecer ante ustedes\u00bb.<\/p><p>Varios periodistas abandonan a la carrera la estancia para dar cuenta de la asombrosa noticia.<\/p><p>Pregunta: \u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 va a pasar ahora con el Muro de Berl\u00edn?\u00bb.<\/p><p>Schabowski: \u00abSe me ha se\u00f1alado que son ya las 19.00 horas. Esa tiene que ser la \u00faltima pregunta. Gracias por su 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horas despu\u00e9s, sitiados por una multitud de berlineses orientales, los guardias fronterizos abrieron las puertas y permitieron que la muchedumbre se desbordara a trav\u00e9s de la frontera, donde aguardaban los alemanes occidentales, sumidos en un \u00e9xtasis colectivo. 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Para entonces, todo estaba muy claro\u00bb.<\/p><p>Pero lo que no hab\u00eda previsto, no menos que otros l\u00edderes de Este y de Occidente, era que el muro caer\u00eda tan pronto, redise\u00f1ando el mapa pol\u00edtico de Europa a una velocidad que dejaba sin 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las puertas se abrieron, aproximadamente a las 23.30, hora de Berl\u00edn (1.30 de la madrugada en Mosc\u00fa), del 9 de noviembre de 1989, Mija\u00edl Gorbachov estaba durmiendo.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"x72zi8d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Una vez ca\u00eddo el muro, Gorbachov jam\u00e1s convoc\u00f3 al Politbur\u00f3 (que decid\u00eda sobre asuntos no solo de la mayor relevancia, sino tambi\u00e9n de menor entidad) a una sesi\u00f3n especial al respecto, de las que se celebraron infinidad durante su mandato. S\u00ed que envi\u00f3, en cambio, sendos mensajes a Mitterrand, Thatcher y Bush que, al margen de alabar la \u00abcorrecta y visionaria decisi\u00f3n de Alemania Oriental\u00bb de abrir el muro, asombraron a algunos miembros de la administraci\u00f3n Bush porque suger\u00edan en su redacci\u00f3n \u00abcierto p\u00e1nico indisimulado\u00bb.<\/p><p>Su mensaje del 10 de noviembre a Kohl le advert\u00eda de \u00abuna situaci\u00f3n ca\u00f3tica\u00bb que pod\u00eda tener \u00abconsecuencias imprevisibles\u00bb, pero Gorbachov pareci\u00f3 sentirse m\u00e1s tranquilo al d\u00eda siguiente cuando Kohl le telefone\u00f3 para decirle que \u00abqueremos que la gente de la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana permanezca en su hogar\u00bb, que la mayor parte de los cientos de miles de personas que hab\u00edan entrado en Berl\u00edn Occidental eran \u00absolo visitantes\u00bb y que Alemania Occidental no quer\u00eda que hubiera \u00abuna desestabilizaci\u00f3n de la situaci\u00f3n en la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana\u00bb. Gorbachov le respondi\u00f3: \u00abMe tomo muy en serio lo que acaba usted de decirme en esta conversaci\u00f3n de hoy. Y espero que utilice usted su autoridad, su peso pol\u00edtico y su influencia para mantener a otros dentro de los l\u00edmites apropiados [...] a los requisitos de nuestra \u00e9poca\u00bb.<\/p><p>El principal \u00abrequisito de nuestra \u00e9poca\u00bb era, desde la perspectiva de Gorbachov, que Alemania Oriental continuara siendo un Estado socialista viable durante un largo periodo, de modo que la eventual reunificaci\u00f3n del pa\u00eds encajara en la casa com\u00fan europea que \u00e9l tanto hab\u00eda propiciado. Pero el canciller Kohl no utiliz\u00f3 \u00absu autoridad, su peso pol\u00edtico y su influencia\u00bb de la forma en que quer\u00eda Gorbachov; apenas diecisiete d\u00edas despu\u00e9s de esta conversaci\u00f3n, inici\u00f3 un proceso que termin\u00f3 el siguiente oto\u00f1o con la degluci\u00f3n de la RDA por parte de Alemania Occidental. Mucho antes de eso, todos los dem\u00e1s reg\u00edmenes comunistas de Europa del Este se hab\u00edan ya desmoronado.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wgff7dw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La perspectiva de Gorbachov\u00a0era que Alemania Oriental continuara siendo un Estado socialista viable durante un largo periodo, de modo que la eventual reunificaci\u00f3n del pa\u00eds encajara en la casa com\u00fan europea que \u00e9l tanto hab\u00eda propiciado.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1m77oa1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En el futuro inmediato, las dos Europas seguir\u00edan separadas, cada una con distintos sistemas pol\u00edticos y econ\u00f3micos, y su propio pacto de seguridad. Sin embargo, con el paso del tiempo, sus respectivas sociedades comenzar\u00edan a parecerse entre s\u00ed. La OTAN y el Pacto de Varsovia tendr\u00edan un car\u00e1cter m\u00e1s pol\u00edtico que militar, y acabar\u00edan siendo reemplazados por un nuevo sistema de seguridad colectiva basado en la ampliaci\u00f3n continental de la Conferencia sobre la Seguridad y la Cooperaci\u00f3n en Europa (CSCE).<\/p><p>Este era el contexto en que Gorbachov se imaginaba a las dos Alemanias convergiendo gradualmente, formando una confederaci\u00f3n y finalmente unific\u00e1ndose. Eso era lo que quer\u00eda decir cuando les indicaba a sus interlocutores germanos que no se opon\u00eda por principio a la reunificaci\u00f3n alemana, pero que la historia habr\u00eda de decidir cu\u00e1ndo y c\u00f3mo tendr\u00eda lugar.<\/p><p>Por desgracia para \u00e9l, la historia lo decidi\u00f3 mucho m\u00e1s r\u00e1pido de lo que esperaba, aunque al concluir 1989 le resultaba a\u00fan posible (apenas posible) creer que el tiempo jugaba a su favor. Fue preciso todo su inagotable optimismo para conservar la esperanza \u2014un optimismo reforzado por sus propias necesidades pol\u00edticas y psicol\u00f3gicas, habida cuenta de sus dificultades de \u00edndole interna\u2014 y sentirse no solo reconfortado o esperanzado en la esfera internacional, sino encontrar all\u00ed la persistente confirmaci\u00f3n de que estaba poniendo fin a la Guerra Fr\u00eda y trayendo la paz al mundo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k8gb9zm\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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ca\u00edda del Muro en Berl\u00edn lo cambi\u00f3 a la postre casi todo. Hasta entonces, Gorbachov hab\u00eda sido el impulsor primordial del cambio; hab\u00eda puesto en marcha reformas en su pa\u00eds, le hab\u00eda complacido ver c\u00f3mo estas se extend\u00edan a Europa oriental y hab\u00eda presionado a los l\u00edderes occidentales en pos de un nuevo orden mundial. Despu\u00e9s, tuvo que reaccionar ante los cambios iniciados por otros; por las masas populares en la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana, por pol\u00edticos de Europa del Este que iban m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del comunismo, y por l\u00edderes de Europa occidental y Estados Unidos que ignoraban o desafiaban la visi\u00f3n del mandatario sovi\u00e9tico.<\/p><p>Pero tales cambios no ocurrieron de inmediato. Alemania Oriental no se transform\u00f3 de la noche a la ma\u00f1ana. Cerca de nueve millones de alemanes del Este, la mayor\u00eda de la poblaci\u00f3n, visitaron el sector occidental durante la primera semana tras la apertura del muro, pero casi todos ellos volvieron a casa. Las manifestaciones callejeras continuaron, algunas de ellas a favor de la reunificaci\u00f3n alemana en lugar de un socialismo reformado, con los manifestantes coreando consignas como \u00abSomos un solo pueblo\u00bb en vez de \u00abNosotros somos el pueblo\u00bb. Pero la mayor parte de los germanoorientales a\u00fan pensaban que la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana deb\u00eda seguir, y seguir\u00eda siendo, socialista, aut\u00f3noma y soberana.<\/p><p>Incluso antes de que cayera, el Muro de Berl\u00edn hab\u00eda empezado a agrietarse cuando se autoriz\u00f3 a los germanoorientales a abandonar el pa\u00eds a trav\u00e9s de Hungr\u00eda y Checoslovaquia; decenas de miles acamparon ese verano cerca de la frontera austroh\u00fangara \u2014donde las alambradas electrificadas hab\u00edan sido eliminadas\u2014 hasta que se les permitiera irse, y varios miles m\u00e1s estuvieron pululando en torno a la embajada alemana en Praga hasta ser autorizados a escapar a trav\u00e9s de Alemania Oriental hacia Occidente en trenes sellados. Ahora que los germanoorientales pod\u00edan ir y venir libremente, eso pod\u00eda contribuir incluso a estabilizar a la Rep\u00fablica Democr\u00e1tica Alemana bajo sus nuevos l\u00edderes reformadores.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ri5z9d1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Los cambios no ocurrieron de inmediato. Alemania Oriental no se transform\u00f3 de la noche a la ma\u00f1ana. 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M\u00e1s adelante, en el mes de diciembre, le dijo a Mitterrand que si Alemania se reunificaba \u00abhabr\u00e1 un anuncio de apenas dos l\u00edneas para indicar que un mariscal del ej\u00e9rcito ha asumido mi cargo\u00bb. Pero, mientras tanto, en lugar de revelar sus temores, Gorbachov eligi\u00f3 \u00abexhibir una actitud sosegada\u00bb y mostrar que \u00aba\u00fan ten\u00eda el control total de los acontecimientos\u00bb. \u00abTen\u00eda que hacerles creer a todos que nada extraordinario hab\u00eda ocurrido\u00bb, prosigue Grachov. De hecho, \u00aben el Kremlin reinaba la confusi\u00f3n\u00bb y \u00abno se contaba con ninguna estrategia para lidiar con eventos que no eran sino consecuencia l\u00f3gica de la pol\u00edtica del propio Gorbachov\u00bb.<\/p><p><\/p><p><strong><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sonriente y nuclear: Corea del Norte, la tierra del \u00faltimo l\u00edder comunista<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">M\u00f3nica Bernab\u00e9 y Afganist\u00e1n a 20 a\u00f1os del 11-S: en el cementerio de los imperios<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-el-ocaso-de-la-democracia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Anne Applebaum y la crisis de Occidente: \u00abHemos tratado a la democracia como si fuera agua del grifo\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rjije8p\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Los berlineses celebraron el fin de 1989 picando al Muro de Berlín que dividió la ciudad durante 30 años. Crédito: Getty Images.

A largo plazo, la caída del Muro de Berlín era algo inevitable. ¿Cómo podía mantenerse para siempre divididos a los alemanes al estar estos tan apegados (a veces demasiado) a su patria común? Pero la fecha y el modo en que caería el muro no eran igual de previsibles. No lo había hecho, por ejemplo, cuando en el verano de 1987 el presidente Reagan dijo: «¡Señor Gorbachov, derribe este muro!». Ni tampoco porque Gorbachov decidiera por su cuenta y riesgo ordenarles a los alemanes del Este que lo hicieran. La caída real se asemejó más bien al teatro del absurdo.

Presionado por manifestaciones multitudinarias a principios de noviembre de 1989, el Politburó de Alemania Oriental optó por instaurar normas nuevas y transitorias respecto a los viajes de sus ciudadanos, permitiendo la «salida permanente» de la República Democrática Alemana. La redacción de las nuevas regulaciones se le encargó al aparato burocrático, que autorizó a viajar solo a quienes tuvieran pasaporte y obtuvieran además un visado, un proceso que tardaría al menos otras cuatro semanas. Las nuevas reglas serían anunciadas a las cuatro de la madrugada del 10 de noviembre, hora a la cual los funcionarios encargados de revisar las solicitudes de un visado estarían preparados para afrontar la oleada inicial.

Algunos miembros del Politburó germano oriental (pero no todos) aprobaron el borrador durante un receso para fumar en mitad de una reunión que duró todo el día, celebrada por el Comité Central el 9 de noviembre. Egon Krenz, que había reemplazado en octubre a Honecker como líder del partido, entregó el borrador a otro miembro del Politburó, Günter Schabowski, con instrucciones de mencionarlo en una conferencia ante la prensa extranjera a las seis de la tarde. Para entonces Schabowski no había leído siquiera el documento, así que evitó mencionarlo hasta las 18.53, cuando la pregunta de un periodista precipitó el siguiente diálogo:

Schabowski: «Esta normativa sobre los viajes... no está aún en vigor, es solo un borrador. Hoy se ha tomado una decisión, hasta donde yo sé... que permite a todo ciudadano de la República Democrática Alemana... eh... abandonar... eh... la RDA por cualquiera de los puntos fronterizos».

Periodista: «¿Cuándo va a entrar eso en vigor?... ¿Sin un pasaporte?».

Schabowski, rascándose la cabeza: «Veréis, camaradas, solo me han informado hoy [se pone las gafas mientras sigue hablando] de que este anuncio había sido...eh... distribuido hoy más temprano». Schabowski lee: «La salida permanente es posible a través de todos los puntos fronterizos entre la RDA y la República Federal Alemana».

Pregunta: «¿Cuándo entra eso en vigor?».

Schabowski examina sus papeles: «Eso entra en vigor, de acuerdo con mis informaciones, ahora mismo, de inmediato».

Pregunta: «¿También se aplica a Berlín Oeste?».

Schabowski se encoge de hombros, frunce el ceño y examina sus papeles: «Así que... eh...». Lee en voz alta: «La salida permanente puede tener lugar por todos los puntos fronterizos entre la RDA y la República Federal Alemana y Berlín Occidental, respectivamente».

En la estancia estalla un revuelo. Preguntas de todos lados.

Schabowski: «Me estoy expresando con cautela porque no estoy al día sobre este asunto. La información me ha sido transmitida solo antes de comparecer ante ustedes».

Varios periodistas abandonan a la carrera la estancia para dar cuenta de la asombrosa noticia.

Pregunta: «¿Qué va a pasar ahora con el Muro de Berlín?».

Schabowski: «Se me ha señalado que son ya las 19.00 horas. Esa tiene que ser la última pregunta. Gracias por su comprensión».

El último líder

Varias horas después, sitiados por una multitud de berlineses orientales, los guardias fronterizos abrieron las puertas y permitieron que la muchedumbre se desbordara a través de la frontera, donde aguardaban los alemanes occidentales, sumidos en un éxtasis colectivo. Mucha gente de ambos lados se encaramó luego al muro para celebrar el acontecimiento e inició su demolición con picos.

Cuando las puertas se abrieron, aproximadamente a las 23.30, hora de Berlín (1.30 de la madrugada en Moscú), del 9 de noviembre de 1989, Mijaíl Gorbachov estaba durmiendo. Considerando los confusos informes que llegaban desde Berlín, sus asesores no lo despertaron.

Según Grachov, su asesor y posterior biógrafo, el «sueño oculto» de Gorbachov había sido siempre «despertar una mañana y enterarse de que el muro había caído por su propio peso» en lugar de tener que ordenarlo, y «eso fue, en esencia, lo que sucedió». Cuando se le comunicó a la mañana siguiente que los accesos a Berlín Occidental habían sido abiertos, solo dijo: «Han hecho lo correcto».

Al considerarlo en retrospectiva en 2012, señaló: «No fue inesperado. Para entonces, todo estaba muy claro».

Pero lo que no había previsto, no menos que otros líderes de Este y de Occidente, era que el muro caería tan pronto, rediseñando el mapa político de Europa a una velocidad que dejaba sin aliento.

Cuando las puertas se abrieron, aproximadamente a las 23.30, hora de Berlín (1.30 de la madrugada en Moscú), del 9 de noviembre de 1989, Mijaíl Gorbachov estaba durmiendo. 

Una vez caído el muro, Gorbachov jamás convocó al Politburó (que decidía sobre asuntos no solo de la mayor relevancia, sino también de menor entidad) a una sesión especial al respecto, de las que se celebraron infinidad durante su mandato. Sí que envió, en cambio, sendos mensajes a Mitterrand, Thatcher y Bush que, al margen de alabar la «correcta y visionaria decisión de Alemania Oriental» de abrir el muro, asombraron a algunos miembros de la administración Bush porque sugerían en su redacción «cierto pánico indisimulado».

Su mensaje del 10 de noviembre a Kohl le advertía de «una situación caótica» que podía tener «consecuencias imprevisibles», pero Gorbachov pareció sentirse más tranquilo al día siguiente cuando Kohl le telefoneó para decirle que «queremos que la gente de la República Democrática Alemana permanezca en su hogar», que la mayor parte de los cientos de miles de personas que habían entrado en Berlín Occidental eran «solo visitantes» y que Alemania Occidental no quería que hubiera «una desestabilización de la situación en la República Democrática Alemana». Gorbachov le respondió: «Me tomo muy en serio lo que acaba usted de decirme en esta conversación de hoy. Y espero que utilice usted su autoridad, su peso político y su influencia para mantener a otros dentro de los límites apropiados [...] a los requisitos de nuestra época».

El principal «requisito de nuestra época» era, desde la perspectiva de Gorbachov, que Alemania Oriental continuara siendo un Estado socialista viable durante un largo periodo, de modo que la eventual reunificación del país encajara en la casa común europea que él tanto había propiciado. Pero el canciller Kohl no utilizó «su autoridad, su peso político y su influencia» de la forma en que quería Gorbachov; apenas diecisiete días después de esta conversación, inició un proceso que terminó el siguiente otoño con la deglución de la RDA por parte de Alemania Occidental. Mucho antes de eso, todos los demás regímenes comunistas de Europa del Este se habían ya desmoronado.

La perspectiva de Gorbachov era que Alemania Oriental continuara siendo un Estado socialista viable durante un largo periodo, de modo que la eventual reunificación del país encajara en la casa común europea que él tanto había propiciado. 

En el futuro inmediato, las dos Europas seguirían separadas, cada una con distintos sistemas políticos y económicos, y su propio pacto de seguridad. Sin embargo, con el paso del tiempo, sus respectivas sociedades comenzarían a parecerse entre sí. La OTAN y el Pacto de Varsovia tendrían un carácter más político que militar, y acabarían siendo reemplazados por un nuevo sistema de seguridad colectiva basado en la ampliación continental de la Conferencia sobre la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa (CSCE).

Este era el contexto en que Gorbachov se imaginaba a las dos Alemanias convergiendo gradualmente, formando una confederación y finalmente unificándose. Eso era lo que quería decir cuando les indicaba a sus interlocutores germanos que no se oponía por principio a la reunificación alemana, pero que la historia habría de decidir cuándo y cómo tendría lugar.

Por desgracia para él, la historia lo decidió mucho más rápido de lo que esperaba, aunque al concluir 1989 le resultaba aún posible (apenas posible) creer que el tiempo jugaba a su favor. Fue preciso todo su inagotable optimismo para conservar la esperanza —un optimismo reforzado por sus propias necesidades políticas y psicológicas, habida cuenta de sus dificultades de índole interna— y sentirse no solo reconfortado o esperanzado en la esfera internacional, sino encontrar allí la persistente confirmación de que estaba poniendo fin a la Guerra Fría y trayendo la paz al mundo.

Berlín era una fiesta a fines de 1989, el año que terminó con el muro erigido frente a la puerta de Brandenburgo, Crédito: Getty Images.

La caída del Muro en Berlín lo cambió a la postre casi todo. Hasta entonces, Gorbachov había sido el impulsor primordial del cambio; había puesto en marcha reformas en su país, le había complacido ver cómo estas se extendían a Europa oriental y había presionado a los líderes occidentales en pos de un nuevo orden mundial. Después, tuvo que reaccionar ante los cambios iniciados por otros; por las masas populares en la República Democrática Alemana, por políticos de Europa del Este que iban más allá del comunismo, y por líderes de Europa occidental y Estados Unidos que ignoraban o desafiaban la visión del mandatario soviético.

Pero tales cambios no ocurrieron de inmediato. Alemania Oriental no se transformó de la noche a la mañana. Cerca de nueve millones de alemanes del Este, la mayoría de la población, visitaron el sector occidental durante la primera semana tras la apertura del muro, pero casi todos ellos volvieron a casa. Las manifestaciones callejeras continuaron, algunas de ellas a favor de la reunificación alemana en lugar de un socialismo reformado, con los manifestantes coreando consignas como «Somos un solo pueblo» en vez de «Nosotros somos el pueblo». Pero la mayor parte de los germanoorientales aún pensaban que la República Democrática Alemana debía seguir, y seguiría siendo, socialista, autónoma y soberana.

Incluso antes de que cayera, el Muro de Berlín había empezado a agrietarse cuando se autorizó a los germanoorientales a abandonar el país a través de Hungría y Checoslovaquia; decenas de miles acamparon ese verano cerca de la frontera austrohúngara —donde las alambradas electrificadas habían sido eliminadas— hasta que se les permitiera irse, y varios miles más estuvieron pululando en torno a la embajada alemana en Praga hasta ser autorizados a escapar a través de Alemania Oriental hacia Occidente en trenes sellados. Ahora que los germanoorientales podían ir y venir libremente, eso podía contribuir incluso a estabilizar a la República Democrática Alemana bajo sus nuevos líderes reformadores.

Los cambios no ocurrieron de inmediato. Alemania Oriental no se transformó de la noche a la mañana. La mayor parte de los germanoorientales aún pensaban que la República Democrática Alemana debía seguir, y seguiría siendo, socialista, autónoma y soberana.

Poco antes de que cayera el muro, Gorbachov advirtió a Viacheslav Kochemasov, su embajador en Alemania del Este: «Nuestro pueblo no nos perdonará jamás si perdemos la República Democrática Alemana». Más adelante, en el mes de diciembre, le dijo a Mitterrand que si Alemania se reunificaba «habrá un anuncio de apenas dos líneas para indicar que un mariscal del ejército ha asumido mi cargo». Pero, mientras tanto, en lugar de revelar sus temores, Gorbachov eligió «exhibir una actitud sosegada» y mostrar que «aún tenía el control total de los acontecimientos». «Tenía que hacerles creer a todos que nada extraordinario había ocurrido», prosigue Grachov. De hecho, «en el Kremlin reinaba la confusión» y «no se contaba con ninguna estrategia para lidiar con eventos que no eran sino consecuencia lógica de la política del propio Gorbachov».


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