Literatura

La campaña de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura continúa

Tres amigos viven y recorren América latina durante los turbulentos años de las guerras por la independencia. Pero no solo atraviesan el continente, también recorren la distancia entre esos ideales de emancipación y la vida de las personas que habitan el continente y luchan por su libertad. El rescate de «La campaña», novela de Carlos Fuentes, treinta años después de su publicación, es —además de una aventura deslumbrante— una parábola sobre el desafío que todavía sacude a Latinoamérica.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/8855-agustina-bazterrica\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">AGUSTINA BAZTERRICA<br \/><br \/><br 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abrir las p\u00e1ginas de<em> La campa\u00f1a<\/em>, del escritor mexicano <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/108509-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Carlos Fuentes<\/span><\/a>, ingresamos <strong>en una zona donde tiempo y espacio se fragmentan<\/strong>, se multiplican creando un umbral de incertidumbres y revelaciones. Lo primero que escuchamos es el pulso del tiempo, uno de los emblemas e interrogantes de la novela. Casi al inicio leemos: \u00ab<strong>Suenan los relojes de las plazas en estas jornadas de mayo y los tres amigos confesamos que nuestra m\u00e1xima atracci\u00f3n son los relojes, admirarlos, coleccionarlos, y sentirnos por ello due\u00f1os del tiempo, o por lo menos del misterio del tiempo<\/strong>\u00bb. Una de las inc\u00f3gnitas que aborda Fuentes es la de la simultaneidad de tiempos que coexisten. Para dos de los amigos que permanecen en Buenos Aires, el tiempo se mueve con una medida propia a trav\u00e9s de los relojes que ponen en hora y arreglan. Viven un tiempo cristalizado, en el cual trazan mapas con \u00ablos vaivenes imaginarios de ej\u00e9rcitos inexistentes\u00bb, con \u00abla presencia de la ausencia\u00bb que es la definici\u00f3n perfecta de la historia. Para el tercer amigo, Baltasar Bustos, el tiempo estar\u00e1 determinado por el viaje, por las coordenadas espaciales que recorre en el mundo de la aventura, la inconclusi\u00f3n, lo impredecible, los excesos y la acci\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><em>La campa\u00f1a<\/em>, <strong>que refiere a la epopeya libertadora e independentista de la Am\u00e9rica colonial<\/strong>, se inicia en Buenos Aires, a\u00fan sede del virreinato del R\u00edo de la Plata, en 1810. Fuentes nos introduce en la aventura inaugural, la amistad de tres argentinos basada en los principios revolucionarios de la independencia americana: \u00abLas ideas son la seducci\u00f3n que compartimos los tres\u00bb. Como hijos del pensamiento ilustrado franc\u00e9s, cada uno admira en particular a un ide\u00f3logo: Xavier Dorrego, de car\u00e1cter volteriano, se encarga de conseguir los libros prohibidos y se preocupa especialmente por el tiempo y por la incapacidad de aprehenderlo; Manuel Varela, el impresor, que es \u00abla m\u00e1scara sonriente de Diderot\u00bb, asume la tarea de narrar la historia, y Baltasar Bustos, que se identifica con Rousseau, \u00abcree que la pasi\u00f3n nos lleva a recuperar la verdad natural\u00bb y es a trav\u00e9s de la revoluci\u00f3n que va a intentar reconectarse con ese estado de naturaleza y sellar su compromiso incondicional a la causa revolucionaria. El 24 de mayo de 1810, d\u00eda anterior a aquel en que los porte\u00f1os proclamar\u00e1n su primera Junta de Gobierno, Baltasar Bustos decide cometer un acto que sintetice el concepto de igualdad que se encuentra en la base de los ideales revolucionarios: <strong>cambiar a un ni\u00f1o blanco, que duerme en su cuna pudiente, por un ni\u00f1o negro.<\/strong> Quiere lograr lo impensado, destinar a un ni\u00f1o rodeado de privilegios al hambre,\u00a0 la pobreza y la discriminaci\u00f3n. Pero se desata un incendio en el palacio y el ni\u00f1o negro muere carbonizado. Los esfuerzos de los tres amigos por localizar el paradero del ni\u00f1o blanco, que ha sido entregado a una esclava negra, son in\u00fatiles y Baltasar decide emprender un viaje para lograr el perd\u00f3n de la madre del ni\u00f1o blanco, Ofelia Salamanca, la marquesa de Cabra, esposa del presidente de la Audiencia del Virreinato del R\u00edo de la Plata, de la cual se ha enamorado.<\/p><p>En su larga marcha Baltasar visita la casa paterna, donde el paisaje de la llanura pampeana le da la impresi\u00f3n de no avanzar, de adentrarse en un espacio y tiempos solidificados. Y es que el padre, estoico patriarca, encarna a los caudillos territoriales que, junto con su hija Sabina, se encapsulan en la tradici\u00f3n y los privilegios de clase avalados por la Corona y redimidos por la Iglesia. Ellos quisieran vivir en un tiempo detenido, pero el p\u00e9treo feudalismo se resquebraja cuando el gobierno central promulga la ley contra el nomadismo que obliga a los gauchos a emplearse en las estancias, exigi\u00e9ndoles certificados de empleo. <strong>El padre y los gauchos no logran entender esta ley que coarta su libertad<\/strong> y Baltasar no\u00a0consigue comprender ese orden se\u00f1orial. Los gauchos lo llenan de repulsi\u00f3n, los ve como \u00abnegaciones ambulantes de la vida sedentaria que \u00e9l identificaba como la civilizaci\u00f3n\u00bb. Pero ese orbe, que el padre conduce con autoridad y omnipresencia, le revela a Baltasar que hay otras cargas de sentido en la palabra \u00ablibertad\u00bb que \u00e9l no solo no conoce, sino que, sobre todo, no se incluyen en su proyecto revolucionario. Se sorprende porque el nuevo orden trae una definici\u00f3n de libertad basada en el ideario de la Ilustraci\u00f3n, pero el antiguo orden tambi\u00e9n tiene una definici\u00f3n de libertad, y el verdadero desaf\u00edo revolucionario se plantea en la identificaci\u00f3n de c\u00f3mo el devenir temporal convive con estas dos concepciones. Los caballos salvajes y los perros cimarrones, evocados a lo largo de la novela, encarnan dos de las m\u00faltiples caras de la libertad. Los primeros son admirados y los segundos, apaleados, perseguidos. <strong>La libertad no es suficiente sin la igualdad. 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h\u00e9roe contin\u00faa su viaje para luchar en el Ej\u00e9rcito del Norte en el Alto Per\u00fa; transportarse al mundo m\u00e1gico de las culturas ind\u00edgenas, milenarias, que viven en el tiempo sin tiempo de los mitos y en los espacios solo transitados en alucinaciones; visitar la corte virreinal de Lima; viajar a Santiago de Chile como esp\u00eda del ej\u00e9rcito revolucionario de Jos\u00e9 de San Mart\u00edn; cruzar los Andes con el Libertador argentino, y, continuando con la b\u00fasqueda de Ofelia, llegar a Panam\u00e1 para, finalmente, pisar las costas de Veracruz, donde el cura revolucionario, Anastasio Quintana, ser\u00e1 el depositario de sus confesiones. Junto a este sacerdote, que lucha en favor de una verdadera revoluci\u00f3n social y no de un cambio cosm\u00e9tico en las leyes, <strong>Baltasar puede verbalizar sus culpas<\/strong> y sopesar la profunda disyunci\u00f3n entre la ret\u00f3rica y los libros, por un lado, y las creencias y costumbres de la gran mayor\u00eda de los habitantes del continente, por el otro. <strong>Es reveladora la escena en la cual, al llegar a un peque\u00f1o pueblo del Alto Per\u00fa, Baltasar decide leer un decreto en el que declara la libertad de los ind\u00edgenas.<\/strong> Pero los ind\u00edgenas no saben hablar espa\u00f1ol y, por lo tanto, no entienden ni una palabra pronunciada por el joven argentino.\u00a0<\/p><p>En las postrimer\u00edas de este trayecto, Baltasar encuentra a Ofelia Salamanca, que, encarnando el ideal ut\u00f3pico, siempre estuvo en otra parte, inalcanzable, siempre entrevista, desintegrada, perpetuamente imaginada, viviendo en un espacio y tiempo paralelos. Es significativo que la noche del intercambio de beb\u00e9s, lo primero y lo \u00fanico que vio Bustos fue la espalda de Ofelia y que en su largo peregrinaje la imagen nunca llegue a completarse. 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Pero los ind\u00edgenas no saben hablar espa\u00f1ol y, por lo tanto, no entienden ni una palabra pronunciada por el joven argentino.\u00bb\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"537crf2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Para Baltasar Bustos, al inicio de su viaje, <strong>la din\u00e1mica revolucionaria se resume a un mundo que muere<\/strong> (el orden feudal colonial) y un mundo que nace (el mundo de la justicia y la libertad). Baltasar busca un principio unificador v\u00e1lido para la movilizaci\u00f3n revolucionaria. En su recorrido, ir\u00e1 comprobando c\u00f3mo la din\u00e1mica que define uno y otro polo de la dial\u00e9ctica temporal y espacial no es univalente, sino que est\u00e1 cargada de ambig\u00fcedades, que no hay certezas, que los significados muchas veces son indescifrables. A lo largo de la exploraci\u00f3n del mundo, va descubriendo que lo existente es de una diversidad inconmensurable, y que hay una fisura tr\u00e1gica entre sus ideales y la vida de las personas concretas. Sus senderos comprensivos se bifurcan y va accediendo a las profundidades de su ceguera, va abriendo espacio a otras concepciones del proceso liberador, insospechadas al inicio del recorrido. Hay un episodio en el Dorado, por ejemplo, donde, acompa\u00f1ado del viejo mestizo Sim\u00f3n Rodr\u00edguez, penetra \u00aben una tierra que ha sido sojuzgada por las leyes de la pobreza y la esclavitud. Pero tambi\u00e9n es una tierra liberada por la magia y el sue\u00f1o\u00bb y aqu\u00ed se enfrenta con la evidencia de todo lo que no ha conocido ni visto, y comprueba la inmensa lejan\u00eda que hay entre los ideales te\u00f3ricos y el mundo que supuestamente quiere independizar. Es en los dos sitios simb\u00f3licos en los que ingresa Baltasar \u2014el Dorado y el burdel de Arlequ\u00edn en Maracaibo\u2014\u00a0donde se confunde y se pierde en medio de espacios y tiempos multiplicados. Su experiencia a lo largo de un continente en armas es, fundamentalmente, un deambular de reconocimiento y asombro en medio de un juego de disfraces y espejos deformantes. <strong>En ellos Baltasar ve el pasado ind\u00edgena, el pasado espa\u00f1ol, el vivir en la contradicci\u00f3n de la diversidad, el saber que la historia se va haciendo con los retazos incompletos de tiempos simult\u00e1neos y multiplicados, que desaf\u00edan la rigidez de los 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campa\u00f1a<\/em>, donde acontecen numerosos viajes \u2014tanto geogr\u00e1ficos (por esa tierra ut\u00f3pica y desagarrada) como internos, er\u00f3ticos, revolucionarios, intelectuales, hist\u00f3ricos, de identidad\u2014 y donde los personajes viven en un eterno desplazamiento, nos ayuda a imaginar posibilidades. En el pr\u00f3logo del libro <em>Los indios de M\u00e9xico<\/em> (1967) de Fernando Ben\u00edtez, afirma Carlos Fuentes: \u00ab\u00bfC\u00f3mo viajar\u00e1s por el mundo sin perder tu propia alma, sino, m\u00e1s bien, encontr\u00e1ndote a ti mismo al encuentro con el mundo, d\u00e1ndote cuenta de que careces de identidad sin el mundo pero que, acaso, el mundo carezca de identidad sin ti?\u00bb.<strong> La aventura que propone <em>La campa\u00f1a<\/em> es una reflexi\u00f3n sobre historia, utop\u00eda, contemporaneidad, sobre nuestro car\u00e1cter pluricultural latinoamericano y sobre las fisuras desafiantes que nos atraviesan y que nos amalgaman<\/strong>. No es casual que Baltasar Bustos sea porte\u00f1o. El hecho de que yo tambi\u00e9n lo sea me obliga a recordar que nos definen como aquellos cuyos antepasados no eran aztecas ni incas ni mayas, sino los \u00abque bajaron de los barcos\u00bb. Aquellos con una breve historia, con un tiempo m\u00ednimo transitado, al iniciar la Independencia. Aquellos que pertenecen a un pa\u00eds que se \u00abimaginaba europeo, racional, civilizado\u00bb, pero que el correr de la historia ha demostrado que somos, hemos sido y seremos radicalmente latinoamericanos. La novela de Fuentes nos coloca frente a un espejo y nos interpela para que nos alejemos de los espejismos, explora la pregunta sobre qu\u00e9 hace una revoluci\u00f3n con el pasado que intenta anular y reemplazar, qu\u00e9 hace con esas identidades plurales e inestables, criticadas, invisibilizadas, excluidas, qu\u00e9 hacemos ahora, hoy, con el tiempo que nos es concedido. Ocurre que lo seguimos preguntando porque, como dice Hannah Arendt, la fragilidad de la acci\u00f3n humana, su car\u00e1cter impredecible y contingente, supone que cada nuevo acto de fundaci\u00f3n surja sin garantizar el \u00e9xito; \u00abque la m\u00e1s libre de las acciones pol\u00edticas puede acabar trayendo el bien, pero tambi\u00e9n el mal\u00bb. <strong>Eso no implica dejar de intentarlo.<\/strong><\/p><p>El final literario de la obra es po\u00e9tico y tambi\u00e9n pol\u00edtico. Fuentes nos invita a explorarlo. Junto al dilema de las transformaciones, junto al yo colectivo y su relato antagonista, junto a la convivencia de tiempos y espacios dis\u00edmiles, en esa zona liminal, surge la responsabilidad del uno frente al otro y se construye ese rompecabezas identitario, esa comunidad fecunda dispuesta a continuar.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><ul><li><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/articulos\/luis-jorge-boone-y-la-gran-pregunta-de-la-literatura-mexicana-del-siglo-xxi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Luis Jorge Boone y la gran pregunta de la literatura mexicana del siglo XXI<\/span><\/a><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/entrevistas\/fernanda-melchor-y-su-viaje-al-paradais-escribir-de-lo-que-a-una-le-interesa-es-suficientemente-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fernanda Melchor y su viaje al 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15 minutos

Carlos Fuentes. Crédito: Getty Images.

Al abrir las páginas de La campaña, del escritor mexicano Carlos Fuentes, ingresamos en una zona donde tiempo y espacio se fragmentan, se multiplican creando un umbral de incertidumbres y revelaciones. Lo primero que escuchamos es el pulso del tiempo, uno de los emblemas e interrogantes de la novela. Casi al inicio leemos: «Suenan los relojes de las plazas en estas jornadas de mayo y los tres amigos confesamos que nuestra máxima atracción son los relojes, admirarlos, coleccionarlos, y sentirnos por ello dueños del tiempo, o por lo menos del misterio del tiempo». Una de las incógnitas que aborda Fuentes es la de la simultaneidad de tiempos que coexisten. Para dos de los amigos que permanecen en Buenos Aires, el tiempo se mueve con una medida propia a través de los relojes que ponen en hora y arreglan. Viven un tiempo cristalizado, en el cual trazan mapas con «los vaivenes imaginarios de ejércitos inexistentes», con «la presencia de la ausencia» que es la definición perfecta de la historia. Para el tercer amigo, Baltasar Bustos, el tiempo estará determinado por el viaje, por las coordenadas espaciales que recorre en el mundo de la aventura, la inconclusión, lo impredecible, los excesos y la acción.  

La campaña, que refiere a la epopeya libertadora e independentista de la América colonial, se inicia en Buenos Aires, aún sede del virreinato del Río de la Plata, en 1810. Fuentes nos introduce en la aventura inaugural, la amistad de tres argentinos basada en los principios revolucionarios de la independencia americana: «Las ideas son la seducción que compartimos los tres». Como hijos del pensamiento ilustrado francés, cada uno admira en particular a un ideólogo: Xavier Dorrego, de carácter volteriano, se encarga de conseguir los libros prohibidos y se preocupa especialmente por el tiempo y por la incapacidad de aprehenderlo; Manuel Varela, el impresor, que es «la máscara sonriente de Diderot», asume la tarea de narrar la historia, y Baltasar Bustos, que se identifica con Rousseau, «cree que la pasión nos lleva a recuperar la verdad natural» y es a través de la revolución que va a intentar reconectarse con ese estado de naturaleza y sellar su compromiso incondicional a la causa revolucionaria. El 24 de mayo de 1810, día anterior a aquel en que los porteños proclamarán su primera Junta de Gobierno, Baltasar Bustos decide cometer un acto que sintetice el concepto de igualdad que se encuentra en la base de los ideales revolucionarios: cambiar a un niño blanco, que duerme en su cuna pudiente, por un niño negro. Quiere lograr lo impensado, destinar a un niño rodeado de privilegios al hambre,  la pobreza y la discriminación. Pero se desata un incendio en el palacio y el niño negro muere carbonizado. Los esfuerzos de los tres amigos por localizar el paradero del niño blanco, que ha sido entregado a una esclava negra, son inútiles y Baltasar decide emprender un viaje para lograr el perdón de la madre del niño blanco, Ofelia Salamanca, la marquesa de Cabra, esposa del presidente de la Audiencia del Virreinato del Río de la Plata, de la cual se ha enamorado.

En su larga marcha Baltasar visita la casa paterna, donde el paisaje de la llanura pampeana le da la impresión de no avanzar, de adentrarse en un espacio y tiempos solidificados. Y es que el padre, estoico patriarca, encarna a los caudillos territoriales que, junto con su hija Sabina, se encapsulan en la tradición y los privilegios de clase avalados por la Corona y redimidos por la Iglesia. Ellos quisieran vivir en un tiempo detenido, pero el pétreo feudalismo se resquebraja cuando el gobierno central promulga la ley contra el nomadismo que obliga a los gauchos a emplearse en las estancias, exigiéndoles certificados de empleo. El padre y los gauchos no logran entender esta ley que coarta su libertad y Baltasar no consigue comprender ese orden señorial. Los gauchos lo llenan de repulsión, los ve como «negaciones ambulantes de la vida sedentaria que él identificaba como la civilización». Pero ese orbe, que el padre conduce con autoridad y omnipresencia, le revela a Baltasar que hay otras cargas de sentido en la palabra «libertad» que él no solo no conoce, sino que, sobre todo, no se incluyen en su proyecto revolucionario. Se sorprende porque el nuevo orden trae una definición de libertad basada en el ideario de la Ilustración, pero el antiguo orden también tiene una definición de libertad, y el verdadero desafío revolucionario se plantea en la identificación de cómo el devenir temporal convive con estas dos concepciones. Los caballos salvajes y los perros cimarrones, evocados a lo largo de la novela, encarnan dos de las múltiples caras de la libertad. Los primeros son admirados y los segundos, apaleados, perseguidos. La libertad no es suficiente sin la igualdad. Sin la equidad, diríamos hoy, tampoco. 

Nuestro héroe continúa su viaje para luchar en el Ejército del Norte en el Alto Perú; transportarse al mundo mágico de las culturas indígenas, milenarias, que viven en el tiempo sin tiempo de los mitos y en los espacios solo transitados en alucinaciones; visitar la corte virreinal de Lima; viajar a Santiago de Chile como espía del ejército revolucionario de José de San Martín; cruzar los Andes con el Libertador argentino, y, continuando con la búsqueda de Ofelia, llegar a Panamá para, finalmente, pisar las costas de Veracruz, donde el cura revolucionario, Anastasio Quintana, será el depositario de sus confesiones. Junto a este sacerdote, que lucha en favor de una verdadera revolución social y no de un cambio cosmético en las leyes, Baltasar puede verbalizar sus culpas y sopesar la profunda disyunción entre la retórica y los libros, por un lado, y las creencias y costumbres de la gran mayoría de los habitantes del continente, por el otro. Es reveladora la escena en la cual, al llegar a un pequeño pueblo del Alto Perú, Baltasar decide leer un decreto en el que declara la libertad de los indígenas. Pero los indígenas no saben hablar español y, por lo tanto, no entienden ni una palabra pronunciada por el joven argentino. 

En las postrimerías de este trayecto, Baltasar encuentra a Ofelia Salamanca, que, encarnando el ideal utópico, siempre estuvo en otra parte, inalcanzable, siempre entrevista, desintegrada, perpetuamente imaginada, viviendo en un espacio y tiempo paralelos. Es significativo que la noche del intercambio de bebés, lo primero y lo único que vio Bustos fue la espalda de Ofelia y que en su largo peregrinaje la imagen nunca llegue a completarse. Ella es española y representa la concentración del antiguo orden que Baltasar intenta derrocar, pero Ofelia esconde celosamente otros matices que solo al final del relato se revelarán al lector. 

«Es reveladora la escena en la cual, al llegar a un pequeño pueblo del Alto Perú, Baltasar decide leer un decreto en el que declara la libertad de los indígenas. Pero los indígenas no saben hablar español y, por lo tanto, no entienden ni una palabra pronunciada por el joven argentino.» 

Para Baltasar Bustos, al inicio de su viaje, la dinámica revolucionaria se resume a un mundo que muere (el orden feudal colonial) y un mundo que nace (el mundo de la justicia y la libertad). Baltasar busca un principio unificador válido para la movilización revolucionaria. En su recorrido, irá comprobando cómo la dinámica que define uno y otro polo de la dialéctica temporal y espacial no es univalente, sino que está cargada de ambigüedades, que no hay certezas, que los significados muchas veces son indescifrables. A lo largo de la exploración del mundo, va descubriendo que lo existente es de una diversidad inconmensurable, y que hay una fisura trágica entre sus ideales y la vida de las personas concretas. Sus senderos comprensivos se bifurcan y va accediendo a las profundidades de su ceguera, va abriendo espacio a otras concepciones del proceso liberador, insospechadas al inicio del recorrido. Hay un episodio en el Dorado, por ejemplo, donde, acompañado del viejo mestizo Simón Rodríguez, penetra «en una tierra que ha sido sojuzgada por las leyes de la pobreza y la esclavitud. Pero también es una tierra liberada por la magia y el sueño» y aquí se enfrenta con la evidencia de todo lo que no ha conocido ni visto, y comprueba la inmensa lejanía que hay entre los ideales teóricos y el mundo que supuestamente quiere independizar. Es en los dos sitios simbólicos en los que ingresa Baltasar —el Dorado y el burdel de Arlequín en Maracaibo— donde se confunde y se pierde en medio de espacios y tiempos multiplicados. Su experiencia a lo largo de un continente en armas es, fundamentalmente, un deambular de reconocimiento y asombro en medio de un juego de disfraces y espejos deformantes. En ellos Baltasar ve el pasado indígena, el pasado español, el vivir en la contradicción de la diversidad, el saber que la historia se va haciendo con los retazos incompletos de tiempos simultáneos y multiplicados, que desafían la rigidez de los calendarios.

«La aventura que propone La campaña es una reflexión sobre historia, utopía, contemporaneidad, sobre nuestro carácter pluricultural latinoamericano y sobre las fisuras desafiantes que nos atraviesan y que nos amalgaman.» 

La campaña, donde acontecen numerosos viajes —tanto geográficos (por esa tierra utópica y desagarrada) como internos, eróticos, revolucionarios, intelectuales, históricos, de identidad— y donde los personajes viven en un eterno desplazamiento, nos ayuda a imaginar posibilidades. En el prólogo del libro Los indios de México (1967) de Fernando Benítez, afirma Carlos Fuentes: «¿Cómo viajarás por el mundo sin perder tu propia alma, sino, más bien, encontrándote a ti mismo al encuentro con el mundo, dándote cuenta de que careces de identidad sin el mundo pero que, acaso, el mundo carezca de identidad sin ti?». La aventura que propone La campaña es una reflexión sobre historia, utopía, contemporaneidad, sobre nuestro carácter pluricultural latinoamericano y sobre las fisuras desafiantes que nos atraviesan y que nos amalgaman. No es casual que Baltasar Bustos sea porteño. El hecho de que yo también lo sea me obliga a recordar que nos definen como aquellos cuyos antepasados no eran aztecas ni incas ni mayas, sino los «que bajaron de los barcos». Aquellos con una breve historia, con un tiempo mínimo transitado, al iniciar la Independencia. Aquellos que pertenecen a un país que se «imaginaba europeo, racional, civilizado», pero que el correr de la historia ha demostrado que somos, hemos sido y seremos radicalmente latinoamericanos. La novela de Fuentes nos coloca frente a un espejo y nos interpela para que nos alejemos de los espejismos, explora la pregunta sobre qué hace una revolución con el pasado que intenta anular y reemplazar, qué hace con esas identidades plurales e inestables, criticadas, invisibilizadas, excluidas, qué hacemos ahora, hoy, con el tiempo que nos es concedido. Ocurre que lo seguimos preguntando porque, como dice Hannah Arendt, la fragilidad de la acción humana, su carácter impredecible y contingente, supone que cada nuevo acto de fundación surja sin garantizar el éxito; «que la más libre de las acciones políticas puede acabar trayendo el bien, pero también el mal». Eso no implica dejar de intentarlo.

El final literario de la obra es poético y también político. Fuentes nos invita a explorarlo. Junto al dilema de las transformaciones, junto al yo colectivo y su relato antagonista, junto a la convivencia de tiempos y espacios disímiles, en esa zona liminal, surge la responsabilidad del uno frente al otro y se construye ese rompecabezas identitario, esa comunidad fecunda dispuesta a continuar.



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