Cómic

Posy Simmonds o por qué dibujar los clásicos

Hija dilecta de la gloriosa ilustración humorística inglesa, a comienzos de los 2000 Posy Simmonds fue todavía más allá en el diálogo del cómic con la literatura. Primero hizo del clásico de Flaubert una heroína contemporánea atrapada en el adulterio, la hipocresía y el provincianismo en «Gemma Bovery». Con «Tamara Drewe», basado en «Lejos del mundanal ruido» de Thomas Hardy, revalida ese talento para actualizar a las heroínas derrotadas del siglo XIX, ofrecer una crítica feroz a la vida rural burguesa y mostrar toda la potencia que la novela gráfica tiene para darle a los clásicos con un lápiz y una página en blanco.

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dice habitualmente que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/49-comic-y-novela-grafica\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el c\u00f3mic<\/a><\/span> es un h\u00edbrido de literatura y dibujo, en una err\u00f3nea creencia que subordina la narraci\u00f3n de la historieta a la escrita. Sin embargo, el noveno arte hunde sus ra\u00edces en la narraci\u00f3n visual, en esa forma de contar historias con dibujos que acompa\u00f1a a la humanidad desde sus inicios, cuando fue consciente de que los relatos orales ten\u00edan una trascendencia finita. Dibujos que dieron lugar a las letras, a una literatura que sigue precisando de una descodificaci\u00f3n visual de esos dibujos a la que llamamos lectura, pero que ha mantenido un di\u00e1logo constante con la imagen, <strong>con las ilustraciones que daban forma a los universos que los creadores imaginaban.<\/strong> El c\u00f3mic se ha desarrollado a lo largo de la historia como un lenguaje que ha tomado forma de medio de comunicaci\u00f3n, acompa\u00f1ando en paralelo a la literatura y otras artes.<\/p><p>La carrera y obra de la autora brit\u00e1nica\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4656-posy-simmonds\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Posy Simmonds<\/a><\/span> (Berkshire, 1945) es, curiosamente, un perfecto reflejo de esa evoluci\u00f3n de la historieta que se disparar\u00e1 durante el siglo XX, <strong>de la permeabilidad de un arte en constante di\u00e1logo con todas las formas art\u00edsticas.<\/strong> Al igual que el c\u00f3mic forj\u00f3 su actual gram\u00e1tica en las p\u00e1ginas de los peri\u00f3dicos, Simmonds se form\u00f3 en una cabecera tan famosa como <em>The Sun <\/em>para pasar despu\u00e9s al prestigioso<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.theguardian.com\/books\/posy-simmonds\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">The Guardian<\/a><\/span><\/em>, con la actualidad como referente de su serie <em>The Silent Three of St Botolph's.\u00a0<\/em><strong>S\u00e1tira mordaz de una burgues\u00eda acomodada<\/strong> y de una sociedad inmersa en las contradicciones de los setenta que miraba con respeto al ilustre pasado del periodismo sat\u00edrico brit\u00e1nico mientras tomaba lecciones de la tradici\u00f3n del c\u00f3mic en la prensa americana, con autores como Jules Feiffer o Garry Trudeau como referentes, pero que pronto encontrar\u00eda un discurso tan personal y caracter\u00edstico que la serie terminar\u00eda conoci\u00e9ndose simplemente como <em>Posy.\u00a0\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Sin embargo, poco a poco la obra de Simmonds fue evolucionando e incluyendo <strong>planteamientos m\u00e1s literarios que influ\u00edan en la propia narrativa de la tira,<\/strong> encontrando pronto una forma propia y particular de hibridar la literatura con el c\u00f3mic, que iniciar\u00e1 con \u00e9xito en <em>Gemma Bovery.<\/em> A partir de la obra de Flaubert, la dibujante encuentra un punto de partida para una experiencia donde el texto se funde con la historieta m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del recurso tradicional que supone en el noveno arte: <strong>abandona el espacio cerrado del bocadillo para recuperar el de la p\u00e1gina en blanco de la novela,<\/strong> mientras que el c\u00f3mic se mantiene hermanado a la palabra, creando un di\u00e1logo de iguales entre dos formas narrativas, la literaria y la gr\u00e1fica. El juego le permite a Simmonds crear <strong>una experiencia metaling\u00fc\u00edstica \u00fanica,<\/strong> donde la literatura se erige como protagonista y se inmiscuye en los intersticios propiedad de la historieta, pero conviviendo en perfecta 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experiencia que volver\u00eda a practicar en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/comic\/232843-tamara-drewe-9788418347276\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Tamara Drewe<\/a><\/span><\/em>, donde de nuevo reescribe un cl\u00e1sico de la literatura decimon\u00f3nica, el <em>Lejos del mundanal ruido<\/em>, de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/53946-thomas-hardy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Thomas Hardy<\/a><\/span>. 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<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/comic\/232843-tamara-drewe-9788418347276\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Tamara Drewe<\/em><\/a><\/span> no solo destaca por la brillantez de su l\u00facida deconstrucci\u00f3n de la cultura moderna, sino por su sorprendente forma de contarlo. La introducci\u00f3n del texto literario que ya se ha cimentado como firma de su estilo se desata aqu\u00ed en <strong>decenas de posibilidades de interacci\u00f3n entre la narrativa de la historieta y la palabra,<\/strong> que comienzan desde la mism\u00edsima tipograf\u00eda y la composici\u00f3n: cada personaje tendr\u00e1 una tipograf\u00eda propia en una p\u00e1gina donde los amplios textos son, a su vez, un elemento visual m\u00e1s de la construcci\u00f3n est\u00e9tica de la plancha.<\/p><p>La vi\u00f1eta pierde su hegemon\u00eda para entrar a dialogar con el p\u00e1rrafo de texto, en un atrevido enfrentamiento que resulta ser un trampantojo acertado en el momento en que Simmonds comienza a jugar no solo con la apariencia visual, sino con la propia forma de comunicaci\u00f3n escrita. A lo largo de la obra ir\u00e1n apareciendo las <strong>diferentes expresiones de la escritura que la tecnolog\u00eda ha ido produciendo en este siglo XXI de redes sociales y comunicaci\u00f3n digital.\u00a0<\/strong>La m\u00e1quina de escribir dejar\u00e1 paso al procesador de textos y, tambi\u00e9n, a la escritura veloz y sint\u00e9tica del SMS, a la nueva expresi\u00f3n epistolar del email. El titular de prensa del peri\u00f3dico ser\u00e1 sustituido por el navegador en la pantalla del ordenador, mientras que la palabra escrita se multiplica en los cientos de miles de dispositivos m\u00f3viles. Y todos, con una expresi\u00f3n visual propia, que la autora ir\u00e1 integrando en el flujo de la p\u00e1gina para encontrar una narrativa milim\u00e9tricamente coordinada que produce sus propias reflexiones.<\/p><p>M\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la trama principal, la dispersi\u00f3n de la comunicaci\u00f3n humana es, sin duda, el gran tema de <em>Tamara Drewe.<\/em> La explosi\u00f3n de m\u00faltiples narrativas que, finalmente, no se traducen en riqueza de contenidos, sino simplemente en m\u00e1s posibilidades para la transmisi\u00f3n de rumores y chismorreos centrados, como siempre, <strong>en la cr\u00f3nica sentimental de nuestros vecinos y vecinas.<\/strong> El <em>voyeurismo<\/em> encuentra en la tecnolog\u00eda un aliado perfecto para una viralizaci\u00f3n de los males de la humanidad: la triste realidad de la esencia humana es que es incapaz de escapar de sus miserias.<\/p><p>Un mensaje final que encontr\u00f3 perfecto remate en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/comic\/37626-cassandra-darke-9788416131525\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cassandra Darke<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> donde la tradici\u00f3n dickensiana se fusiona con la mordacidad de John Kennedy Tool para volver a arramblar contra las \u00e9lites culturales, en este caso del mundo del arte. Y, de nuevo, Simmonds borda su \u00e1cida reflexi\u00f3n desde el juego formal, <strong>desde la hibridaci\u00f3n de lo literario con lo historiet\u00edstico<\/strong> que demuestra las posibilidades infinitas de un noveno arte todav\u00eda por explorar.\u00a0<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><\/p><p><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-joe-sacco-un-tributo-a-la-tierra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joe Sacco: la vi\u00f1eta como campo de batalla<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/fenomenos\/fanfiction\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El fanfiction o el noble arte de elegir tu propia aventura (por si a ti tampoco te gust\u00f3 el final de <em>Juego de tronos<\/em>)<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/despedidas\/obituario-quino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Apuntes para (re)conocer a 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8 minutos

Posy Simmonds en París, año 2019. Crédito: Getty Images.

Se dice habitualmente que el cómic es un híbrido de literatura y dibujo, en una errónea creencia que subordina la narración de la historieta a la escrita. Sin embargo, el noveno arte hunde sus raíces en la narración visual, en esa forma de contar historias con dibujos que acompaña a la humanidad desde sus inicios, cuando fue consciente de que los relatos orales tenían una trascendencia finita. Dibujos que dieron lugar a las letras, a una literatura que sigue precisando de una descodificación visual de esos dibujos a la que llamamos lectura, pero que ha mantenido un diálogo constante con la imagen, con las ilustraciones que daban forma a los universos que los creadores imaginaban. El cómic se ha desarrollado a lo largo de la historia como un lenguaje que ha tomado forma de medio de comunicación, acompañando en paralelo a la literatura y otras artes.

La carrera y obra de la autora británica Posy Simmonds (Berkshire, 1945) es, curiosamente, un perfecto reflejo de esa evolución de la historieta que se disparará durante el siglo XX, de la permeabilidad de un arte en constante diálogo con todas las formas artísticas. Al igual que el cómic forjó su actual gramática en las páginas de los periódicos, Simmonds se formó en una cabecera tan famosa como The Sun para pasar después al prestigioso The Guardian, con la actualidad como referente de su serie The Silent Three of St Botolph's. Sátira mordaz de una burguesía acomodada y de una sociedad inmersa en las contradicciones de los setenta que miraba con respeto al ilustre pasado del periodismo satírico británico mientras tomaba lecciones de la tradición del cómic en la prensa americana, con autores como Jules Feiffer o Garry Trudeau como referentes, pero que pronto encontraría un discurso tan personal y característico que la serie terminaría conociéndose simplemente como Posy.  

Sin embargo, poco a poco la obra de Simmonds fue evolucionando e incluyendo planteamientos más literarios que influían en la propia narrativa de la tira, encontrando pronto una forma propia y particular de hibridar la literatura con el cómic, que iniciará con éxito en Gemma Bovery. A partir de la obra de Flaubert, la dibujante encuentra un punto de partida para una experiencia donde el texto se funde con la historieta más allá del recurso tradicional que supone en el noveno arte: abandona el espacio cerrado del bocadillo para recuperar el de la página en blanco de la novela, mientras que el cómic se mantiene hermanado a la palabra, creando un diálogo de iguales entre dos formas narrativas, la literaria y la gráfica. El juego le permite a Simmonds crear una experiencia metalingüística única, donde la literatura se erige como protagonista y se inmiscuye en los intersticios propiedad de la historieta, pero conviviendo en perfecta simbiosis. 

Una experiencia que volvería a practicar en Tamara Drewe, donde de nuevo reescribe un clásico de la literatura decimonónica, el Lejos del mundanal ruido, de Thomas Hardy. Una elección no casual: si el amable retrato de la vida rural se publicó por entregas en The Cornhill Magazine, su paso al cómic también compartirá la publicación seriada en The Guardian, creando un claro anclaje en la tradición literaria victoriana. Pero para la autora británica, el entorno rural alejado del mundanal ruido será no un lugar de paz y reposo, sino el escenario de una mordaz sátira sobre una sociedad globalizada amante del chismorreo. Un mal antiguo del que no escapan ni las élites intelectuales que protagonizan esta obra, famosos escritores de renombre y prestigiosos profesores universitarios que buscan la inspiración en el aire puro de la campiña, pero que pronto se verá enrarecido por los mismos efluvios apestosos de la sociedad industrial, por el hedor a envidia y engaños. La mentira se alzará como el protagonista de una comedia coral donde las pasiones humanas se desatarán en forma de adulterios, celos, traiciones y engaños que se encarnarán en la hermosa Tamara Drewe.

No hay piedad alguna para las miserias humanas, mientras una ironía brutal y corrosiva va construyendo una trama paralela de género negro que ayuda a demoler todo discurso de defensa de la alta cultura, enfangada con entusiasmo en los mismos lodazales de bajos instintos que parecían ajenos a sus insignes ambiciones. Al final todos los seres humanos se igualan por sus peores respuestas ante la realidad. 

Pero Tamara Drewe no solo destaca por la brillantez de su lúcida deconstrucción de la cultura moderna, sino por su sorprendente forma de contarlo. La introducción del texto literario que ya se ha cimentado como firma de su estilo se desata aquí en decenas de posibilidades de interacción entre la narrativa de la historieta y la palabra, que comienzan desde la mismísima tipografía y la composición: cada personaje tendrá una tipografía propia en una página donde los amplios textos son, a su vez, un elemento visual más de la construcción estética de la plancha.

La viñeta pierde su hegemonía para entrar a dialogar con el párrafo de texto, en un atrevido enfrentamiento que resulta ser un trampantojo acertado en el momento en que Simmonds comienza a jugar no solo con la apariencia visual, sino con la propia forma de comunicación escrita. A lo largo de la obra irán apareciendo las diferentes expresiones de la escritura que la tecnología ha ido produciendo en este siglo XXI de redes sociales y comunicación digital. La máquina de escribir dejará paso al procesador de textos y, también, a la escritura veloz y sintética del SMS, a la nueva expresión epistolar del email. El titular de prensa del periódico será sustituido por el navegador en la pantalla del ordenador, mientras que la palabra escrita se multiplica en los cientos de miles de dispositivos móviles. Y todos, con una expresión visual propia, que la autora irá integrando en el flujo de la página para encontrar una narrativa milimétricamente coordinada que produce sus propias reflexiones.

Más allá de la trama principal, la dispersión de la comunicación humana es, sin duda, el gran tema de Tamara Drewe. La explosión de múltiples narrativas que, finalmente, no se traducen en riqueza de contenidos, sino simplemente en más posibilidades para la transmisión de rumores y chismorreos centrados, como siempre, en la crónica sentimental de nuestros vecinos y vecinas. El voyeurismo encuentra en la tecnología un aliado perfecto para una viralización de los males de la humanidad: la triste realidad de la esencia humana es que es incapaz de escapar de sus miserias.

Un mensaje final que encontró perfecto remate en Cassandra Darke, donde la tradición dickensiana se fusiona con la mordacidad de John Kennedy Tool para volver a arramblar contra las élites culturales, en este caso del mundo del arte. Y, de nuevo, Simmonds borda su ácida reflexión desde el juego formal, desde la hibridación de lo literario con lo historietístico que demuestra las posibilidades infinitas de un noveno arte todavía por explorar. 



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