La invasión rusa

De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano

Mucho se ha dicho en los últimos días sobre las figuras paralelas de Stalin y Putin. Para la escritora finlandesa Sofi Oksanen (cuyo nuevo libro, «El parque de los perros» (Salamandra), está protagonizado por una niña ucraniana que emigra a Finlandia), esa sombra tiránica es muy concreta: el entronamiento del primero llevado a cabo por el segundo durante las últimas décadas, la justificación de los delitos de la URSS incluso mediante una modificación constitucional, los usos del pasado para avalar los actos del presente... Pero, sobre todo, la vuelta a Europa de esa palabra atroz para su país: la finlandización.

{"id":534,"id_simpleblog_post":"534","id_simpleblog_category":"82","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Sofi Oksanen","author_url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/5192-sofi-oksanen","likes":"0","views":"6266","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:3:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"284208,284232","id_category_tematica":"116109,14,19","id_category_autor":"5192","id_category_editorial":"11942","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano","meta_title":"De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano","meta_description":"Sofi Oksanen, cuyo nuevo libro, \u00abEl parque de los perros\u00bb, colisiona de lleno con la actualidad (hace foco sobre los abusos detr\u00e1s del negocio de los vientres de alquiler), alerta aqu\u00ed del peligro de tener cerca a un dictador que glorifica la violencia.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA Sofi Oksanen El parque de los perros Salamandra Rusia Finlandia","short_content":"<p>Mucho se ha dicho en los \u00faltimos d\u00edas sobre las figuras paralelas de Stalin y Putin. Para la escritora finlandesa Sofi Oksanen (cuyo nuevo libro, \u00abEl parque de los perros\u00bb (Salamandra), est\u00e1 protagonizado por una ni\u00f1a ucraniana que emigra a Finlandia), esa sombra tir\u00e1nica es muy concreta: el entronamiento del primero llevado a cabo por el segundo durante las \u00faltimas d\u00e9cadas, la justificaci\u00f3n de los delitos de la URSS incluso mediante una modificaci\u00f3n constitucional, los usos del pasado para avalar los actos del presente... Pero, sobre todo, la vuelta a Europa de esa palabra atroz para su pa\u00eds: la finlandizaci\u00f3n.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"wim70iz\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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concepto \u00abesfera de influencia\u00bb ha regresado a las mesas de negociaciones de la pol\u00edtica internacional acompa\u00f1ado de esa infame palabra que empieza por \u00abf\u00bb: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Finlandizaci%C3%B3n\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">finlandizaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>. Por un momento, parec\u00eda que ambos estaban ya guardados entre naftalina, tal como les correspond\u00eda. El mundo occidental hab\u00eda empezado a saldar cuentas con su pasado colonialista y no se jactaba de la explotaci\u00f3n de sus antiguas colonias. Pero en la Rusia de Putin la situaci\u00f3n era diferente. Se volvieron a idealizar las pr\u00e1cticas de la dictadura sovi\u00e9tica y Stalin fue rehabilitado. Por tanto, no es de extra\u00f1ar que el l\u00edder ruso aspire ahora a apuntarse un tanto que las generaciones venideras recuerden tan bien como nosotros recordamos el protocolo secreto del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Pacto_Ribbentrop-M%C3%B3lotov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">pacto Ribbentrop-M\u00f3lotov<\/a><\/span>, que permiti\u00f3 a la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica aprovecharse de sus colonias y mis dos pa\u00edses de origen. Finlandia entr\u00f3 en guerra y fue finlandizada; Estonia fue invadida.<\/p><p>El apoyo a la idea de la esfera de influencia no solo se debe al deseo de Vladimir Putin de dejar atr\u00e1s algo por lo que en un futuro sea equiparado con Stalin.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-el-ocaso-de-la-democracia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rusia ya se encuentra en una guerra psicol\u00f3gica contra occidente<\/a><\/span> y resulta adecuado desenterrar las esferas de influencia y la finlandizaci\u00f3n. Como tenemos experiencia con ellas, los apretones de manos que se dan a nuestras espaldas resultan, como m\u00ednimo, sospechosos.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El objetivo de Rusia es la desintegraci\u00f3n de la unidad de 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Los pol\u00edticos actuales deber\u00edan plantearse si quieren aparecer en im\u00e1genes similares.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-vladimir-putin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Posar del brazo de un tirano est\u00e1 de moda...<\/a><\/span> hasta que uno se averg\u00fcenza de ello, cosa que siempre acaba sucediendo. Un dictador que glorifica la violencia inevitablemente salpica de sangre tambi\u00e9n a sus allegados.<br \/><br \/><em>Traducci\u00f3n de Laura Pascual.<\/em><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-vladimir-putin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Putin por Obama: \u00abEs como un jefe de distrito, solo que con misiles nucleares y un veto en el Consejo de Seguridad de Naciones Unidas\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Anne Applebaum: la crisis ucraniana en cinco preguntas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. 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6 minutos

«Putin, ¡las manos fueras de Ucrania!». Crédito: Getty Images.

El concepto «esfera de influencia» ha regresado a las mesas de negociaciones de la política internacional acompañado de esa infame palabra que empieza por «f»: finlandización. Por un momento, parecía que ambos estaban ya guardados entre naftalina, tal como les correspondía. El mundo occidental había empezado a saldar cuentas con su pasado colonialista y no se jactaba de la explotación de sus antiguas colonias. Pero en la Rusia de Putin la situación era diferente. Se volvieron a idealizar las prácticas de la dictadura soviética y Stalin fue rehabilitado. Por tanto, no es de extrañar que el líder ruso aspire ahora a apuntarse un tanto que las generaciones venideras recuerden tan bien como nosotros recordamos el protocolo secreto del pacto Ribbentrop-Mólotov, que permitió a la Unión Soviética aprovecharse de sus colonias y mis dos países de origen. Finlandia entró en guerra y fue finlandizada; Estonia fue invadida.

El apoyo a la idea de la esfera de influencia no solo se debe al deseo de Vladimir Putin de dejar atrás algo por lo que en un futuro sea equiparado con Stalin. Rusia ya se encuentra en una guerra psicológica contra occidente y resulta adecuado desenterrar las esferas de influencia y la finlandización. Como tenemos experiencia con ellas, los apretones de manos que se dan a nuestras espaldas resultan, como mínimo, sospechosos. El objetivo de Rusia es la desintegración de la unidad de Europa.

Otras madres paralelas

Rusia está viajando al pasado porque está liderada por un ladrón que solo tiene un medio de apropiarse de la riqueza de su pueblo: la dictadura. La actual posición de superestrella que tiene Stalin en Rusia es perfecta para este propósito. Al legitimar los medios y las acciones de Stalin, Vladimir Putin se permite hacer lo propio. La historia desempeña un papel fundamental en este proyecto: los delitos de la Unión Soviética se justificaron modificando la constitución rusa y hoy en día mencionarlos es un crimen en nuestro vecino país del Este. La mentira de la «pertenencia histórica» de Finlandia y Estonia a Rusia encaja bien en todo el conjunto. De hecho, comparado con el periodo de dominio sueco, la bandera de Rusia solo ondeó un momento sobre Finlandia. Por su parte, los alemanes dominaron Estonia durante setecientos años.

Rusia quiere volver a las imágenes en las que Stalin sonríe satisfecho en el lugar del vencedor en la conferencia de Yalta. Los políticos actuales deberían plantearse si quieren aparecer en imágenes similares. Posar del brazo de un tirano está de moda... hasta que uno se avergüenza de ello, cosa que siempre acaba sucediendo.

Rusia quiere volver a las imágenes en las que Stalin sonríe satisfecho mientras Mólotov firma el acuerdo o está sentado en el lugar del vencedor en la conferencia de Yalta. Los políticos actuales deberían plantearse si quieren aparecer en imágenes similares. Posar del brazo de un tirano está de moda... hasta que uno se avergüenza de ello, cosa que siempre acaba sucediendo. Un dictador que glorifica la violencia inevitablemente salpica de sangre también a sus allegados.

Traducción de Laura Pascual.



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