Literatura

Gambito de dama: Walter Tevis, la pluma detrás del tablero

«Gambito de dama» desató un resurgimiento insólito del interés por el ajedrez: ya es la serie más vista de la historia de Netflix, multiplicó por cinco el número de usuarios del principal 'site' de ajedrez en línea del mundo y disparó en un 250% la demanda de tableros y piezas de ajedrez en eBay. Lo que pocos recordaban es que detrás de la serie había una gran novela escrita por uno de esos secretos a voces que todavía guarda la literatura norteamericana: Walter Tevis. Es el momento perfecto para conocerlo.

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abril de 1984, reci\u00e9n publicada su novela <em>Gambito de dama<\/em>, el escritor\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/90537-walter-tevis\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Walter Tevis<\/a><\/span> concedi\u00f3 una larga entrevista a <em>The New York Times<\/em>: \u00abConsidero que <em>Gambito de dama<\/em> es un tributo a las mujeres inteligentes. Me gusta Beth por su valent\u00eda e inteligencia. Antes, muchas mujeres ten\u00edan que esconder su cerebro, pero hoy no\u00bb, declaraba, recordando adem\u00e1s con cari\u00f1o a una t\u00eda rica que le regal\u00f3 un tablero de ajedrez cuando cumpli\u00f3 siete a\u00f1os.<\/p><p>Cuando apareci\u00f3 esa entrevista, Tevis ya era un escritor consagrado gracias al \u00e9xito de otra adaptaci\u00f3n de un libro suyo, <em>El buscavidas (The Hustler)<\/em>, en la que Paul Newman, Oscar al mejor actor por ese trabajo, daba vida a un jugador de billar errante y solitario. Sin embargo, hab\u00edan pasado casi veinte a\u00f1os desde su anterior novela, <em>El hombre que cay\u00f3 en la Tierra\u00a0<\/em>(tambi\u00e9n hay adaptaci\u00f3n cinematogr\u00e1fica, <em>El hombre que vino de las estrellas<\/em>, con David Bowie). \u00bfQu\u00e9 fue de Tevis durante esos veinte a\u00f1os? Seg\u00fan le cont\u00f3 a un peri\u00f3dico de Louisville, con el dinero que hab\u00eda ganado por <em>El buscavidas <\/em>se fue a vivir a M\u00e9xico \u00aby all\u00ed descubr\u00ed que un litro de ginebra costaba ochenta centavos. Me pas\u00e9 ocho meses borracho\u00bb. Enseguida vio que beber y escribir eran incompatibles, aunque el alcohol s\u00ed le permit\u00eda levantarse al d\u00eda siguiente para dar clases. Trabajando de profesor, jugando al billar o al ajedrez y bebiendo pas\u00f3 esas dos d\u00e9cadas en blanco. Tevis, que hab\u00eda so\u00f1ado con ser, como dijo en 1959, el escritor \u00abde la gran novela americana, una obra que conmoviera a todos\u00bb, no volvi\u00f3 a publicar hasta que consigui\u00f3 dejar la bebida. Varios intentos de suicidio, m\u00e1s cambios de residencia y un divorcio m\u00e1s tarde, se instal\u00f3 en Nueva York en 1978, desintoxicado del alcohol y decidido a escribir sobre lo que m\u00e1s amaba y mejor conoc\u00eda: el mundo del juego y el de los perdedores y solitarios. Durante esos largos a\u00f1os lejos de la literatura, hab\u00eda estudiado obsesivamente el mismo libro que guarda como su mayor tesoro la protagonista de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/226463-gambito-de-dama-9788420460284\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gambito de dama<\/a><\/span><\/em>, el manual<em> Aperturas de ajedrez modernas<\/em>; hab\u00eda mejorado su <em>rating<\/em>, su puntuaci\u00f3n como jugador, hasta una cifra muy aceptable, lejos de los grandes maestros pero muy por encima del aficionado medio, y hasta hab\u00eda cubierto como cronista el Abierto de Las Vegas, en 1974.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ja2ewq2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abConsidero que <em>Gambito de dama<\/em> es un tributo a las mujeres inteligentes. Me gusta Beth por su valent\u00eda e inteligencia. Antes, muchas mujeres ten\u00edan que esconder su cerebro, pero hoy no.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fz8fpc9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Todo ese conocimiento de primera mano y su \u00edntima relaci\u00f3n con los jugadores acab\u00f3 por dar vida a <em>Gambito de dama<\/em>, una novela que desde su primera publicaci\u00f3n impresion\u00f3 a los conocedores del juego por su fiel retrato de unas partidas emocionantes que sirven de contrapunto a la trayectoria err\u00e1tica de la protagonista, adicta desde peque\u00f1a a los tranquilizantes y desde muy joven al alcohol. En\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.nytimes.com\/1983\/04\/06\/books\/author-who-checkmated-academe.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la entrevista<\/a><\/span> con <em>The New York Times<\/em> antes mencionada, el periodista le preguntaba cu\u00e1nto de s\u00ed mismo hab\u00eda en el personaje de Beth Harmon y Tevis confes\u00f3: \u00abCuando era peque\u00f1o, me diagnosticaron unas fiebres reum\u00e1ticas y en el hospital me dieron mucha medicaci\u00f3n. De ah\u00ed viene la drogodependencia de Beth en mi novela. Escribir sobre ella me ha servido de purga\u00bb.<\/p><p>Hoy, el \u00e9xito de la adaptaci\u00f3n en forma de miniserie de Netflix ha dado pie, seg\u00fan informa la plataforma, a todo un resurgimiento del inter\u00e9s por el ajedrez. Peter Friedlander, vicepresidente de Series Originales en Netflix, cuenta en su web que el n\u00famero de usuarios en <em>Chess.com<\/em>, el principal <em>site<\/em> de ajedrez en l\u00ednea del mundo, se ha multiplicado por cinco, y la demanda de tableros y piezas de ajedrez en eBay ha crecido un 250 %. La serie es ya la m\u00e1s vista de la historia de la cadena, con sesenta y dos millones de visionados en sus primeros veintiocho d\u00edas. \u00abUn jaque mate de r\u00e9cord\u00bb, titula Friedlander, que reconoce que cuando Scott Frank les propuso, hace tres a\u00f1os, adaptar <em>Gambito de dama<\/em> en forma de serie, nunca imaginaron un \u00e9xito tan rotundo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kcf12rh\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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opinar\u00eda Tevis, que muri\u00f3 en 1984, un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s de publicar esta novela, v\u00edctima de un c\u00e1ncer de pulm\u00f3n a los cincuenta y seis a\u00f1os? Es posible que le gustara ver el cuidado que se ha puesto en el dise\u00f1o de las partidas y las jugadas: no en vano Bruce Pandolfini, el mismo campe\u00f3n de ajedrez que lo asesor\u00f3 a \u00e9l para el libro hace m\u00e1s de treinta y cinco a\u00f1os, ha sido tambi\u00e9n consultor de la serie. Seg\u00fan ha declarado Pandolfini a <em>IndieWire<\/em>, lleg\u00f3 a desarrollar casi trescientas cincuenta partidas posibles para la trama de la serie, de las que solo unas pocas se ven en pantalla, pero que sirven de tel\u00f3n de fondo a los ambientes en los que se mueve Beth. 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de Harmon<\/strong><\/p><p>Un gambito de dama es una apertura complicada, que precisa inteligencia y sangre fr\u00eda, y en la que la reina corre todos los riesgos posibles pero finalmente domina a las dem\u00e1s piezas. Y es la met\u00e1fora en la que apoya Tevis la vida de Beth Harmon, que tiene a su favor una inteligencia privilegiada, y un mundo interior lleno de fuerza y recursos, pero un entorno lleno de obst\u00e1culos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Se nota que el escritor se identificaba en muchos sentidos con su personaje, y que a trav\u00e9s de ella vierte sus cr\u00edticas al microcosmos cerrado y machista de las competiciones internacionales, donde los grandes maestros se ayudan entre ellos mientras que Beth, la <em>outsider<\/em>, debe valerse solo de sus propios recursos y practicar sola. Tambi\u00e9n se nota su experiencia de primera mano en el relato de los momentos de abandono y degradaci\u00f3n de Beth, que el d\u00eda antes de una de las partidas m\u00e1s decisivas de su vida no puede evitar la tentaci\u00f3n de beber cuando deber\u00eda estar estudiando sus mejores jugadas. Esa lucha interna de Beth Harmon contra sus demonios la convierte en una hero\u00edna humana, a pesar de su car\u00e1cter dif\u00edcil y solitario. Y hace brillar el contrapunto del personaje luminoso de Jolene, su mejor amiga y quien la rescata de uno de los momentos m\u00e1s oscuros de su vida, sin convertirlas a ninguna de las dos en \u00e1ngeles ni en demonios. Esa capacidad de Walter Tevis para crear personajes con facetas, capaces de lo mejor y de lo peor, convierte sus novelas en historias llenas de emoci\u00f3n real, tan parecidas a la vida que el lector siente su cercan\u00eda y sus peripecias como propias.<\/p><p>\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>M\u00e1s Beth: hombres, dinero y Guerra Fr\u00eda<\/strong><\/p><p>El <em>Gambito de dama<\/em> de Netflix es notablemente fiel al libro, pero el lector descubrir\u00e1 ciertos personajes algo distintos y muchos detalles nuevos o cambiados. En la serie es importante todo el dise\u00f1o de vestuario, pero en el libro la ropa es para Beth toda una declaraci\u00f3n de poder, una forma de demostrar que se ha elevado por encima del mundo s\u00f3rdido en el que creci\u00f3, los uniformes y el peinado igual del orfanato, la ropa anticuada y barata que le compraba su madre adoptiva.<\/p><p>No hay que olvidar el significado que tiene el dinero y la independencia econ\u00f3mica en esta historia: para Tevis nunca fue f\u00e1cil ganarse la vida, pas\u00f3 largas temporadas en paro, otras dando clase, otras viviendo a salto de mata con los ingresos irregulares de los <em>royalties<\/em> y las cesiones al cine. La carrera de Beth en el ajedrez empieza buscando los peque\u00f1os premios de los torneos locales, cobrando cheques de pocos d\u00f3lares, y siempre haciendo cuentas muy complicadas sobre los gastos de viaje, el precio de las comidas y los hoteles, para descontarlo de los posibles premios y seguir jugando, que para ella es lo mismo que seguir viviendo.<\/p><p>Otro detalle interesante, mucho m\u00e1s presente en el libro que en la serie, es la Guerra Fr\u00eda entre Estados Unidos y la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica durante los a\u00f1os en que se desarrolla la trama. En ese contexto, el viaje de Beth a Rusia que cierra el libro, y la decisiva partida que juega contra el campe\u00f3n del mundo ruso, adquieren un significado geoestrat\u00e9gico especial. Todo el pa\u00eds contiene la respiraci\u00f3n cuando Beth se sienta ante ese tablero, y el resultado de la partida significa para sus compatriotas mucho m\u00e1s que para ella. El lector disfrutar\u00e1 mucho de los preparativos de ese viaje a Mosc\u00fa, toda una inversi\u00f3n para la que a Beth no le es f\u00e1cil encontrar fondos.<\/p><p>De la relaci\u00f3n de Beth con los hombres no diremos mucho m\u00e1s para no estropear la experiencia de lectura. No olvidemos que a ella lo que m\u00e1s le interesa es jugar y ganar, y ese rasgo de su car\u00e1cter se aplica tambi\u00e9n al amor. Beth oye desde peque\u00f1a que es insignificante, que viste mal, que es poco atractiva, que es un patito feo. Las chicas populares y vestidas a la moda que se re\u00fanen los fines de semana y van a fiestas la dejan deslumbrada, como esos chicos arrogantes que solo se fijan en ella cuando est\u00e1 delante de un tablero. El libro rompe tab\u00faes casi desde el principio, porque Beth no se siente intimidada ante ese hombre mayor que juega solo en el s\u00f3tano del orfanato, ni se convierte nunca en v\u00edctima de depredadores o abusadores: en la novela todos los hombres a los que Beth presta atenci\u00f3n juegan a su modo una partida con ella.<\/p><p>Que una gran novela tan injustamente olvidada como <em>Gambito de dama<\/em> tenga ahora una nueva oportunidad gracias al \u00e9xito de la serie es tambi\u00e9n una ocasi\u00f3n para descubrir a un narrador lleno de fuerza, Walter Tevis. En una entrevista con la revista <em>Chess<\/em>, poco despu\u00e9s de salir el libro, le preguntaron qu\u00e9 le atra\u00eda de sus personajes favoritos, los jugadores de billar y de ajedrez, a lo que contest\u00f3: \u00abMuchos de los que practican estos juegos son personas solitarias que tratan de fugarse de sus problemas personales [\u2026]. A m\u00ed me gusta escribir sobre personas que de alg\u00fan modo est\u00e1n al margen de la sociedad [\u2026]. Personajes de gran inteligencia, pero fuera de lugar. Me gusta escribir sobre la alienaci\u00f3n\u00bb. Casi cuatro d\u00e9cadas despu\u00e9s, Beth Harmon a\u00fan tiene mucho que contarnos sobre la inteligencia, sobre la soledad y sobre los problemas vitales. 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12 min.

Crédito: Netflix.

Escucha este artículo en el podcast de LENGUA:


Por PILAR ÁLVAREZ



En abril de 1984, recién publicada su novela Gambito de dama, el escritor Walter Tevis concedió una larga entrevista a The New York Times: «Considero que Gambito de dama es un tributo a las mujeres inteligentes. Me gusta Beth por su valentía e inteligencia. Antes, muchas mujeres tenían que esconder su cerebro, pero hoy no», declaraba, recordando además con cariño a una tía rica que le regaló un tablero de ajedrez cuando cumplió siete años.

Cuando apareció esa entrevista, Tevis ya era un escritor consagrado gracias al éxito de otra adaptación de un libro suyo, El buscavidas (The Hustler), en la que Paul Newman, Oscar al mejor actor por ese trabajo, daba vida a un jugador de billar errante y solitario. Sin embargo, habían pasado casi veinte años desde su anterior novela, El hombre que cayó en la Tierra (también hay adaptación cinematográfica, El hombre que vino de las estrellas, con David Bowie). ¿Qué fue de Tevis durante esos veinte años? Según le contó a un periódico de Louisville, con el dinero que había ganado por El buscavidas se fue a vivir a México «y allí descubrí que un litro de ginebra costaba ochenta centavos. Me pasé ocho meses borracho». Enseguida vio que beber y escribir eran incompatibles, aunque el alcohol sí le permitía levantarse al día siguiente para dar clases. Trabajando de profesor, jugando al billar o al ajedrez y bebiendo pasó esas dos décadas en blanco. Tevis, que había soñado con ser, como dijo en 1959, el escritor «de la gran novela americana, una obra que conmoviera a todos», no volvió a publicar hasta que consiguió dejar la bebida. Varios intentos de suicidio, más cambios de residencia y un divorcio más tarde, se instaló en Nueva York en 1978, desintoxicado del alcohol y decidido a escribir sobre lo que más amaba y mejor conocía: el mundo del juego y el de los perdedores y solitarios. Durante esos largos años lejos de la literatura, había estudiado obsesivamente el mismo libro que guarda como su mayor tesoro la protagonista de Gambito de dama, el manual Aperturas de ajedrez modernas; había mejorado su rating, su puntuación como jugador, hasta una cifra muy aceptable, lejos de los grandes maestros pero muy por encima del aficionado medio, y hasta había cubierto como cronista el Abierto de Las Vegas, en 1974.

«Considero que Gambito de dama es un tributo a las mujeres inteligentes. Me gusta Beth por su valentía e inteligencia. Antes, muchas mujeres tenían que esconder su cerebro, pero hoy no.»

Todo ese conocimiento de primera mano y su íntima relación con los jugadores acabó por dar vida a Gambito de dama, una novela que desde su primera publicación impresionó a los conocedores del juego por su fiel retrato de unas partidas emocionantes que sirven de contrapunto a la trayectoria errática de la protagonista, adicta desde pequeña a los tranquilizantes y desde muy joven al alcohol. En la entrevista con The New York Times antes mencionada, el periodista le preguntaba cuánto de sí mismo había en el personaje de Beth Harmon y Tevis confesó: «Cuando era pequeño, me diagnosticaron unas fiebres reumáticas y en el hospital me dieron mucha medicación. De ahí viene la drogodependencia de Beth en mi novela. Escribir sobre ella me ha servido de purga».

Hoy, el éxito de la adaptación en forma de miniserie de Netflix ha dado pie, según informa la plataforma, a todo un resurgimiento del interés por el ajedrez. Peter Friedlander, vicepresidente de Series Originales en Netflix, cuenta en su web que el número de usuarios en Chess.com, el principal site de ajedrez en línea del mundo, se ha multiplicado por cinco, y la demanda de tableros y piezas de ajedrez en eBay ha crecido un 250 %. La serie es ya la más vista de la historia de la cadena, con sesenta y dos millones de visionados en sus primeros veintiocho días. «Un jaque mate de récord», titula Friedlander, que reconoce que cuando Scott Frank les propuso, hace tres años, adaptar Gambito de dama en forma de serie, nunca imaginaron un éxito tan rotundo.

¿Qué opinaría Tevis, que murió en 1984, un año después de publicar esta novela, víctima de un cáncer de pulmón a los cincuenta y seis años? Es posible que le gustara ver el cuidado que se ha puesto en el diseño de las partidas y las jugadas: no en vano Bruce Pandolfini, el mismo campeón de ajedrez que lo asesoró a él para el libro hace más de treinta y cinco años, ha sido también consultor de la serie. Según ha declarado Pandolfini a IndieWire, llegó a desarrollar casi trescientas cincuenta partidas posibles para la trama de la serie, de las que solo unas pocas se ven en pantalla, pero que sirven de telón de fondo a los ambientes en los que se mueve Beth. Pandolfini fue también asesor de la película En busca de Bobby Fischer (1993), que relata la vida, esta vez real, del joven prodigio estadounidense.

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Gambito de Harmon

Un gambito de dama es una apertura complicada, que precisa inteligencia y sangre fría, y en la que la reina corre todos los riesgos posibles pero finalmente domina a las demás piezas. Y es la metáfora en la que apoya Tevis la vida de Beth Harmon, que tiene a su favor una inteligencia privilegiada, y un mundo interior lleno de fuerza y recursos, pero un entorno lleno de obstáculos. 

Se nota que el escritor se identificaba en muchos sentidos con su personaje, y que a través de ella vierte sus críticas al microcosmos cerrado y machista de las competiciones internacionales, donde los grandes maestros se ayudan entre ellos mientras que Beth, la outsider, debe valerse solo de sus propios recursos y practicar sola. También se nota su experiencia de primera mano en el relato de los momentos de abandono y degradación de Beth, que el día antes de una de las partidas más decisivas de su vida no puede evitar la tentación de beber cuando debería estar estudiando sus mejores jugadas. Esa lucha interna de Beth Harmon contra sus demonios la convierte en una heroína humana, a pesar de su carácter difícil y solitario. Y hace brillar el contrapunto del personaje luminoso de Jolene, su mejor amiga y quien la rescata de uno de los momentos más oscuros de su vida, sin convertirlas a ninguna de las dos en ángeles ni en demonios. Esa capacidad de Walter Tevis para crear personajes con facetas, capaces de lo mejor y de lo peor, convierte sus novelas en historias llenas de emoción real, tan parecidas a la vida que el lector siente su cercanía y sus peripecias como propias.

 

Más Beth: hombres, dinero y Guerra Fría

El Gambito de dama de Netflix es notablemente fiel al libro, pero el lector descubrirá ciertos personajes algo distintos y muchos detalles nuevos o cambiados. En la serie es importante todo el diseño de vestuario, pero en el libro la ropa es para Beth toda una declaración de poder, una forma de demostrar que se ha elevado por encima del mundo sórdido en el que creció, los uniformes y el peinado igual del orfanato, la ropa anticuada y barata que le compraba su madre adoptiva.

No hay que olvidar el significado que tiene el dinero y la independencia económica en esta historia: para Tevis nunca fue fácil ganarse la vida, pasó largas temporadas en paro, otras dando clase, otras viviendo a salto de mata con los ingresos irregulares de los royalties y las cesiones al cine. La carrera de Beth en el ajedrez empieza buscando los pequeños premios de los torneos locales, cobrando cheques de pocos dólares, y siempre haciendo cuentas muy complicadas sobre los gastos de viaje, el precio de las comidas y los hoteles, para descontarlo de los posibles premios y seguir jugando, que para ella es lo mismo que seguir viviendo.

Otro detalle interesante, mucho más presente en el libro que en la serie, es la Guerra Fría entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética durante los años en que se desarrolla la trama. En ese contexto, el viaje de Beth a Rusia que cierra el libro, y la decisiva partida que juega contra el campeón del mundo ruso, adquieren un significado geoestratégico especial. Todo el país contiene la respiración cuando Beth se sienta ante ese tablero, y el resultado de la partida significa para sus compatriotas mucho más que para ella. El lector disfrutará mucho de los preparativos de ese viaje a Moscú, toda una inversión para la que a Beth no le es fácil encontrar fondos.

De la relación de Beth con los hombres no diremos mucho más para no estropear la experiencia de lectura. No olvidemos que a ella lo que más le interesa es jugar y ganar, y ese rasgo de su carácter se aplica también al amor. Beth oye desde pequeña que es insignificante, que viste mal, que es poco atractiva, que es un patito feo. Las chicas populares y vestidas a la moda que se reúnen los fines de semana y van a fiestas la dejan deslumbrada, como esos chicos arrogantes que solo se fijan en ella cuando está delante de un tablero. El libro rompe tabúes casi desde el principio, porque Beth no se siente intimidada ante ese hombre mayor que juega solo en el sótano del orfanato, ni se convierte nunca en víctima de depredadores o abusadores: en la novela todos los hombres a los que Beth presta atención juegan a su modo una partida con ella.

Que una gran novela tan injustamente olvidada como Gambito de dama tenga ahora una nueva oportunidad gracias al éxito de la serie es también una ocasión para descubrir a un narrador lleno de fuerza, Walter Tevis. En una entrevista con la revista Chess, poco después de salir el libro, le preguntaron qué le atraía de sus personajes favoritos, los jugadores de billar y de ajedrez, a lo que contestó: «Muchos de los que practican estos juegos son personas solitarias que tratan de fugarse de sus problemas personales […]. A mí me gusta escribir sobre personas que de algún modo están al margen de la sociedad […]. Personajes de gran inteligencia, pero fuera de lugar. Me gusta escribir sobre la alienación». Casi cuatro décadas después, Beth Harmon aún tiene mucho que contarnos sobre la inteligencia, sobre la soledad y sobre los problemas vitales. Es hora de jugar con ella la gran partida de su vida.

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