Entrevistas

Música para camaleones

¿Por qué ciertas canciones y obras musicales nos emocionan de inmediato aunque no sepamos una pizca de armonía y otras parecen exigirnos conocimientos que no tenemos o un esfuerzo descomunal para disfrutarlas? ¿Cuánto se debe a la composición y cuánto a nuestros juicios y prejuicios musicales? Mariano Peyrou, autor del ensayo «Oídos que no ven. Contra la idea de música intelectual» (Taurus), responde las cinco preguntas de LENGUA y destierra la noción de que ciertos estilos son impenetrables con una revelación sobre el funcionamiento invisible de las notas: cómo piensan los compositores, por qué nos resistimos a la experimentación y qué tienen en común la música clásica, el jazz, las músicas folclóricas que se reproducen de generación en generación, y las canciones de rock y pop que todos cantamos alguna vez.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">19 de mayo de 1967:\u00a0The Beatles\u00a0terminan de grabar\u00a0su nuevo \u00e1lbum experimental Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. 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\u00bfQu\u00e9 dir\u00edas a las personas que no logran entrar en ciertas m\u00fasicas porque no las entienden?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Mariano Peyrou:<\/strong> M\u00fasicos como Beethoven o los Beatles fueron muy criticados en su momento porque \u00abno se entend\u00eda\u00bb lo que estaban haciendo. La mayor\u00eda de las propuestas musicales interesantes supone una nueva manera de hacer las cosas y por lo tanto una nueva manera de escuchar. Lo que hay que aprender no son complejos par\u00e1metros musicales, sino que debemos acostumbrarnos a las obras que \u00abno entendemos\u00bb, empezar a conocerlas, hacernos amigos de ellas y captar sus particularidades. Es lo mismo que les dir\u00eda a quienes en 1820 o 1964 rechazaban a Beethoven o a los Beatles porque los escuchaban con unos o\u00eddos orientados hacia la m\u00fasica que se hac\u00eda antes. A veces sentimos curiosidad ante ciertos g\u00e9neros o m\u00fasicos, y al acercarnos a ellos tenemos esa sensaci\u00f3n de no entender. Puede pasar con la m\u00fasica contempor\u00e1nea, con el jazz moderno, con el flamenco; a alguna gente tambi\u00e9n le pasa con la m\u00fasica cl\u00e1sica o con el jazz m\u00e1s convencional. Pero a todos nos ha pasado que algunas cosas nos desagradan hasta que nos acostumbramos a ellas. Por ejemplo, el caf\u00e9: suele resultar demasiado amargo y fuerte la primera vez que lo probamos, y aprendemos a encontrar un placer en su sabor. El caf\u00e9 siempre es el mismo, pero nosotros cambiamos, adaptamos nuestro marco de referencia. Con la m\u00fasica pasa exactamente lo mismo. Si es novedosa para los oyentes, lo normal es que genere rechazo. No pasa nada. Hay que probarla otra 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\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 es importante deshacerse de la idea de m\u00fasica intelectual? \u00bfEn qu\u00e9 medida esa idea estorba a los oyentes y los distrae del objetivo principal, que es disfrutar de la m\u00fasica?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Mariano Peyrou:<\/strong>\u00a0Creo que nos enriquecer\u00eda, en vez de disfrutar de la m\u00fasica, disfrutar de \u00ablas m\u00fasicas\u00bb. O sea, tener un concepto m\u00e1s abierto de lo que es la m\u00fasica, que incluya una mayor variedad de enfoques. Lo que defiendo en el libro es que la idea de m\u00fasica intelectual suele ser una excusa para no enfrentarse a algo nuevo y desconocido, para no cambiar nuestra manera de concebir la m\u00fasica. Es un concepto que sirve a posiciones muy conservadoras. Nos proporciona una legitimaci\u00f3n para no acercarnos a propuestas distintas de las que ya conocemos<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfHay algunas m\u00fasicas que se dirigen al intelecto? \u00bfEl haber estudiado m\u00fasica no es clave para poder disfrutar de ciertos estilos?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Mariano Peyrou:\u00a0<\/strong>La m\u00fasica puede y suele dirigirse a muchas facultades: a lo espiritual, a lo emocional, a lo corporal y a lo intelectual, desde luego, pero somos los oyentes los que la escuchamos desde un lugar o desde otro. Un estudiante de percusi\u00f3n puede escuchar salsa haciendo un esfuerzo para descifrar la complejidad r\u00edtmica que hay ah\u00ed, mientras que otra persona baila despreocupadamente. Y lo mismo pasa con la m\u00fasica contempor\u00e1nea de Var\u00e8se o con el jazz de Coltrane: unos pueden argumentar que son piezas complejas intelectualmente y otros pueden tener una experiencia conmovedora al escucharlas. Estudiar m\u00fasica a veces ayuda a acercarse a unos estilos, pero tambi\u00e9n suele bloquear la recepci\u00f3n de otros.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfNo son m\u00e1s intelectuales Stockhausen o el <em>bebop<\/em> que Atahualpa Yupanki o los Beatles?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Mariano Peyrou:\u00a0<\/strong>Puede que lo sean, pero eso es irrelevante. Eso no suena, no es eso en lo que debemos centrar la escucha. Un coche es un producto sumamente intelectual, pero no hace falta ser ning\u00fan genio para conducir. Un videojuego es un producto muy intelectual, pero eso no est\u00e1 en primer plano cuando alguien juega.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfQu\u00e9 ventajas tiene vencer\u00a0nuestra resistencia a la novedad?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Mariano Peyrou:\u00a0<\/strong>En 1704 se publica en Utrecht un libro titulado <em>Una descripci\u00f3n novedosa y exacta de la costa de Guinea<\/em>. Su autor, Willem Bosman, considerado uno de los precursores de la etnomusicolog\u00eda, afirma sobre cierta m\u00fasica guineana que \u00abel ruido producido es muy desagradable; y lo que es m\u00e1s molesto es que golpean en tambor y hacen sonar el cuerno al mismo tiempo, y para que el concierto resulte todav\u00eda m\u00e1s horroroso, hay un ni\u00f1o peque\u00f1o que golpea incesantemente el interior de un hierro hueco con un trozo de madera\u00bb. Actualmente, todos percibimos que este viajero tiene una disposici\u00f3n inadecuada para enfrentarse a una m\u00fasica novedosa para \u00e9l, una actitud que no le permite percibir lo que pueda haber de interesante en un producto cultural que funciona con un sistema de valores distinto del propio. Es, por supuesto, la misma actitud que da lugar al racismo o la homofobia. La flexibilidad, en este sentido, no solo tiene la ventaja de enriquecernos, sino que es una postura mejor desde un punto de vista 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5 minutos

19 de mayo de 1967: The Beatles terminan de grabar su nuevo álbum experimental Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Crédito: Getty Images.

LENGUA: ¿Qué dirías a las personas que no logran entrar en ciertas músicas porque no las entienden?

Mariano Peyrou: Músicos como Beethoven o los Beatles fueron muy criticados en su momento porque «no se entendía» lo que estaban haciendo. La mayoría de las propuestas musicales interesantes supone una nueva manera de hacer las cosas y por lo tanto una nueva manera de escuchar. Lo que hay que aprender no son complejos parámetros musicales, sino que debemos acostumbrarnos a las obras que «no entendemos», empezar a conocerlas, hacernos amigos de ellas y captar sus particularidades. Es lo mismo que les diría a quienes en 1820 o 1964 rechazaban a Beethoven o a los Beatles porque los escuchaban con unos oídos orientados hacia la música que se hacía antes. A veces sentimos curiosidad ante ciertos géneros o músicos, y al acercarnos a ellos tenemos esa sensación de no entender. Puede pasar con la música contemporánea, con el jazz moderno, con el flamenco; a alguna gente también le pasa con la música clásica o con el jazz más convencional. Pero a todos nos ha pasado que algunas cosas nos desagradan hasta que nos acostumbramos a ellas. Por ejemplo, el café: suele resultar demasiado amargo y fuerte la primera vez que lo probamos, y aprendemos a encontrar un placer en su sabor. El café siempre es el mismo, pero nosotros cambiamos, adaptamos nuestro marco de referencia. Con la música pasa exactamente lo mismo. Si es novedosa para los oyentes, lo normal es que genere rechazo. No pasa nada. Hay que probarla otra vez.

LENGUA: ¿Por qué es importante deshacerse de la idea de música intelectual? ¿En qué medida esa idea estorba a los oyentes y los distrae del objetivo principal, que es disfrutar de la música?

Mariano Peyrou: Creo que nos enriquecería, en vez de disfrutar de la música, disfrutar de «las músicas». O sea, tener un concepto más abierto de lo que es la música, que incluya una mayor variedad de enfoques. Lo que defiendo en el libro es que la idea de música intelectual suele ser una excusa para no enfrentarse a algo nuevo y desconocido, para no cambiar nuestra manera de concebir la música. Es un concepto que sirve a posiciones muy conservadoras. Nos proporciona una legitimación para no acercarnos a propuestas distintas de las que ya conocemos

LENGUA: ¿Hay algunas músicas que se dirigen al intelecto? ¿El haber estudiado música no es clave para poder disfrutar de ciertos estilos?

Mariano Peyrou: La música puede y suele dirigirse a muchas facultades: a lo espiritual, a lo emocional, a lo corporal y a lo intelectual, desde luego, pero somos los oyentes los que la escuchamos desde un lugar o desde otro. Un estudiante de percusión puede escuchar salsa haciendo un esfuerzo para descifrar la complejidad rítmica que hay ahí, mientras que otra persona baila despreocupadamente. Y lo mismo pasa con la música contemporánea de Varèse o con el jazz de Coltrane: unos pueden argumentar que son piezas complejas intelectualmente y otros pueden tener una experiencia conmovedora al escucharlas. Estudiar música a veces ayuda a acercarse a unos estilos, pero también suele bloquear la recepción de otros.

LENGUA: ¿No son más intelectuales Stockhausen o el bebop que Atahualpa Yupanki o los Beatles?

Mariano Peyrou: Puede que lo sean, pero eso es irrelevante. Eso no suena, no es eso en lo que debemos centrar la escucha. Un coche es un producto sumamente intelectual, pero no hace falta ser ningún genio para conducir. Un videojuego es un producto muy intelectual, pero eso no está en primer plano cuando alguien juega. 

LENGUA: ¿Qué ventajas tiene vencer nuestra resistencia a la novedad?

Mariano Peyrou: En 1704 se publica en Utrecht un libro titulado Una descripción novedosa y exacta de la costa de Guinea. Su autor, Willem Bosman, considerado uno de los precursores de la etnomusicología, afirma sobre cierta música guineana que «el ruido producido es muy desagradable; y lo que es más molesto es que golpean en tambor y hacen sonar el cuerno al mismo tiempo, y para que el concierto resulte todavía más horroroso, hay un niño pequeño que golpea incesantemente el interior de un hierro hueco con un trozo de madera». Actualmente, todos percibimos que este viajero tiene una disposición inadecuada para enfrentarse a una música novedosa para él, una actitud que no le permite percibir lo que pueda haber de interesante en un producto cultural que funciona con un sistema de valores distinto del propio. Es, por supuesto, la misma actitud que da lugar al racismo o la homofobia. La flexibilidad, en este sentido, no solo tiene la ventaja de enriquecernos, sino que es una postura mejor desde un punto de vista ético.

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