Música

Las memorias de Javier Limón: un universo de oro

Javier Limón es probablemente el productor musical español más importante de los últimos veinte años. Ganador de ocho premios Grammy, ha producido casi cien discos de artistas como Diego el Cigala, Bebo Valdés, Paco de Lucía, Andrés Calamaro, Buika, Ana Belén, Antonio Orozco, Estopa, Joan Manuel Serrat y Joaquín Sabina, entre muchísimos otros. «Limón. Memorias de un productor musical» (Debate) es un libro fascinante y divertido, en el que recorre tanto éxitos como fracasos, y que se lee por momentos como una clase magistral, y por otros como una sobremesa llena de anécdotas y carcajadas. LENGUA ofrece a continuación una selección tanto de unas como de otras, extraídas de un libro que es un viaje por el tiempo y por el mundo de la música.

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Empez\u00f3 como algo muy peque\u00f1o; el objetivo era vender veinticinco mil copias y acabamos rebasando los dos millones. El origen de aquel \u00e9xito se larv\u00f3 en el trabajo anterior, <em>Corren tiempos de alegr\u00eda,<\/em> en el que no pocos han querido ver una suerte de preludio del siguiente, pero no fue as\u00ed. Para m\u00ed, ese fue el primer gran encuentro entre Bebo y el Cigala. La raz\u00f3n de por qu\u00e9 este disco, previo a <em>L\u00e1grimas negras,<\/em> no disfrut\u00f3 del mismo impacto, no es art\u00edstica. Quiero pensar que fue m\u00e1s bien por razones prosaicas que tuvieron que ver con el marketing inicial, el apoyo medi\u00e1tico y el modo de enfocar el branding. 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negras.\u00a0<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mvq16ok\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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alma de <em>L\u00e1grimas negras<\/em> es Bebo Vald\u00e9s. El Cigala canta maravillosamente bien, sobre todo porque al no saberse los temas, en estudio ten\u00eda que ir leyendo la letra casi a tiempo real, y eso le confer\u00eda una inocencia y una ternura a la hora de acercarse a las canciones que produc\u00eda, por un lado, un reverencial respeto a la melod\u00eda superior al que habitualmente los cantaores suelen profesar y, por otro, otorgaba tambi\u00e9n a la interpretaci\u00f3n una fragilidad que se supo grabar y transmitir. El trabajo fue muy importante a nivel de producci\u00f3n, y aunque mucha gente se empe\u00f1a en discutir si el verdadero productor fue Fernando Trueba o Javier Lim\u00f3n, creo que no hay que darle tantas vueltas al asunto. En primer lugar, Fernando Trueba ya era por entonces un mito en su arte y el genio descubridor de belleza que viene siendo desde entonces, y yo no era m\u00e1s que un jovenzuelo aprendiz de productor flamenco. Revisando la discograf\u00eda de Trueba como productor y la m\u00eda est\u00e1 claro que somos muy compatibles y queda clara cu\u00e1l es la aportaci\u00f3n de cada uno. Fernando hizo la selecci\u00f3n de repertorio, facilit\u00f3 una colaboraci\u00f3n con Mariscal para el dise\u00f1o gr\u00e1fico y la puesta en escena, tom\u00f3 decisiones estrat\u00e9gicas y emocionales maravillosas, como el propio orden del disco, e hizo una aportaci\u00f3n tremenda a nivel de marketing. Creo que mi influencia tuvo m\u00e1s que ver con lo relativo al oficio de productor musical, focaliz\u00e1ndome m\u00e1s en las t\u00e9cnicas, en la grabaci\u00f3n y en las tomas. No fue el \u00fanico disco que coproduje con Fernando, y estoy seguro de que viviremos m\u00e1s aventu\u00adras juntos. Es \u00fanico, y subrayar\u00eda que el mejor coproductor con el que he tenido la suerte de trabajar en un proyecto discogr\u00e1fico.\u00a0<\/p><p>Probablemente este disco haya pasado a la historia como el mejor de la d\u00e9cada. Aunque con las calificaciones siempre hay que ser muy cuidadoso. Soy de la opini\u00f3n de que hay trabajos que, adem\u00e1s de ser grandes obras maestras en t\u00e9rminos estrictamente musicales y contar con un apoyo de marketing y un despliegue medi\u00e1tico extraordinarios, tienen la suerte de caer en gracia y de que el boca a boca los lleve a muchas casas. Este fue, sin duda, el caso paradigm\u00e1tico de <em>L\u00e1grimas negras.<\/em> No fue solo una cuesti\u00f3n musical. Si volvi\u00e9ramos a grabarlo con las mismas canciones a lo mejor no pasar\u00eda nada; de hecho, creo que ha sido el disco m\u00e1s versionado y conceptualmente emulado desde ese a\u00f1o. He visto a muchos artistas intentar repetir el experimento con un piano, un contrabajo, unos boleros y un poquito de flamenco. En mi opini\u00f3n, no ha vuelto a funcionar porque sin Bebo no se puede hacer algo parecido. Lo que s\u00ed es cierto es que naci\u00f3 de pie, bendecido. Cuando ve\u00eda a gente en las tiendas comprando monta\u00f1as de discos para regalar a sus amigos lo \u00fanico que sent\u00eda era una profunda emoci\u00f3n. En cualquier caso, para m\u00ed, s\u00ed es uno de los mejores discos de mi carrera y de la carrera de todos los que participamos en las apenas cincuenta horas de grabaci\u00f3n que dur\u00f3 la 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IGLESIAS: MI RAM\u00d3N Y YO<\/strong><\/p><p>Durante una \u00e9poca de mi vida estuve produciendo muchos discos para Sony. Ellos hab\u00edan sido los primeros en darme una oportunidad como productor, y a trav\u00e9s de <em>L\u00e1grimas negras<\/em> y los discos del Cigala hab\u00edamos encontrado una f\u00f3rmula de \u00e9xito. En aquellos tiempos me hab\u00eda convertido en una especie de talism\u00e1n de la producci\u00f3n, aunque yo creo que era m\u00e1s una cuesti\u00f3n personal que musical; es de todos sabido que los empleados de esta industria no brillan precisamente por su conocimiento del arte. La cuesti\u00f3n es que el presidente me invit\u00f3 a una cena con la estrella m\u00e1s grande de la compa\u00f1\u00eda, el mism\u00edsimo Julio Iglesias. La idea era que nos hici\u00e9ramos amigos y de ah\u00ed surgiera una colaboraci\u00f3n con el fin de animar a Julio a grabar un remake, sin contemplaciones, de<em> L\u00e1grimas negras.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Me sentaron a su derecha, en un restaurante llamado Alboroque, que estaba situado en la madrile\u00f1a calle de Atocha. El due\u00f1o, Carlos Sotos, famoso por sus antiguas aventuras con la UGT y Felipe Gonz\u00e1lez, nos atendi\u00f3 como pr\u00edncipes. Durante la cena, Julio hizo un alarde extraordinario de amabilidad y simpat\u00eda. Conoc\u00eda por su nombre y apellidos a todos los miembros de la compa\u00f1\u00eda. En una mesa en la que \u00e9ramos m\u00e1s de veinte comensales le pregunt\u00f3 a cada uno por peque\u00f1os asuntos personales. A todos menos a m\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p><p>A m\u00ed no me dirig\u00eda la palabra. Justo al final de la velada llam\u00f3 al <em>sommelier<\/em> para preguntarle si ten\u00edan otros vinos por el mismo precio de la botella que nos est\u00e1bamos bebiendo. El <em>sommelier<\/em> le ofreci\u00f3 un par de opciones y Julio le respondi\u00f3: \u201cHombre, los precios que est\u00e1s dando var\u00edan un poco, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta que el due\u00f1o de esa bodega la vendi\u00f3 hace tres a\u00f1os para irse a vivir a no s\u00e9 d\u00f3nde\u201d. La conclusi\u00f3n es que Julio sab\u00eda m\u00e1s de vinos que el tipo que invent\u00f3 el vino, y estaba regal\u00e1ndose un alarde, a lo pavo real, para desplegar sus encantos. Fue en ese preciso momento cuando se gir\u00f3 hacia m\u00ed y me pregunt\u00f3 directamente: \u00abY t\u00fa (no sab\u00eda mi nombre), \u00bfqu\u00e9 disco me har\u00edas?\u00bb. Visiblemente inc\u00f3modo, apa\u00f1\u00e9 una respuesta de repertorio, deslizando que podr\u00eda destilar una p\u00f3cima con m\u00fasicas de ra\u00edz, con sabor latino. Recuerdo que mencion\u00e9 a Alicia Keys, que en ese momento estaba muy de moda y hab\u00eda vendido quince millones de copias de su \u00faltimo trabajo; como hab\u00edamos hecho un tema con ella y Bebo Vald\u00e9s, me parec\u00eda una buena referencia. Julio me mir\u00f3 antes de hablar: \u00abAlicia Keys no es nadie, solo ha vendido diez o quince millones de copias, eso no es nada. Mi pregunta es m\u00e1s concreta: quer\u00eda saber qu\u00e9 tipos de acordes vas a usar con mi voz, \u00bfnovenas, sextas?\u00bb. \u00abBueno, la verdad es que a\u00fan no sabemos ni las canciones, por lo tanto no he pensado en las armon\u00edas ni en sus tensiones\u00bb. \u00abPues deber\u00edas pensar en ellas. Te voy a contar una historia: hace muchos a\u00f1os yo estaba con mi amigo Frank [Sinatra] en mi casa, escuchando algunos de los temas que iba grabar. En el piano estaba mi amigo y productor Ram\u00f3n Arcusa [del D\u00fao Din\u00e1mico]. En un momento dado, Frank se acerc\u00f3 al piano y empez\u00f3 a tocar la canci\u00f3n en otro tono, aconsejando cambiar la tonalidad para mi voz. Ram\u00f3n le dijo que \u00e9l solo sab\u00eda tocar en do mayor, con las teclas blancas, y que no pod\u00eda cambiar el tono. Entonces Frank me dijo que mi productor no era demasiado bueno, pero que \u00e9l conoc\u00eda a un tal Quincy [Jones] que me iba hacer un trabajo fenomenal. Al principio dud\u00e9 un poco, pero luego me anim\u00e9 y montamos una entrevista en el estudio con Quincy. Al cabo de dos horas me di cuenta de que no val\u00eda un duro y me libr\u00e9 de \u00e9l, llam\u00e9 a Frank y le dije: \\\"Frank, qu\u00e9date t\u00fa con Quincy, que yo me quedo con mi Ram\u00f3n\\\". Recuerdo que vend\u00ed cuarenta millones de discos y Frank con su disco y Quincy solo un mill\u00f3n, un gran fracaso para \u00e9l. Al final me tuvo que dar la raz\u00f3n\u00bb. Despu\u00e9s de esta impresionante an\u00e9cdota, de la que me creo alrededor de un tercio, me solt\u00f3 en la cara: \u00abAs\u00ed que vete pensando en las tensiones y en las armon\u00edas si quieres alg\u00fan d\u00eda trabajar conmigo\u00bb. \u00c9l se despidi\u00f3 diciendo que se iba de vacaciones con Bill y Hillary a Rep\u00fablica Dominicana, donde tiene una de sus mansiones, y que estar\u00eda perdido durante una \u00e9poca. Por supuesto, no hice el disco, y aunque musicalmente Julio Iglesias no me parece demasiado interesante, he de reconocer que me hubiera encantado trabajar con \u00e9l porque, como personaje y como director de marketing, me parece un genio.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4mr7v99\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abFrank (Sinatra) me dijo que mi productor no era demasiado bueno, pero que \u00e9l conoc\u00eda a un tal Quincy (Jones) que me iba hacer un trabajo fenomenal. Dud\u00e9 un poco, pero montamos una entrevista en el estudio con Quincy. Al cabo de dos horas me di cuenta de que no val\u00eda un duro y me libr\u00e9 de \u00e9l, llam\u00e9 a Frank y le dije: \\\"Frank, qu\u00e9date t\u00fa con Quincy, que yo me quedo con mi Ram\u00f3n\\\". Recuerdo que vend\u00ed cuarenta millones de discos y Frank con su disco y Quincy solo un mill\u00f3n, un gran fracaso para \u00e9l. Al final me tuvo que dar la raz\u00f3n\u00bb. Julio Iglesias<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"e8gy6w8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>PACO DE LUC\u00cdA: EL PRECIO DEL ARTE<\/strong><\/p><p><em>Cositas buenas<\/em> es quiz\u00e1 el disco de flamenco m\u00e1s importante de la d\u00e9cada del 2000. El an\u00e1lisis musical de este trabajo ha de hacerse desde el punto de vista de la composici\u00f3n. Paco de Luc\u00eda hab\u00eda escuchado algunas de mis producciones, especialmente <em>Entre vareta y canasta<\/em> del Cigala, y le llamaban la atenci\u00f3n algunos de los trucos de edici\u00f3n empleados en ese \u00e1lbum. Cre\u00eda haber dado con el modo de compensar el hecho de no saber escribir m\u00fasica. Hasta <em>Cositas buenas,<\/em> nuestro guitarrista m\u00e1s internacional lo grababa todo en una cinta de casete, falseta a falseta, y luego imaginaba una estructura. Con esta nueva f\u00f3rmula pod\u00eda por fin componer libremente sin preocuparse de la estructura de la obra hasta casi el final. Fue un disco revolucionario, y sobre todo, por fin, su autor, despu\u00e9s de media vida, se liber\u00f3 del yugo de la t\u00e9cnica.\u00a0<\/p><p>Paco me llam\u00f3 porque quer\u00eda el Pro Tools. Me acerqu\u00e9 a la casa del barrio de Aluche donde viv\u00eda su madre. Fuimos juntos a comprar un ordenador y una tarjeta de sonido y le instal\u00e9 el programa. Le escrib\u00ed en una hoja de papel c\u00f3mo se abr\u00eda una sesi\u00f3n, una pista y un poco c\u00f3mo se trabajaba en el programa. Luego se fue de gira durante seis meses y no volv\u00ed a saber nada de \u00e9l durante ese tiempo; pens\u00e9 que hab\u00eda acabado en Canc\u00fan y que se hab\u00eda cansado del Pro Tools. Cuando volvi\u00f3, me llam\u00f3 y vi que hab\u00eda estado trabajando en el programa, \u00e9l solo, y que lo manejaba perfectamente. Paco, que era un genio (no uso este adjetivo con facilidad), hab\u00eda aprendido de manera intuitiva todo el funcionamiento e incluso f\u00f3rmulas nuevas de programaci\u00f3n. Todo a su manera, claro; por ejemplo, cuando el ordenador fallaba le daba dos golpetazos y le insultaba, y debo decir que, para mi sorpresa, funcionaba. Sosten\u00eda que las m\u00e1quinas respond\u00edan de buen grado a un bofet\u00f3n propinado a tiempo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cobrarle a Paco de Luc\u00eda es algo que normalmente nadie hac\u00eda. Se entend\u00eda que tocar o trabajar con \u00e9l supon\u00eda un orgullo y un placer que no necesitaba ning\u00fan tipo de retribuci\u00f3n. Son muchos los m\u00fasicos que hoy pasan por genios que han tenido el privilegio de acompa\u00f1ar a Paco en sus grabaciones solamente por disfrutar de la experiencia. Despu\u00e9s de grabar <em>Cositas buenas,<\/em> Paco me pregunt\u00f3 por mi salario. Obviamente le contest\u00e9 que ya me daba por pagado por haber participado en esa maravillosa obra maestra, pero \u00e9l, argumentando que no era lo mismo venir a colaborar un d\u00eda o dos que estar durante a\u00f1os trabajando en un proyecto, me quer\u00eda hacer un regalo. Acab\u00f3 compr\u00e1ndome una cama india que le gustaba mucho y que a\u00fan conservo en mi casa de San Bartolom\u00e9 de la Torre. De igual modo, \u00e9l no sol\u00eda cobrar nada a los amigos o a los m\u00fasicos que empezaban y le ped\u00edan una colaboraci\u00f3n. Cuenta, por ejemplo, Alejandro Sanz, que despu\u00e9s de tocar en uno de sus discos le dijo a Paco que le gustar\u00eda hacerle un buen regalo. Pap\u00e1 Paco contest\u00f3 que no quer\u00eda nada, que hab\u00eda ido por el placer de compartir unos d\u00edas con Alejandro y que estaba muy contento con la grabaci\u00f3n. Tras la insistencia de Sanz, Paco le acab\u00f3 diciendo que en su casa de M\u00e9xico se hab\u00eda roto un peque\u00f1o termostato y que le era imposible encontrar un recambio cerca de la zona. Era un peque\u00f1o aparatito de dos o tres d\u00f3lares. Nunca sabremos si se trat\u00f3 de una broma, pero lo cierto es que Alejandro acab\u00f3 mand\u00e1ndole una bolsa con quinientos termostatos. Dif\u00edcil ponerle precio al arte. Imposible valorar la genialidad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5qla8x9\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Javier Lim\u00f3n y Paco de Luc\u00eda. Imagen cedida por Casa Lim\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7wf1o9t\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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MORENTE: EL ARTE DE CONTROLAR LA INSPIRACI\u00d3N<\/strong><\/p><p>Enrique Morente es uno de los cantaores m\u00e1s importantes de la historia. La b\u00fasqueda insaciable de la belleza lo llev\u00f3 a una constante evoluci\u00f3n desde sus primeros tientos profesionales. Tal vez el cambio m\u00e1s importante, me refiero a la congregaci\u00f3n de las esencias que concurren en el sustrato musical del que se alimentara a tan temprana edad, tuvo lugar en M\u00e9xico, donde pas\u00f3 gran parte de su juventud. Durante aquellos a\u00f1os en los que lleg\u00f3 a conocer a Le\u00f3n Felipe, contaba que descubri\u00f3 su capacidad para \u00abcontrolar la inspiraci\u00f3n\u00bb. He intentado buscar otras palabras, incluso en su presencia, para tratar de ejemplificar lo que encerraba semejante afirmaci\u00f3n, pero es imposible. El control de la inspiraci\u00f3n. Es lo que permite que un ser humano pueda dedicarse profesionalmente a la interpretaci\u00f3n. En cualquier boda, bautizo o fiesta gitana, en cualquier celebraci\u00f3n donde la m\u00fasica o el arte tengan cabida, siempre puede manifestarse la inspiraci\u00f3n e iluminar a cualquiera que re\u00fana las aptitudes necesarias para el cante, el baile, etc., pero solo algunos elegidos son capaces de aprehender esa inspiraci\u00f3n y guardarla para el momento apropiado, controlarla y liberarla en el preciso instante en que se levanta el tel\u00f3n. Pero quiz\u00e1 lo m\u00e1s llamativo de Enrique como persona, al margen de su arte, era su sentido del humor. Jam\u00e1s me he re\u00eddo tanto como con Enrique y Pepe Habichuela en el Candela. Los dos juntos eran una ametralladora de ocurrencias e ingenio comparable solo a la de Sabina y Serrat en sus mejores tiempos. Enrique pose\u00eda un sentido del humor refinado e ir\u00f3nico y totalmente fuera de lo com\u00fan. Ten\u00edas que conocerle bien para constatar cu\u00e1n mordaz y sarc\u00e1stico pod\u00eda llegar a ser. Cuentan, por ejemplo, que una vez lo encontraron en el restaurante del hotel donde se alojaba antes de un concierto comi\u00e9ndose una tostada, y que en la mesa de al lado hab\u00eda otra tostada pero nadie daba cuenta de ella. Al preguntarle, extra\u00f1ados, Enrique contest\u00f3 que la hab\u00eda pedido para la mosca. Por lo visto, uno de esos insectos lo hab\u00eda estado incordiando y, a fin de no llamar la atenci\u00f3n al camarero a prop\u00f3sito de tama\u00f1a inconveniencia le pidi\u00f3 una para la mosca. As\u00ed era Enrique, capaz de bajar de su casa al coche con el mando de la tele en la mano. Un genio arriba y abajo del escenario.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"y529lau\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Con Andr\u00e9s, la disciplina lleg\u00f3 a ser una herramienta humor\u00edstica; recuerdo que en una tienda de Buenos Aires llegamos a comprarnos dos torres de polos Lacoste de todos los colores y nos pon\u00edamos de acuerdo para ir uniformados todos los d\u00edas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o1q600j\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>ANDR\u00c9S CALAMARO: ME APLAST\u00d3 VER AL GIGANTE<\/strong><\/p><p>La relaci\u00f3n con Andr\u00e9s Calamaro empez\u00f3 en el camerino de la madrile\u00f1a sala Clamores tras un concierto de Jerry Gonz\u00e1lez. Estaba con su novia Manuela y fue el principio de una gran amistad. Por esa \u00e9poca Andr\u00e9s viv\u00eda en la calle Hermosilla y se pasaba noches y noches creando de manera compulsiva. Hab\u00eda lanzado <em>El salm\u00f3n,<\/em> con ciento tres canciones en cinco CD, y por entonces ten\u00eda incluso m\u00e1s grabaciones listas. Compon\u00eda sin parar, y cuando no compon\u00eda hac\u00eda alg\u00fan arreglo o versi\u00f3n de otra canci\u00f3n cl\u00e1sica.\u00a0<\/p><p>Andr\u00e9s es un tipo como Keith Richards: combina una actitud roquera ante la vida y un estatus de \u00eddolo de masas con una afici\u00f3n desmedida por la m\u00fasica y un conocimiento enciclop\u00e9dico del jazz, el hip hop, el flamenco y las m\u00fasicas de ra\u00edz. Con \u00e9l la conversaci\u00f3n se elevaba de nivel y llegaba a momentos emocionantes al hablar de la zamba argentina, de la chacarera, del chamam\u00e9, de Gardel, del polaco Goyeneche y de Juanjo Dom\u00ednguez. Fueron muchos los secretos de la m\u00fasica argentina que me revel\u00f3. De ah\u00ed naci\u00f3 una gran amistad que dura hasta el presente. Fui a su casa en Buenos Aires, en el barrio de Recoleta, donde \u00edbamos al cementerio a ver los edificios donde algunas parejas indiscretas pasaban veladas, o a comer carne al M\u00fanich. Me ense\u00f1\u00f3 el lado m\u00e1s cosmopolita de la capital, que es, por supuesto, una estaci\u00f3n inevitable en la vida de cualquier m\u00fasico.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pasado un tiempo flirteando con la posibilidad de grabar juntos lleg\u00f3 una \u00e9poca en la que Andr\u00e9s se tom\u00f3 la vida con mucha m\u00e1s tranquilidad y entr\u00f3 en una etapa extremadamente saludable. Decidi\u00f3 irse a vivir al campo, se compr\u00f3 un burrito llamado Morenito y me propuso grabar un disco de versiones. Nos metimos en el estudio con horario fijo, de las diez de la ma\u00f1ana a las cuatro de la tarde, con disciplina militar y f\u00e9rreas rutinas. Com\u00edamos patatas, huevos, k\u00e9tchup y pan en el mismo sitio y a la misma hora. Ese fue nuestro men\u00fa diario. Para un tipo que, hasta entonces, dorm\u00eda una de cada cuatro noches era una manera de controlar la situaci\u00f3n. La disciplina lleg\u00f3 a ser una herramienta humor\u00edstica; recuerdo que en una tienda de Buenos Aires llegamos a comprarnos dos torres de polos Lacoste de todos los colores y nos pon\u00edamos de acuerdo para ir uniformados todos los d\u00edas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Grabamos las canciones con Ni\u00f1o Josele siempre con la tonalidad original, fuera de hombre o de mujer, de Los Panchos o de quien fuera. Hab\u00eda temas que le quedaban un poco altos o bajos, pero esa era la gracia, disciplina hasta el m\u00e1ximo nivel. Fueron muchas las grandes canciones que hicimos, como <em>Malena, La distancia, Sus ojos se cerraron, Algo contigo<\/em> o <em>El cantante<\/em> de H\u00e9ctor Lavoe, que da t\u00edtulo al disco. En fin, grandes temas del cancionero latinoamericano.<\/p><p>Hay tres excepciones en el disco, que son canciones originales que Calamaro quiso incluir. Dos de ellas, <em>La libertad<\/em> y<em> Las oportunidades,<\/em> son grandes temas que quedaron como parte del repertorio. Otro tema, <em>Estadio Azteca,<\/em> inspirado en el estadio de f\u00fatbol de Ciudad de M\u00e9xico, para muchos forma parte de las canciones m\u00e1s grandes de Andr\u00e9s. En la m\u00fasica siempre hay una parte de talento, otra de trabajo y una dosis nada despreciable de suerte. Con ese tema debo admitir que tropezamos con algo de esta; los solos del final, el <em>groove<\/em> o la estructura fueron sencillamente afortunados. Andr\u00e9s toc\u00f3 la ac\u00fastica de manera brutal y nos sali\u00f3 una obra maestra. Si tuviera que salvar diez temas de Casa Lim\u00f3n, este ser\u00eda uno de 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Imagen cedida por Casa Lim\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xdbu8wl\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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MANUEL SERRAT: UN D\u00cdA PARA TODO<\/strong><\/p><p>Serrat pertenece a esa clase de personas que ha vivido de todo y a la que pocas cosas le sorprenden. Por lo general, en las \u00e9pocas en que hemos trabajado, las comidas suelen ser momentos de tranquilidad en los que se suele hablar de cosas rutinarias, sencillas y de andar por casa, y a las que no les damos demasiada importancia. Por ejemplo, durante una \u00e9poca \u00edbamos todos los d\u00edas a comer rodaballo a la Casa de Campo; charl\u00e1bamos con Juanito en el restaurante El Currito, un camarero venido a menos cuyo pasado en Londres le hac\u00eda ins\u00f3litamente divertido a la hora de contar an\u00e9cdotas; otros d\u00edas \u00edbamos al Samm a comer arroz, una de las especialidades del lugar. Entonces el nivel de la conversaci\u00f3n s\u00ed sol\u00eda elevarse; cosa gastron\u00f3mica, supongo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Serrat siempre act\u00faa como un tipo normal, de esos que te hacen sentir muy c\u00f3modo. Las conversaciones discurr\u00edan habitualmente con tranquilidad y serenidad, pero si alguien dispone de paciencia y se siente capaz de aguardar, como quien espera pescando que la presa muerda el anzuelo, en alg\u00fan momento dejar\u00e1 el mundanal ruido y se desmarcar\u00e1 con una de esas historias que solo un genio de la canci\u00f3n y de la vida puede contar. Ahora, si en alg\u00fan momento de la comida, sobre todo al aproximarse la sobremesa, Joan Manuel de pronto se convierte en Serrat, te encuentras sentado con un sabio, un poco como me pasaba con Paco de Luc\u00eda. Esos momentos en que Serrat habla de sus aventuras infantiles, de cuando viv\u00eda en un apartamento con el D\u00fao Din\u00e1mico en los a\u00f1os setenta, de su relaci\u00f3n con Lola Flores... Ser\u00eda tremendo escribir un anecdotario sobre todas esas cosas. Era como pasar de o\u00edr unas sevillanas a escuchar la mejor sole\u00e1 por buler\u00edas de Tom\u00e1s Pav\u00f3n. Eso a m\u00ed me impresionaba.\u00a0<\/p><p>Recuerdo el d\u00eda que me cont\u00f3 sobre su encuentro con Fidel Castro. Le invit\u00f3 a cenar, y durante horas solo habl\u00f3 el Comandante. Nada raro en \u00e9l, por otro lado. La pol\u00edtica en la isla, la historia, la educaci\u00f3n... Habl\u00f3 de todo, pero solo largaba \u00e9l. Ya entrada la madrugada, Serrat le pregunt\u00f3 por el D\u00eda de la Juventud, que justo se celebraba entonces en La Habana. Ah\u00ed le gan\u00f3 el coraz\u00f3n. Fidel cambi\u00f3 la cara, ya agotado: \u00abAqu\u00ed tenemos un d\u00eda para todo...\u00bb. En ese momento se hizo un silencio: \u00abAmigo, estoy tan cansado...\u00bb. Su cara reflejaba el agotamiento de un intelectual venido a dictador que no pod\u00eda m\u00e1s. Parec\u00eda harto hasta de s\u00ed mismo. Era la viva imagen de un hombre agotado pero, por fin, humano y cercano.\u00a0<br \/><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>BUIKA: FRONTERA Y RA\u00cdZ<\/strong><\/p><p>Dir\u00edase que los m\u00fasicos, en general, forman parte de una rara secta. La necesidad de libertad para crear hace que muchos de ellos, espec\u00edficamente aquellos pertenecientes a las llamadas m\u00fasicas, digamos, de ra\u00edz, se muevan siempre en la frontera de la ilegalidad. Los tangueros, flamencos y dem\u00e1s raras aves del panorama musical siempre han sentido una especial atracci\u00f3n por todo lo prohibido. Al margen de que, durante cierta \u00e9poca las drogas, dec\u00edan, ayudaban a pensar, recuerdo una frase de Buika en una conversaci\u00f3n que tuvimos en el festival de North Sea, en Rotterdam, que define esto perfectamente: \u00abEn mi vida, m\u00e1s o menos una cuarta parte de lo que hago o digo es mentira o ilegal; los m\u00fasicos probablemente deber\u00edamos estar todos entre rejas\u00bb.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/musica\/camaron-de-la-isla\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Camar\u00f3n de la Isla, el cantaor que no quer\u00eda ser un dios<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/musica\/quien-era-gata-cattana\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfQui\u00e9n era Gata Cattana?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span 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15 minutos

Javier Limón. Crédito: Eva Marqués.

LÁGRIMAS NEGRAS: EN ESTADO DE GRACIA

Lágrimas negras es, qué duda cabe, uno de los trabajos más importantes de mi carrera. Empezó como algo muy pequeño; el objetivo era vender veinticinco mil copias y acabamos rebasando los dos millones. El origen de aquel éxito se larvó en el trabajo anterior, Corren tiempos de alegría, en el que no pocos han querido ver una suerte de preludio del siguiente, pero no fue así. Para mí, ese fue el primer gran encuentro entre Bebo y el Cigala. La razón de por qué este disco, previo a Lágrimas negras, no disfrutó del mismo impacto, no es artística. Quiero pensar que fue más bien por razones prosaicas que tuvieron que ver con el marketing inicial, el apoyo mediático y el modo de enfocar el branding. No pocas veces ha sonado en mi casa Amar y vivir confundiendo a todo el mundo, pues muchos piensan que lo que suena es Lágrimas negras. 

El alma de Lágrimas negras es Bebo Valdés. El Cigala canta maravillosamente bien, sobre todo porque al no saberse los temas, en estudio tenía que ir leyendo la letra casi a tiempo real, y eso le confería una inocencia y una ternura a la hora de acercarse a las canciones que producía, por un lado, un reverencial respeto a la melodía superior al que habitualmente los cantaores suelen profesar y, por otro, otorgaba también a la interpretación una fragilidad que se supo grabar y transmitir. El trabajo fue muy importante a nivel de producción, y aunque mucha gente se empeña en discutir si el verdadero productor fue Fernando Trueba o Javier Limón, creo que no hay que darle tantas vueltas al asunto. En primer lugar, Fernando Trueba ya era por entonces un mito en su arte y el genio descubridor de belleza que viene siendo desde entonces, y yo no era más que un jovenzuelo aprendiz de productor flamenco. Revisando la discografía de Trueba como productor y la mía está claro que somos muy compatibles y queda clara cuál es la aportación de cada uno. Fernando hizo la selección de repertorio, facilitó una colaboración con Mariscal para el diseño gráfico y la puesta en escena, tomó decisiones estratégicas y emocionales maravillosas, como el propio orden del disco, e hizo una aportación tremenda a nivel de marketing. Creo que mi influencia tuvo más que ver con lo relativo al oficio de productor musical, focalizándome más en las técnicas, en la grabación y en las tomas. No fue el único disco que coproduje con Fernando, y estoy seguro de que viviremos más aventu­ras juntos. Es único, y subrayaría que el mejor coproductor con el que he tenido la suerte de trabajar en un proyecto discográfico. 

Probablemente este disco haya pasado a la historia como el mejor de la década. Aunque con las calificaciones siempre hay que ser muy cuidadoso. Soy de la opinión de que hay trabajos que, además de ser grandes obras maestras en términos estrictamente musicales y contar con un apoyo de marketing y un despliegue mediático extraordinarios, tienen la suerte de caer en gracia y de que el boca a boca los lleve a muchas casas. Este fue, sin duda, el caso paradigmático de Lágrimas negras. No fue solo una cuestión musical. Si volviéramos a grabarlo con las mismas canciones a lo mejor no pasaría nada; de hecho, creo que ha sido el disco más versionado y conceptualmente emulado desde ese año. He visto a muchos artistas intentar repetir el experimento con un piano, un contrabajo, unos boleros y un poquito de flamenco. En mi opinión, no ha vuelto a funcionar porque sin Bebo no se puede hacer algo parecido. Lo que sí es cierto es que nació de pie, bendecido. Cuando veía a gente en las tiendas comprando montañas de discos para regalar a sus amigos lo único que sentía era una profunda emoción. En cualquier caso, para mí, sí es uno de los mejores discos de mi carrera y de la carrera de todos los que participamos en las apenas cincuenta horas de grabación que duró la aventura.

JULIO IGLESIAS: MI RAMÓN Y YO

Durante una época de mi vida estuve produciendo muchos discos para Sony. Ellos habían sido los primeros en darme una oportunidad como productor, y a través de Lágrimas negras y los discos del Cigala habíamos encontrado una fórmula de éxito. En aquellos tiempos me había convertido en una especie de talismán de la producción, aunque yo creo que era más una cuestión personal que musical; es de todos sabido que los empleados de esta industria no brillan precisamente por su conocimiento del arte. La cuestión es que el presidente me invitó a una cena con la estrella más grande de la compañía, el mismísimo Julio Iglesias. La idea era que nos hiciéramos amigos y de ahí surgiera una colaboración con el fin de animar a Julio a grabar un remake, sin contemplaciones, de Lágrimas negras. 

Me sentaron a su derecha, en un restaurante llamado Alboroque, que estaba situado en la madrileña calle de Atocha. El dueño, Carlos Sotos, famoso por sus antiguas aventuras con la UGT y Felipe González, nos atendió como príncipes. Durante la cena, Julio hizo un alarde extraordinario de amabilidad y simpatía. Conocía por su nombre y apellidos a todos los miembros de la compañía. En una mesa en la que éramos más de veinte comensales le preguntó a cada uno por pequeños asuntos personales. A todos menos a mí. 

A mí no me dirigía la palabra. Justo al final de la velada llamó al sommelier para preguntarle si tenían otros vinos por el mismo precio de la botella que nos estábamos bebiendo. El sommelier le ofreció un par de opciones y Julio le respondió: “Hombre, los precios que estás dando varían un poco, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta que el dueño de esa bodega la vendió hace tres años para irse a vivir a no sé dónde”. La conclusión es que Julio sabía más de vinos que el tipo que inventó el vino, y estaba regalándose un alarde, a lo pavo real, para desplegar sus encantos. Fue en ese preciso momento cuando se giró hacia mí y me preguntó directamente: «Y tú (no sabía mi nombre), ¿qué disco me harías?». Visiblemente incómodo, apañé una respuesta de repertorio, deslizando que podría destilar una pócima con músicas de raíz, con sabor latino. Recuerdo que mencioné a Alicia Keys, que en ese momento estaba muy de moda y había vendido quince millones de copias de su último trabajo; como habíamos hecho un tema con ella y Bebo Valdés, me parecía una buena referencia. Julio me miró antes de hablar: «Alicia Keys no es nadie, solo ha vendido diez o quince millones de copias, eso no es nada. Mi pregunta es más concreta: quería saber qué tipos de acordes vas a usar con mi voz, ¿novenas, sextas?». «Bueno, la verdad es que aún no sabemos ni las canciones, por lo tanto no he pensado en las armonías ni en sus tensiones». «Pues deberías pensar en ellas. Te voy a contar una historia: hace muchos años yo estaba con mi amigo Frank [Sinatra] en mi casa, escuchando algunos de los temas que iba grabar. En el piano estaba mi amigo y productor Ramón Arcusa [del Dúo Dinámico]. En un momento dado, Frank se acercó al piano y empezó a tocar la canción en otro tono, aconsejando cambiar la tonalidad para mi voz. Ramón le dijo que él solo sabía tocar en do mayor, con las teclas blancas, y que no podía cambiar el tono. Entonces Frank me dijo que mi productor no era demasiado bueno, pero que él conocía a un tal Quincy [Jones] que me iba hacer un trabajo fenomenal. Al principio dudé un poco, pero luego me animé y montamos una entrevista en el estudio con Quincy. Al cabo de dos horas me di cuenta de que no valía un duro y me libré de él, llamé a Frank y le dije: "Frank, quédate tú con Quincy, que yo me quedo con mi Ramón". Recuerdo que vendí cuarenta millones de discos y Frank con su disco y Quincy solo un millón, un gran fracaso para él. Al final me tuvo que dar la razón». Después de esta impresionante anécdota, de la que me creo alrededor de un tercio, me soltó en la cara: «Así que vete pensando en las tensiones y en las armonías si quieres algún día trabajar conmigo». Él se despidió diciendo que se iba de vacaciones con Bill y Hillary a República Dominicana, donde tiene una de sus mansiones, y que estaría perdido durante una época. Por supuesto, no hice el disco, y aunque musicalmente Julio Iglesias no me parece demasiado interesante, he de reconocer que me hubiera encantado trabajar con él porque, como personaje y como director de marketing, me parece un genio.

«Frank (Sinatra) me dijo que mi productor no era demasiado bueno, pero que él conocía a un tal Quincy (Jones) que me iba hacer un trabajo fenomenal. Dudé un poco, pero montamos una entrevista en el estudio con Quincy. Al cabo de dos horas me di cuenta de que no valía un duro y me libré de él, llamé a Frank y le dije: "Frank, quédate tú con Quincy, que yo me quedo con mi Ramón". Recuerdo que vendí cuarenta millones de discos y Frank con su disco y Quincy solo un millón, un gran fracaso para él. Al final me tuvo que dar la razón». Julio Iglesias

PACO DE LUCÍA: EL PRECIO DEL ARTE

Cositas buenas es quizá el disco de flamenco más importante de la década del 2000. El análisis musical de este trabajo ha de hacerse desde el punto de vista de la composición. Paco de Lucía había escuchado algunas de mis producciones, especialmente Entre vareta y canasta del Cigala, y le llamaban la atención algunos de los trucos de edición empleados en ese álbum. Creía haber dado con el modo de compensar el hecho de no saber escribir música. Hasta Cositas buenas, nuestro guitarrista más internacional lo grababa todo en una cinta de casete, falseta a falseta, y luego imaginaba una estructura. Con esta nueva fórmula podía por fin componer libremente sin preocuparse de la estructura de la obra hasta casi el final. Fue un disco revolucionario, y sobre todo, por fin, su autor, después de media vida, se liberó del yugo de la técnica. 

Paco me llamó porque quería el Pro Tools. Me acerqué a la casa del barrio de Aluche donde vivía su madre. Fuimos juntos a comprar un ordenador y una tarjeta de sonido y le instalé el programa. Le escribí en una hoja de papel cómo se abría una sesión, una pista y un poco cómo se trabajaba en el programa. Luego se fue de gira durante seis meses y no volví a saber nada de él durante ese tiempo; pensé que había acabado en Cancún y que se había cansado del Pro Tools. Cuando volvió, me llamó y vi que había estado trabajando en el programa, él solo, y que lo manejaba perfectamente. Paco, que era un genio (no uso este adjetivo con facilidad), había aprendido de manera intuitiva todo el funcionamiento e incluso fórmulas nuevas de programación. Todo a su manera, claro; por ejemplo, cuando el ordenador fallaba le daba dos golpetazos y le insultaba, y debo decir que, para mi sorpresa, funcionaba. Sostenía que las máquinas respondían de buen grado a un bofetón propinado a tiempo. 

Cobrarle a Paco de Lucía es algo que normalmente nadie hacía. Se entendía que tocar o trabajar con él suponía un orgullo y un placer que no necesitaba ningún tipo de retribución. Son muchos los músicos que hoy pasan por genios que han tenido el privilegio de acompañar a Paco en sus grabaciones solamente por disfrutar de la experiencia. Después de grabar Cositas buenas, Paco me preguntó por mi salario. Obviamente le contesté que ya me daba por pagado por haber participado en esa maravillosa obra maestra, pero él, argumentando que no era lo mismo venir a colaborar un día o dos que estar durante años trabajando en un proyecto, me quería hacer un regalo. Acabó comprándome una cama india que le gustaba mucho y que aún conservo en mi casa de San Bartolomé de la Torre. De igual modo, él no solía cobrar nada a los amigos o a los músicos que empezaban y le pedían una colaboración. Cuenta, por ejemplo, Alejandro Sanz, que después de tocar en uno de sus discos le dijo a Paco que le gustaría hacerle un buen regalo. Papá Paco contestó que no quería nada, que había ido por el placer de compartir unos días con Alejandro y que estaba muy contento con la grabación. Tras la insistencia de Sanz, Paco le acabó diciendo que en su casa de México se había roto un pequeño termostato y que le era imposible encontrar un recambio cerca de la zona. Era un pequeño aparatito de dos o tres dólares. Nunca sabremos si se trató de una broma, pero lo cierto es que Alejandro acabó mandándole una bolsa con quinientos termostatos. Difícil ponerle precio al arte. Imposible valorar la genialidad.

Javier Limón y Paco de Lucía. Imagen cedida por Casa Limón.

ENRIQUE MORENTE: EL ARTE DE CONTROLAR LA INSPIRACIÓN

Enrique Morente es uno de los cantaores más importantes de la historia. La búsqueda insaciable de la belleza lo llevó a una constante evolución desde sus primeros tientos profesionales. Tal vez el cambio más importante, me refiero a la congregación de las esencias que concurren en el sustrato musical del que se alimentara a tan temprana edad, tuvo lugar en México, donde pasó gran parte de su juventud. Durante aquellos años en los que llegó a conocer a León Felipe, contaba que descubrió su capacidad para «controlar la inspiración». He intentado buscar otras palabras, incluso en su presencia, para tratar de ejemplificar lo que encerraba semejante afirmación, pero es imposible. El control de la inspiración. Es lo que permite que un ser humano pueda dedicarse profesionalmente a la interpretación. En cualquier boda, bautizo o fiesta gitana, en cualquier celebración donde la música o el arte tengan cabida, siempre puede manifestarse la inspiración e iluminar a cualquiera que reúna las aptitudes necesarias para el cante, el baile, etc., pero solo algunos elegidos son capaces de aprehender esa inspiración y guardarla para el momento apropiado, controlarla y liberarla en el preciso instante en que se levanta el telón. Pero quizá lo más llamativo de Enrique como persona, al margen de su arte, era su sentido del humor. Jamás me he reído tanto como con Enrique y Pepe Habichuela en el Candela. Los dos juntos eran una ametralladora de ocurrencias e ingenio comparable solo a la de Sabina y Serrat en sus mejores tiempos. Enrique poseía un sentido del humor refinado e irónico y totalmente fuera de lo común. Tenías que conocerle bien para constatar cuán mordaz y sarcástico podía llegar a ser. Cuentan, por ejemplo, que una vez lo encontraron en el restaurante del hotel donde se alojaba antes de un concierto comiéndose una tostada, y que en la mesa de al lado había otra tostada pero nadie daba cuenta de ella. Al preguntarle, extrañados, Enrique contestó que la había pedido para la mosca. Por lo visto, uno de esos insectos lo había estado incordiando y, a fin de no llamar la atención al camarero a propósito de tamaña inconveniencia le pidió una para la mosca. Así era Enrique, capaz de bajar de su casa al coche con el mando de la tele en la mano. Un genio arriba y abajo del escenario.

Con Andrés, la disciplina llegó a ser una herramienta humorística; recuerdo que en una tienda de Buenos Aires llegamos a comprarnos dos torres de polos Lacoste de todos los colores y nos poníamos de acuerdo para ir uniformados todos los días.

ANDRÉS CALAMARO: ME APLASTÓ VER AL GIGANTE

La relación con Andrés Calamaro empezó en el camerino de la madrileña sala Clamores tras un concierto de Jerry González. Estaba con su novia Manuela y fue el principio de una gran amistad. Por esa época Andrés vivía en la calle Hermosilla y se pasaba noches y noches creando de manera compulsiva. Había lanzado El salmón, con ciento tres canciones en cinco CD, y por entonces tenía incluso más grabaciones listas. Componía sin parar, y cuando no componía hacía algún arreglo o versión de otra canción clásica. 

Andrés es un tipo como Keith Richards: combina una actitud roquera ante la vida y un estatus de ídolo de masas con una afición desmedida por la música y un conocimiento enciclopédico del jazz, el hip hop, el flamenco y las músicas de raíz. Con él la conversación se elevaba de nivel y llegaba a momentos emocionantes al hablar de la zamba argentina, de la chacarera, del chamamé, de Gardel, del polaco Goyeneche y de Juanjo Domínguez. Fueron muchos los secretos de la música argentina que me reveló. De ahí nació una gran amistad que dura hasta el presente. Fui a su casa en Buenos Aires, en el barrio de Recoleta, donde íbamos al cementerio a ver los edificios donde algunas parejas indiscretas pasaban veladas, o a comer carne al Múnich. Me enseñó el lado más cosmopolita de la capital, que es, por supuesto, una estación inevitable en la vida de cualquier músico. 

Pasado un tiempo flirteando con la posibilidad de grabar juntos llegó una época en la que Andrés se tomó la vida con mucha más tranquilidad y entró en una etapa extremadamente saludable. Decidió irse a vivir al campo, se compró un burrito llamado Morenito y me propuso grabar un disco de versiones. Nos metimos en el estudio con horario fijo, de las diez de la mañana a las cuatro de la tarde, con disciplina militar y férreas rutinas. Comíamos patatas, huevos, kétchup y pan en el mismo sitio y a la misma hora. Ese fue nuestro menú diario. Para un tipo que, hasta entonces, dormía una de cada cuatro noches era una manera de controlar la situación. La disciplina llegó a ser una herramienta humorística; recuerdo que en una tienda de Buenos Aires llegamos a comprarnos dos torres de polos Lacoste de todos los colores y nos poníamos de acuerdo para ir uniformados todos los días. 

Grabamos las canciones con Niño Josele siempre con la tonalidad original, fuera de hombre o de mujer, de Los Panchos o de quien fuera. Había temas que le quedaban un poco altos o bajos, pero esa era la gracia, disciplina hasta el máximo nivel. Fueron muchas las grandes canciones que hicimos, como Malena, La distancia, Sus ojos se cerraron, Algo contigo o El cantante de Héctor Lavoe, que da título al disco. En fin, grandes temas del cancionero latinoamericano.

Hay tres excepciones en el disco, que son canciones originales que Calamaro quiso incluir. Dos de ellas, La libertad y Las oportunidades, son grandes temas que quedaron como parte del repertorio. Otro tema, Estadio Azteca, inspirado en el estadio de fútbol de Ciudad de México, para muchos forma parte de las canciones más grandes de Andrés. En la música siempre hay una parte de talento, otra de trabajo y una dosis nada despreciable de suerte. Con ese tema debo admitir que tropezamos con algo de esta; los solos del final, el groove o la estructura fueron sencillamente afortunados. Andrés tocó la acústica de manera brutal y nos salió una obra maestra. Si tuviera que salvar diez temas de Casa Limón, este sería uno de ellos.

Javier Limón y Bebo Valdés. Imagen cedida por Casa Limón.

JOAN MANUEL SERRAT: UN DÍA PARA TODO

Serrat pertenece a esa clase de personas que ha vivido de todo y a la que pocas cosas le sorprenden. Por lo general, en las épocas en que hemos trabajado, las comidas suelen ser momentos de tranquilidad en los que se suele hablar de cosas rutinarias, sencillas y de andar por casa, y a las que no les damos demasiada importancia. Por ejemplo, durante una época íbamos todos los días a comer rodaballo a la Casa de Campo; charlábamos con Juanito en el restaurante El Currito, un camarero venido a menos cuyo pasado en Londres le hacía insólitamente divertido a la hora de contar anécdotas; otros días íbamos al Samm a comer arroz, una de las especialidades del lugar. Entonces el nivel de la conversación sí solía elevarse; cosa gastronómica, supongo. 

Serrat siempre actúa como un tipo normal, de esos que te hacen sentir muy cómodo. Las conversaciones discurrían habitualmente con tranquilidad y serenidad, pero si alguien dispone de paciencia y se siente capaz de aguardar, como quien espera pescando que la presa muerda el anzuelo, en algún momento dejará el mundanal ruido y se desmarcará con una de esas historias que solo un genio de la canción y de la vida puede contar. Ahora, si en algún momento de la comida, sobre todo al aproximarse la sobremesa, Joan Manuel de pronto se convierte en Serrat, te encuentras sentado con un sabio, un poco como me pasaba con Paco de Lucía. Esos momentos en que Serrat habla de sus aventuras infantiles, de cuando vivía en un apartamento con el Dúo Dinámico en los años setenta, de su relación con Lola Flores... Sería tremendo escribir un anecdotario sobre todas esas cosas. Era como pasar de oír unas sevillanas a escuchar la mejor soleá por bulerías de Tomás Pavón. Eso a mí me impresionaba. 

Recuerdo el día que me contó sobre su encuentro con Fidel Castro. Le invitó a cenar, y durante horas solo habló el Comandante. Nada raro en él, por otro lado. La política en la isla, la historia, la educación... Habló de todo, pero solo largaba él. Ya entrada la madrugada, Serrat le preguntó por el Día de la Juventud, que justo se celebraba entonces en La Habana. Ahí le ganó el corazón. Fidel cambió la cara, ya agotado: «Aquí tenemos un día para todo...». En ese momento se hizo un silencio: «Amigo, estoy tan cansado...». Su cara reflejaba el agotamiento de un intelectual venido a dictador que no podía más. Parecía harto hasta de sí mismo. Era la viva imagen de un hombre agotado pero, por fin, humano y cercano. 


BUIKA: FRONTERA Y RAÍZ

Diríase que los músicos, en general, forman parte de una rara secta. La necesidad de libertad para crear hace que muchos de ellos, específicamente aquellos pertenecientes a las llamadas músicas, digamos, de raíz, se muevan siempre en la frontera de la ilegalidad. Los tangueros, flamencos y demás raras aves del panorama musical siempre han sentido una especial atracción por todo lo prohibido. Al margen de que, durante cierta época las drogas, decían, ayudaban a pensar, recuerdo una frase de Buika en una conversación que tuvimos en el festival de North Sea, en Rotterdam, que define esto perfectamente: «En mi vida, más o menos una cuarta parte de lo que hago o digo es mentira o ilegal; los músicos probablemente deberíamos estar todos entre rejas».




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