Entrevistas

Ray Loriga y la vida antes y después de la muerte

Ray Loriga tiene 56 años y lleva 31 publicando libros, desde aquel estreno fulgurante que fue «Lo peor de todo» (1992) hasta «Cualquier verano es un final» (2023), una novela crepuscular que te arrastra como un sueño feliz por los territorios de la enfermedad y la muerte, con la amistad como tabla de salvación y el sentido del humor como vacuna. El periodista, escritor y músico Fidel Moreno habla con él sobre este nuevo trabajo, pero solo como pretexto para dar paso a una conversación en la que también asoman los mecanismos narrativos que le definen como autor, el peso de la literatura en el sector editorial, las anécdotas de Antonio Gasset en Monza y los fantasmas de un pasado no muy lejano, a los cuales Ray se enfrenta sin rubor: «Venid a por mí, que me estaré riendo».

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Hablamos con \u00e9l de su nueva obra.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, Penguin Libros, Ray Loriga, Fidel Moreno, Alfaguara","short_content":"<p>Ray Loriga tiene 56 a\u00f1os y lleva 31 publicando libros, desde aquel estreno fulgurante que fue \u00abLo peor de todo\u00bb (1992) hasta \u00abCualquier verano es un final\u00bb (2023), una novela crepuscular que te arrastra como un sue\u00f1o feliz por los territorios de la enfermedad y la muerte, con la amistad como tabla de salvaci\u00f3n y el sentido del humor como vacuna. El periodista, escritor y m\u00fasico Fidel Moreno habla con \u00e9l sobre este nuevo trabajo, pero solo como pretexto para dar paso a una conversaci\u00f3n en la que tambi\u00e9n asoman los mecanismos narrativos que le definen como autor, el peso de la literatura en el sector editorial, las an\u00e9cdotas de Antonio Gasset en Monza y los fantasmas de un pasado no muy lejano, a los cuales Ray se enfrenta sin rubor: \u00abVenid a por m\u00ed, que me estar\u00e9 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Loriga. Cr\u00e9dito: Diego Lafuente.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xe1wdwc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Ray Loriga. 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<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/559-ray-loriga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ray Loriga<\/a><\/span> (Madrid, 1967) le quedan algunas secuelas del tumor cerebral que le extirparon hace tres a\u00f1os y medio. Ya lo ha contado en muchas entrevistas y en su \u00faltima novela, en la que le ha prestado al protagonista su experiencia con la enfermedad, el parche en el ojo y la sordera de un o\u00eddo. Estar muerto unos minutos en una mesa de operaciones, enfrentarse a una lenta recuperaci\u00f3n y sobrevivir a todo eso conservando el sentido del humor ha sido su victoria. Y, lo m\u00e1s importante para \u00e9l, haberlo hecho sin perder el \u00abmecanismo narrativo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ray Loriga dispara en muchas direcciones y no ha perdido punter\u00eda. Como siempre, da gusto escucharlo, y como la ocasi\u00f3n se presta hablamos de los grandes temas: la muerte, la amistad, el amor y la literatura. Sin darse importancia, sin dejar de re\u00edr y desmitificando las grandes verdades trascendentes.<\/p><p>Que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/313431-ebook-cualquier-verano-es-un-final-9788420461298\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cualquier verano es un final<\/a><\/em><\/span> es una gran novela lo dice hasta un hombre mayor que se acerca a nuestra mesa a darle las gracias: \u00abTu novela me la le\u00ed en dos d\u00edas. Y me ha despertado sentimientos cruzados sobre mi actividad profesional, personal y pol\u00edtica; me ha dejado con muchas dudas. Ese personaje, Yorick, sab\u00eda lo que hac\u00eda y no hac\u00eda nada, y yo me he pasado la vida haciendo cosas o intent\u00e1ndolas para al final no hacer nada tampoco\u00bb. El espont\u00e1neo resulta ser el padre de la escritora <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/709-marta-sanz\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Marta Sanz<\/a><\/span>, quien tambi\u00e9n ha recomendado con entusiasmo la novela.<\/p><p>Los ecos de la Feria de Abril de Sevilla han llegado hasta el madrile\u00f1o bar con terraza en el que nos hemos sentado. Farolillos, mantones de manila, sillas de enea, rumbitas y una ola de calor africano sirven de ins\u00f3lito decorado a la 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Moreno: Si cualquier verano es un final, ahora que con el cambio clim\u00e1tico los veranos se adelantan, \u00bfel final est\u00e1 m\u00e1s cerca?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Es el final de todos los veranos, \u00abThis is the end, my friend\u00bb. Moriremos contentos, as\u00ed, en la Feria de Abril, cada uno con su jipijapa y su cerveza. Le seguimos diciendo buen tiempo a esto, no hemos conseguido en nuestras cabezas ver el tiempo y decir \u00abjoder, qu\u00e9 mal tiempo\u00bb, y como le seguimos llamando buen tiempo no lo vamos a arreglar nunca.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: <\/strong><strong>Tu literatura suele tener como protagonistas a personajes que est\u00e1n fuera de lugar, que no encajan en el mundo que les ha tocado vivir, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 esta predilecci\u00f3n por los inadaptados?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Porque probablemente lo siento as\u00ed. Aunque soy una persona social y agradable, o me tengo por tal, siempre he sentido desde peque\u00f1o que no encajaba en el sitio donde estaba. Desde la primera clase de parvulario, \u00bfesta gente qui\u00e9n es?, \u00bfqu\u00e9 pinto yo aqu\u00ed? Y s\u00ed, tengo tendencia a personajes no tanto marginados sino autoesquinados, gente que da un paso atr\u00e1s.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: <\/strong><strong>No sueles poner el foco en las cuestiones colectivas.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Es verdad que nunca he tenido la tentaci\u00f3n de escribir una historia que definiera un colectivo. Primero porque no me f\u00edo de la gente que se autonombra apropiada para decir \u00abnosotros\u00bb, desconf\u00edo mucho, en pol\u00edtica, por ejemplo, cuando un candidato o candidata dice \u00abnosotros\u00bb, \u00abel pueblo\u00bb\u2026\u00a0 \u00bfQui\u00e9n es usted para hablar en plurales mayest\u00e1ticos? Quitando al Papa, los dem\u00e1s no tenemos permiso. Desde el \u00e1ngulo humilde de uno se puede ver tambi\u00e9n a los dem\u00e1s, no juzgar a los dem\u00e1s, pero s\u00ed mirarlos. Y, bueno, alguna novela s\u00ed he escrito, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/guias-y-literatura-de-viajes\/14965-ebook-tokio-ya-no-nos-quiere-9788420489902\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Tokio ya no nos quiere<\/a><\/em><\/span>, que habla desde un \u00e1ngulo muy privado de un fen\u00f3meno colectivo. 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Moreno: <\/strong><strong>Veinticuatro a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de la publicaci\u00f3n de <em>Tokio ya no nos quiere<\/em> parece que algunas de tus intuiciones se han confirmado.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> S\u00ed, porque los <em>deepfake<\/em> ya se est\u00e1n haciendo. Hablar con tu madre muerta, por ejemplo, eso va a pasar pasado ma\u00f1ana. En vez de una urna con cenizas te dar\u00e1n un cacharro, un programa de inteligencia artificial con el que puedas conversar. Con un patr\u00f3n de respuestas y conductas podr\u00edan crear una madre muerta eterna con la que puedas hablar siempre que quieras, y probablemente tengas las mismas conversaciones que sol\u00edas tener con ella en vida. No es nada fuera de lo previsible, pero todo eso que estaba en la novela ha sucedido, hasta aviones que volaban muy bajo y torres que eran muy altas y se iban a tener que encontrar en alg\u00fan momento.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: <\/strong><strong>En esta novela no se habla del fin del mundo, pero s\u00ed del final posible de Yorick y Luiz, sus protagonistas. Cada uno encara la muerte de una forma distinta. Yorick viene de un episodio que casi le cuesta la vida y Luiz se plantea acabar voluntariamente con ella. Una forma narrativamente muy astuta de abordar la complejidad de la eutanasia, sobre todo cuando reparamos en que los protagonistas est\u00e1n en la cincuentena y Luiz adem\u00e1s en perfectas condiciones f\u00edsicas.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Me parec\u00edan bien esos dos \u00e1ngulos. Uno viene de sobrevivir sin saber muy bien por qu\u00e9, ha estado tumbado en la cama de un hospital y ha hecho lo que le han dicho que ten\u00eda que hacer, no ha sido un acto heroico; y el otro, en cambio, teniendo una situaci\u00f3n perfecta toma esta extra\u00f1a decisi\u00f3n. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 Luiz se quiere morir? Me gustar\u00eda quedarme con cosas sin saber de los personajes que hago, como de la gente a la que quiero, de la que no s\u00e9 todo, afortunadamente, pero intuyo que es porque Luiz quiere cerrar su vida en un cap\u00edtulo hermoso y teme que lo siguiente pueda no ser tan hermoso. La vida no te ofrece muchas oportunidades de terminar donde quieres y como quieres. Creo que es un sentimiento com\u00fan el tener un d\u00eda tan perfecto que dices \u00abojal\u00e1 me fulminara un rayo y me muera como el t\u00edo m\u00e1s feliz del mundo\u00bb. Porque despu\u00e9s de estos picos vienen valles, es inevitable, y especialmente con la edad, uno va a morir despu\u00e9s de un largo proceso de mermas, degeneraciones y p\u00e9rdidas, de ver gente morir a la que uno quiere. Cuanto m\u00e1s vives, m\u00e1s gente ves morir, y t\u00fa mismo vas a ir desmereciendo. Y eso es a lo que teme Luiz.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hd362rd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/nicola-lagioia-manuel-jabois-narradores-de-historias\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Nicola Lagioia y Manuel Jabois: v\u00edctimas, verdugos y el mal como narrador de la historia<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/carmen-mola-las-madres-la-novia-gitana-novela-negra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">En el nombre de \u00abLas Madres\u00bb: Carmen Mola y los l\u00edmites de la novela negra<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/benito-mussolini-antonio-scurati\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mussolini para las masas: Scurati y las cuentas con el pasado<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wlvhjv1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Fidel Moreno: <\/strong><strong>Parte del gancho del libro est\u00e1 en eso, en que Luiz al pensar en morir sin esperar a estar medio muerto desaf\u00eda el instinto de autoconservaci\u00f3n de la especie. Aunque aceptemos el derecho a morir dignamente, matarse en esas condiciones resulta perturbador, \u00bfno crees?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Eso es lo que le sorprende al amigo y quiere primero entenderlo, luego evitarlo y finalmente asimilarlo. Realmente es un proceso de asimilaci\u00f3n. Tampoco parece que Luiz, que es tirando a vago, tenga una urgencia desmesurada en eso de morirse, pero coquetea ya muy cerca.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: <\/strong><strong>El tema cl\u00e1sico del <em>memento mori<\/em> est\u00e1 tambi\u00e9n presente en la elecci\u00f3n del nombre del protagonista. Yorick, ese buf\u00f3n amigo de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36586-libro-hamlet-edicion-bilingue-9788491050438\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Hamlet<\/a><\/span>, que aparece en la obra de Shakespeare como la calavera desenterrada a la que Hamlet se dirige, es junto con Pedro P\u00e1ramo, uno de los muertos m\u00e1s famosos de la literatura. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 elegiste el nombre de Yorick para el narrador protagonista?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Primero por hacer un juego, Yorick es Jorge, que es el nombre que yo desterr\u00e9 siendo muy peque\u00f1o. Tambi\u00e9n por la broma, empec\u00e9 con esto de \u00abmi padre adoraba a Shakespeare como otra gente adora las patatas fritas, el sexo o la mentira\u00bb, y como el ni\u00f1o lloraba mucho, el padre que era<em> shakesperiano<\/em> lo llam\u00f3 Yorick, por llorica. Como el personaje es un llorica, siempre quej\u00e1ndose de s\u00ed mismo sobre todo, me hizo 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Moreno: No es habitual encontrarse novelas que retraten una amistad masculina. En el caso de<em> Cualquier verano es un final<\/em> se trata adem\u00e1s de una amistad bastante amorosa.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong>\u00a0Aunque la historia vaya por otro lado, cuando escrib\u00eda s\u00ed ten\u00eda muy presente <em>Retorno a Brideshead,<\/em> con esa relaci\u00f3n que nunca acabas de saber si es amistosa, amorosa o pasional, porque ellos no quieren definirla, que es un poco como hago yo. Uno siente lo que siente, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 tiene que ir cont\u00e1ndolo? Y es verdad que no hay muchas novelas m\u00e1s sobre la amistad masculina, las habr\u00e1, pero no se me ocurren. Est\u00e1, por ejemplo, <em>En el camino,<\/em> de Kerouac, que es una historia de amor de dos, y tambi\u00e9n pasional y sexual a veces. De hecho, me acuerdo que, cuando sacaron el rollo mecanografiado original de<em> En el camino,<\/em> lo volv\u00ed a leer y est\u00e1n recuperados los nombres originales, no los alias, y hay m\u00e1s referencias sexuales. Y me hizo gracia una en concreto al pene de Cassady: Kerouac admiraba el pene de Cassady, Jack admiraba el pene de Neal y habla del pene de Neal con una gran devoci\u00f3n. Eso es muy raro de ver en una novela, que un hombre hable muy bien del pene de otro, con fascinaci\u00f3n. Sin llegar tan lejos, s\u00ed que hay algo de esto en mi novela. Me pareci\u00f3 bonito este territorio no tan trillado del romance masculino, porque es una historia de amor y tiene todos los elementos del amor: la idealizaci\u00f3n, la sublimaci\u00f3n, la desesperaci\u00f3n en la ausencia del otro, el anhelo de volverlo a ver.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0Al comentarlo est\u00e1s asumiendo la perspectiva de Yorick, que se mueve entre la idealizaci\u00f3n y el miedo al abandono. Pero Luiz lo vive de manera completamente distinta.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:\u00a0<\/strong>S\u00ed, y eso es parte de la fascinaci\u00f3n que le produce a Yorick, que Luiz es un tipo que parece que podr\u00eda vivir sin \u00e9l, lo cual es muy cruel en el amor, a no ser que lo asumas de la manera correcta. La necesidad imperiosa de estar con alguien puede llegar a ser muy agobiante, y que el otro no la tenga\u2026 El otro est\u00e1 muy bien contigo, pero te da la sensaci\u00f3n de que tambi\u00e9n podr\u00eda estar muy bien sin ti. Eso es muy dif\u00edcil de lidiar en el amor.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tccqq2e\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abAunque la historia vaya por otro lado, cuando escrib\u00eda s\u00ed ten\u00eda muy presente <em>Retorno a Brideshead,<\/em> con esa relaci\u00f3n que nunca acabas de saber si es amistosa, amorosa o pasional, porque ellos no quieren definirla, que es un poco como hago yo. Uno siente lo que siente, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 tiene que ir cont\u00e1ndolo?\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"f6uk07r\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Fidel Moreno: De hecho, la definici\u00f3n amorosa que da Luiz de la amistad que los une remite a un viejo matrimonio:\u00a0<\/strong><b>\u00ab<\/b><strong>Parecemos una pareja que lleva lustros sin sexo y empieza de pronto, un jueves, a hacerse reproches<\/strong><b>\u00bb<\/b><strong>. Nos hablan siempre de la reciprocidad y de la igualdad, tanto en el amor como en la amistad, sin embargo, parece m\u00e1s bien lo contrario, siempre hay alguien que quiere m\u00e1s.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong>\u00a0No me voy a poner en plan Doctor Amor, pero s\u00ed que me interesa esa mec\u00e1nica de las emociones. Yo creo que si amando tanto te satisfaces lo suficiente, deja al otro en paz, que ame como quiera. Si el otro se presta a ser tu objeto de devoci\u00f3n, ya se deja atrapar por tus sue\u00f1os, te da lo suficiente para hacerte tu entelequia. Por eso con Alma tienen conflictos, porque ella no se piensa dejar atrapar por el sue\u00f1o de ninguno de los dos. Alma va a lo suyo y hace bien.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0En el libro hablas de la amistad como una callada complicidad y como una forma de infancia recuperada. \u00bfQu\u00e9 es para ti la amistad?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Mi idea perfecta de la amistad ser\u00eda estar en silencio mirando en direcciones distintas, sin compartir lo que cada uno est\u00e1 viendo o pensando, y estar, sin embargo, tan a gusto con esa persona que no la cambiar\u00edas por otra. Luego lo que pasa es que tambi\u00e9n tienes amigos a los que adoras que son todo lo contrario, tremendamente ruidosos y expansivos. Otra idea recurrente que tengo desde ni\u00f1o es la idea de que el amigo es el que no te propone ni retos ni desaf\u00edos ni metas, y est\u00e1s seguro de que no te va a tirar del \u00e1rbol. Porque cuando eres ni\u00f1o siempre te subes al \u00e1rbol con alguien y siempre hay alguien que le da por empujarte, del \u00e1rbol o del borde de la piscina, o que le da por desafiarte: \u00aba que llego antes que t\u00fa al final de la calle\u00bb, \u00aba que nado m\u00e1s deprisa que t\u00fa\u00bb. Pues un buen amigo ser\u00eda aquel que no fuera competitivo, que no tuviera todos estos elementos de desaf\u00edo 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Moreno: El gran atractivo de la novela est\u00e1 en ese tono m\u00e1s c\u00f3mico que tr\u00e1gico. Despu\u00e9s de haber estado t\u00fa mismo un ratito muerto, supongo que no te apetec\u00eda abordar el asunto como un drama, \u00bfno?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> En absoluto. No es una novela que hable de mi vida en concreto, aunque utilizo este episodio como pistoletazo de salida. Si no me hubiera pasado, no me habr\u00eda atrevido a hablar de la muerte con tanto sentido del humor, me habr\u00eda parecido arrogante, una bravata: \u00ab\u00a1Yo la muerte no la temo, me enfrentar\u00eda a ella ri\u00e9ndome!\u00bb. Pero la he visto, s\u00ed, y muy por dentro, muy cerca y muy alrededor, porque, en un hospital, el que no est\u00e1 como t\u00fa est\u00e1 peor. Y te has hecho un amigo o una amiga que tarifa de este lado, y vas por el pasillo mal que bien a preguntarle c\u00f3mo va y ves de pronto que est\u00e1n haciendo la cama, que ese ya se ha ido a otro sitio que no s\u00e9 cual es. Y oyes los gru\u00f1idos y los gritos por la noche y los dolores, y, claro, te vas acostumbrando a ello y entonces s\u00ed puedes hablar con naturalidad de este tema. Porque lo has tenido en tu cama y te han dado un pron\u00f3stico incierto, te han dicho \u00abesta operaci\u00f3n que te vamos a practicar no siempre sale bien\u00bb, y cuando te dice eso un m\u00e9dico te cuadras, y te van diciendo tambi\u00e9n \u00abdesp\u00eddase usted de quien tenga que despedirse, porque esto puede que no salga bien\u00bb.<\/p><p><b>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0En la novela desmitificas a la muerte y a las creencias trascendentes con las que se suele asociar: \u00abEstuve muerto durante un par de minutos largos en la mesa de operaciones y ni vi a Dios ni nada parecido. Ni luz al final del t\u00fanel\u00bb.\u00a0<\/b><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Ni t\u00fanel siquiera.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0De alguna forma la gran pregunta no es tanto si hay vida despu\u00e9s de la muerte, sino si hay vida antes de la muerte, si merece la pena seguir vivo hasta el final o conviene m\u00e1s salirse antes por la tangente.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Lo que s\u00ed pens\u00e9 es que la muerte es de a uno, no hay experiencias compartibles de la muerte, la muerte es como un orgasmo, cada uno sabe c\u00f3mo lo siente, pero no sabe exactamente c\u00f3mo lo siente el de al lado. Me dio la sensaci\u00f3n de que todas esas teor\u00edas de despedirse del cuerpo, de elevarse, de ver el t\u00fanel o ver una luz, responden a que cada uno se lleva a ese viaje el \u00faltimo sue\u00f1o que tiene. El que sue\u00f1a con Dios llega a verlo, llega a ver, pongamos, esa luz de la presencia de lo divino. Y el que es fundamentalmente y racionalmente agn\u00f3stico, como es mi caso, ve lo que ver\u00eda un televisor cuando lo apagas, del <em>on<\/em> al 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Moreno: Entiendo que cada uno traduce la experiencia seg\u00fan su propia mitolog\u00eda, pero la experiencia es una experiencia tranquila, \u00bfno?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> S\u00ed, muy tranquila. En un hospital especialmente, donde no te mueres debajo de unos escombros, ag\u00f3nicamente, sino que est\u00e1s sedado. Sedado es un eufemismo para decir drogado y los que nos hemos drogado sabemos que es un mundo paralelo. Claro que el cerebro funciona cuando est\u00e1s drogado, pero funciona en otro mundo paralelo, que no es menos real que este, pero es otro. Y entonces todo eso te tranquiliza much\u00edsimo, porque no vas andando solo, vas andando dopado, pero bien dopado, porque las mejores drogas est\u00e1n en los hospitales, como bien nos ense\u00f1o <em>Drugstore Cowboy,<\/em> en las farmacias y en los hospitales, lo que pillamos en la calle es una puta mierda. Entonces est\u00e1s en todo lo bueno y eso ayuda mucho, pero, luego, s\u00ed que creo que cada uno, seg\u00fan su propia mitolog\u00eda, en el \u00faltimo aliento de pensamiento l\u00facido busca las im\u00e1genes de amparo que durante toda su proyecci\u00f3n vital se ha ido creando. Por eso tiene cierta l\u00f3gica que en el cielo solo estar\u00e1n aquellos que han so\u00f1ado con Dios, los que no hemos so\u00f1ado con Dios no estaremos nunca en el cielo.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0Una vez aceptado el derecho a elegir tu propia muerte, est\u00e1 el problema de qu\u00e9 tipo de muerte concreta quieres. El protagonista especula con algunas posibilidades, \u00bft\u00fa has pensado en cu\u00e1l ser\u00eda tu muerte ideal?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> \u00abEfecto Martini\u00bb, lo he pensado tanto que lo he investigado.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0Te refieres a la narcosis de nitr\u00f3geno de la que habla el protagonista de la novela, una intoxicaci\u00f3n al alcance de los submarinistas que altera la conciencia como si de una placentera borrachera se tratase, y que puede ser letal.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> S\u00ed, es una mezcla de nitr\u00f3geno, ox\u00edgeno y helio\u2026 Drogas, una vez m\u00e1s, porque eso te peta en la cabeza y te mueres. Hice un curso de buceo y me avisaron de este efecto euf\u00f3rico que puede pasar cuando la mezcla de la botella no es la correcta, y yo investigu\u00e9 un poco, aunque no es el tema esencial de la novela, porque no va de cr\u00edmenes. 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Moreno: \u00bfC\u00f3mo has sobrellevado una promoci\u00f3n en la que una y otra vez te han preguntado por la enfermedad, por ese tumor y sus secuelas que le has prestado al protagonista de tu novela?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Una vez que lo he ficcionalizado, me he re\u00eddo de ello a gusto y le he quitado dramatismo, bien. Cuando te dedicas a la literatura hay gente que te dice que su vida o la de su madre es una novela, simplemente porque le han pasado cosas. La enfermedad son cosas que te pasan, pero en cada planta les pasan a los seiscientos que hay ah\u00ed y, claro, una novela de cada uno\u2026 Que cada uno la escriba, pero tendr\u00e1 que buscarle un \u00e1ngulo interesante, porque el mero hecho de tener un tumor o algo m\u00e1s grave no basta. Lo bueno de un tumor como el m\u00edo es que era benigno, pero mortal, cosa que me hizo mucha gracia. \u00abBenigno, pero mortal\u00bb, me dijo el m\u00e9dico y pens\u00e9 que era la expresi\u00f3n m\u00e1s graciosa que hab\u00eda o\u00eddo en mi vida, no pude evitar re\u00edrme, hasta pens\u00e9 en titular as\u00ed el libro. Es benigno porque no es cancer\u00edgeno, pero tampoco es cancer\u00edgeno que te atraviesen con una lanza, la \u00fanica ventaja es que si se extirpa y se consigue que no te mueras en la operaci\u00f3n, que es muy delicada, no se reproduce.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: Cuando el protagonista habla, sin perder el buen humor, de las secuelas de la enfermedad no he podido evitar acordarme de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Antonio_Gasset\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Antonio Gasset<\/a><\/span>. De cuando Gasset, que era cojo desde ni\u00f1o a consecuencia de la polio, contaba el d\u00eda que lo llamaron de <em>Mira qui\u00e9n baila<\/em> para invitarlo a participar. Lo que pod\u00eda ser una historia humillante, contada desde el buen humor resultaba tronchante.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong>\u00a0C\u00f3mo echo de menos a Antonio. Cuando le llamaron de <em>Mira quien baila<\/em> respondi\u00f3: \u00abSe\u00f1orita, lo que usted me est\u00e1 proponiendo es casi un insulto, yo soy cojo\u00bb. Y la se\u00f1orita de producci\u00f3n, seg\u00fan contaba Antonio, acab\u00f3 dici\u00e9ndole que mejor todav\u00eda, que era \u00abmotivacional\u00bb. \u00a1Les parec\u00eda m\u00e1s guay tener un cojo que intentara bailar! Antonio ten\u00eda mil historias de por qu\u00e9 era cojo, yo se las he visto contar y me he muerto de la risa. Coincid\u00edas con el en el Festival de Cannes o de Venecia y, despu\u00e9s de los pases de las pel\u00edculas, lo ve\u00edas con una periodista impresionable y mon\u00edsima, alemana o tailandesa o de donde fuera, y \u00e9l dici\u00e9ndole: \u00abLa maldita curva de Monza. Yo era piloto de <em>rallies<\/em> y en esa curva de Monza dej\u00e9 mi andar. Esa maldita curva de Monza. Me hab\u00edan avisado, pero iba no s\u00e9 qu\u00e9 piloto delante y yo ten\u00eda que pasarle en la curva m\u00e1s maldita de Monza\u2026\u00bb. Y las chicas con los ojos como platos consider\u00e1ndole un h\u00e9roe. El hijo de puta las enga\u00f1aba a todas con la curva de Monza.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: \u00bfNunca se te ha ocurrido escribir un perfil de Gasset?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> No, no, Antonio saldr\u00eda del infierno y me matar\u00eda. \u00c9ramos tan amigos que si me atreviese a hablar por \u00e9l saldr\u00eda del infierno y me matar\u00eda.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: Lo que me gusta de la novela tuya, y por eso me ha recordado a las an\u00e9cdotas de Gasset es la idea de que el buen humor es lo \u00fanico que nos salva de los desastres de la vida.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Absolutamente.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rlqo4w5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLa muerte es como un orgasmo, cada uno sabe c\u00f3mo lo siente, pero no sabe exactamente c\u00f3mo lo siente el de al lado. Me dio la sensaci\u00f3n de que todas esas teor\u00edas de despedirse del cuerpo, de elevarse, de ver el t\u00fanel o ver una luz, responden a que cada uno se lleva a ese viaje el \u00faltimo sue\u00f1o que tiene\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"djufwwp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Fidel Moreno: Un poco como la visi\u00f3n que ten\u00eda <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/454-albert-camus\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Albert Camus<\/a><\/span> del mito de S\u00edsifo. Camus hablaba de la sonrisa de S\u00edsifo, de la liberaci\u00f3n que supone aceptar la condena absurda que es la vida.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> S\u00ed, s\u00ed, lo acepta y se descojona, porque es que no hay otra. Las cosas son tan arbitrarias, especialmente para un hombre sin fe. Yo tengo una creencia pol\u00edtica muy relativa, con el paso de los a\u00f1os cada d\u00eda m\u00e1s, porque he visto las mejores ideas destruir a las mejores personas y a las mejores ideas colectivas volverse infiernos. Con esa cantidad de desenga\u00f1o y desilusi\u00f3n casi que es el \u00faltimo recurso: \u00abVenid a por m\u00ed, que me estar\u00e9 riendo\u00bb.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: Tambi\u00e9n hablas en la novela de la sonrisa de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Elis_Regina\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Elis Regina<\/a><\/span>.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong>\u00a0La sonrisa de Elis Regina me parece la cosa m\u00e1s bonita del mundo. Sonr\u00ede porque no lo puede evitar; es tambi\u00e9n la sonrisa frente a la desgracia, frente al desastre, porque mira que le fue fatal todo en su vida, que no par\u00f3 de ser desgraciada, pero no paraba de sonre\u00edr al mismo tiempo.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno: El atribulado protagonista de tu novela tambi\u00e9n encuentra paz al aceptar lo absurdo de la vida:\u00a0<\/strong><b>\u00ab<\/b><strong>Hay cierta gloria en esto de intentar llevar a cabo grandes tareas a sabiendas de que se fracasar\u00e1 sin remedio<\/strong><b>\u00bb<\/b><strong>. \u00bfNo es eso como ir hacia el infierno cantando?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> S\u00ed, porque \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 temer lo que ya tienes? La vida me parece un infierno consolado con la amistad. En la amistad incluyo a mi mujer y a mis hijos, peque\u00f1os momentos y grandes sensaciones de amistad. Todo lo dem\u00e1s me parece un infierno. 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Moreno: \u00bfTe ha dado mucho trabajo esta novela? Lo digo porque te pones a escribirla despu\u00e9s de haber estado muerto, aunque solo fuera por un rato.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong>\u00a0La escrib\u00ed con la ilusi\u00f3n de saber que pod\u00eda, que era mi \u00fanico p\u00e1nico, no poder.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0\u00bfPero ese p\u00e1nico no te estuvo de alguna forma pesando?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> No, fue un momento. Si tiene que ser el final que sea el final final, no lo contrario, que ser\u00eda estar sin estar y ser encima una carga y un horror para los que te quieren: ahora tu padre que fue escritor en una silla y turnarse los hermanos, y tu mujer ah\u00ed, atada un tiempo, que luego dir\u00eda \u00abtengo que seguir viviendo, \u00bfd\u00f3nde tiro esto?\u00bb. No ser eso, que me parece horroroso, y no tener conciencia de que no eres capaz de hacer lo que te apasiona, que es leer y escribir. Me acuerdo en la UCI, que lo primero que pens\u00e9 fue \u00abpuedes mover la m\u00e1quina\u00bb, no me refiero a la m\u00e1quina corporal, ni siquiera me hab\u00eda dado cuenta de si pod\u00eda mover los pies y las piernas y los brazos, y pens\u00e9 \u00absi un hombre sale del hospital y hace no s\u00e9 qu\u00e9\u2026\u00bb, y me dije vale, vale, descansa, sigue el mecanismo.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0\u00bfEl mecanismo narrativo, la capacidad de narrar?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> S\u00ed, para m\u00ed el mecanismo narrativo es la clave de la vida. Lo otro es que te pasen cosas, pero, claro, ah\u00ed est\u00e1s al socaire, ah\u00ed no puedes hacer nada, eres como la bola de la ruleta, t\u00fa le tocas al once, al doce o al trece, pero a ti no te dan nada. \u00a1Qu\u00e9 historia m\u00e1s buena contar\u00eda una bola de ruleta! Si tienes ese mecanismo narrativo ya es otra historia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0rlo5zr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab\\\"Benigno, pero mortal\\\", me dijo el m\u00e9dico y pens\u00e9 que era la expresi\u00f3n m\u00e1s graciosa que hab\u00eda o\u00eddo en mi vida, no pude evitar re\u00edrme, hasta pens\u00e9 en titular as\u00ed el libro. Es benigno porque no es cancer\u00edgeno, pero tampoco es cancer\u00edgeno que te atraviesen con una lanza\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"m4ob1pe\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Fidel Moreno: Hay momentos verdaderamente inspirados en la novela, las primeras treinta p\u00e1ginas est\u00e1 entre lo mejor que has escrito. No es una m\u00e1s de tus novelas, te ha salido muy bien.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Gracias. Eso ha dicho la cr\u00edtica un\u00e1nimemente, cosa rara, no s\u00e9 si es por aquello de \u00abvamos a tratar bien al tullido\u00bb, que tambi\u00e9n me cabe esa duda, o es que la novela est\u00e1 bien. La novela me ha costado, la he trabajado much\u00edsimo, pero siempre con la bandera de que no se note. Suelo poner el ejemplo de Fred Astaire, que dec\u00eda \u00abmi trabajo es que no se note que estoy bailando. Entreno horas y horas para que luego la gente piense, ah, este se\u00f1or es estupendo, est\u00e1 hablando sentado en una mesa y de pronto coge el sombrero y se pone a bailar\u00bb. Que eso parezca natural, para eso se ensaya y para eso se trabaja, para crear esa falsa impresi\u00f3n, que es el logro total, de que el relato fluye. En cuanto al principio, claro, yo me lanc\u00e9 a escribir entusiasmado y si alguna vez detengo esa corriente es porque ten\u00eda que contar un poco de trama tambi\u00e9n, que es necesaria para ponerle tres puntales a la historia. Dec\u00eda Paul Schrader, hablando de guiones, que si no le pones tres puntales a la historia no es un circo. Un circo es como una historia: tienes la carpa, pero tienes que poner un puntal muy alto y luego dos m\u00e1s peque\u00f1os y luego tirar unos vientos.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0Tu narrativa debe mucho a la oralidad.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> La narraci\u00f3n oral es fascinante porque se hac\u00eda de una manera muy natural, por ensayo y error. Cuando sientes que puedes estar perdiendo al p\u00fablico, que en el caso de la narraci\u00f3n oral es una respuesta inmediata, dices elevando un poco el tono \u00ab\u00bfy entonces sab\u00e9is lo que paso?\u00bb, y as\u00ed recuperas un poco la atenci\u00f3n, para que los ni\u00f1os o los que est\u00e1n alrededor de la hoguera no se te duerman. Esas t\u00e9cnicas narrativas a lo largo de los a\u00f1os las naturalizas, pero las tienes, t\u00fa sabes que est\u00e1n ah\u00ed, notas los momentos en los que puedes estar perdiendo la atenci\u00f3n del lector.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vykt4n6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abSi Virginia Woolf no se hubiera dedicado a esto, \u00bfqu\u00e9 prestigio tendr\u00eda este absurdo asunto del libro? La gente podr\u00eda ir directamente a lo de las series, hacerse lo de Georgina o ganarse un <em>reality\u00bb.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cip7fjm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Fidel Moreno: Aunque no tiene un eje cronol\u00f3gico claro y la trama avanza con vaivenes, la estructura de la novela funciona muy bien.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Eso era para m\u00ed una clave, y viene tambi\u00e9n de mis lecturas. He estado obsesionado con la mec\u00e1nica de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/13874-ebook-tristram-shandy-9788420410487\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Tristram Shandy<\/a><\/span><\/em>, que es una de mis novelas favoritas. O la mec\u00e1nica de <em>At Swim-Two-Birds (En Nadar-dos-p\u00e1jaros)<\/em> de Flann O'Brien, que es un tiempo narrativo con una cronolog\u00eda interna y, sin embargo, puede ser comprensible. C\u00f3mo jugar con esto sin perder al lector, mantenerle en un tiempo aparentemente caprichoso, pero que no lo es. Por resumir mucho, hay un momento en la novela en que digo \u00abahora, en el ahora del entonces que les estoy contando\u00bb, as\u00ed atrapas a la gente en una conversaci\u00f3n que se qued\u00f3 perdida hace cien p\u00e1ginas pero que vuelve en el recuerdo del que se habla y se convierten en presentes paralelos. Es toda una estructura matem\u00e1tica, tal y como la cre\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4927-laurence-sterne\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Laurence Sterne<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0En <em>Cualquier verano es un final<\/em> no abundan, aunque tambi\u00e9n las hay, esas frases deslumbrantes tan habituales en tus anteriores novelas.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> Yo leo a mis cr\u00edticos, y en algunos conf\u00edo, y puede que tengan un punto de raz\u00f3n en que a veces me deslumbro demasiado a m\u00ed mismo. Pensar que una buena frase es un gol y que si metes tres, cuatro, diez, veinte, ya has ganado el partido por goleada. Pero por crear un efecto ingenioso puedes perder la tensi\u00f3n, la cadencia, el ritmo. Entonces, con la edad, me autocensuro un poco, a veces me digo: \u00abQu\u00e9 frase m\u00e1s chula, pero no la pongas\u00bb. Me acuerdo de esa vieja m\u00e1xima de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/893-ernest-hemingway\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Hemingway<\/a><\/span>: \u00abEscribe una historia, qu\u00edtale las mejores frases y mira a ver si se sujeta\u00bb.<\/p><p><strong>Fidel Moreno:\u00a0T\u00fa que has hecho cine y te has aventurado en otras disciplinas, \u00bfqu\u00e9 papel tiene hoy la literatura?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Ray Loriga:<\/strong> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sirve para hacer series<\/a><\/span>\u2026 No, no lo s\u00e9. Estaba el otro d\u00eda en Sant Jordi y hablaba con amigos escritores sobre el lugar residual que tiene hoy la literatura en la industria del libro. El que no lo acepte es que no ve lo que hay, la literatura tiene hoy un lugar muy residual. Y eso que es el amparo de prestigio de toda esta industria, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 co\u00f1o va a querer Anita Obreg\u00f3n o el famoso que sale por la tele o el presentador de Telediarios escribir un libro? <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Si Virginia Woolf no se hubiera dedicado a esto<\/a><\/span>, \u00bfqu\u00e9 prestigio tendr\u00eda este absurdo asunto del libro? La gente podr\u00eda ir directamente a lo de las series, hacerse lo de Georgina o ganarse un <em>reality.<\/em> \u00bfQu\u00e9 ganan estos advenedizos viniendo a Sant Jordi? El prestigio que esta historia ha tenido a lo largo de los siglos, cuando no hab\u00eda <em>realities,<\/em> viene desde la tradici\u00f3n oral de las hogueras y continuar\u00e1 hasta que el \u00faltimo de nosotros hable. La literatura es el \u00faltimo amparo del prestigio, la punta de todo este paraguas, pero, dicho esto, la posici\u00f3n de los escritores y escritoras literarias en todo este negocio es residual, solo consiste en mantener ese prestigio del libro.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hyujo5t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/sara-torres-perder-es-vivir-lo-que-hay\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sara Torres: perder es vivir<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/deborah-levy-por-nuria-labari-la-escritora-que-rompio-el-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Deborah Levy por Nuria Labari: la escritora que rompi\u00f3 el tiempo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/hector-abad-faciolince-por-david-trueba-salvo-mi-corazon-todo-esta-bien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">H\u00e9ctor Abad Faciolince por David Trueba: fe, amor y pasi\u00f3n en un mundo hostil<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2lkc09r\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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20 minutos
Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

A Ray Loriga (Madrid, 1967) le quedan algunas secuelas del tumor cerebral que le extirparon hace tres años y medio. Ya lo ha contado en muchas entrevistas y en su última novela, en la que le ha prestado al protagonista su experiencia con la enfermedad, el parche en el ojo y la sordera de un oído. Estar muerto unos minutos en una mesa de operaciones, enfrentarse a una lenta recuperación y sobrevivir a todo eso conservando el sentido del humor ha sido su victoria. Y, lo más importante para él, haberlo hecho sin perder el «mecanismo narrativo». 

Ray Loriga dispara en muchas direcciones y no ha perdido puntería. Como siempre, da gusto escucharlo, y como la ocasión se presta hablamos de los grandes temas: la muerte, la amistad, el amor y la literatura. Sin darse importancia, sin dejar de reír y desmitificando las grandes verdades trascendentes.

Que Cualquier verano es un final es una gran novela lo dice hasta un hombre mayor que se acerca a nuestra mesa a darle las gracias: «Tu novela me la leí en dos días. Y me ha despertado sentimientos cruzados sobre mi actividad profesional, personal y política; me ha dejado con muchas dudas. Ese personaje, Yorick, sabía lo que hacía y no hacía nada, y yo me he pasado la vida haciendo cosas o intentándolas para al final no hacer nada tampoco». El espontáneo resulta ser el padre de la escritora Marta Sanz, quien también ha recomendado con entusiasmo la novela.

Los ecos de la Feria de Abril de Sevilla han llegado hasta el madrileño bar con terraza en el que nos hemos sentado. Farolillos, mantones de manila, sillas de enea, rumbitas y una ola de calor africano sirven de insólito decorado a la conversación.

Fidel Moreno: Si cualquier verano es un final, ahora que con el cambio climático los veranos se adelantan, ¿el final está más cerca?

Ray Loriga: Es el final de todos los veranos, «This is the end, my friend». Moriremos contentos, así, en la Feria de Abril, cada uno con su jipijapa y su cerveza. Le seguimos diciendo buen tiempo a esto, no hemos conseguido en nuestras cabezas ver el tiempo y decir «joder, qué mal tiempo», y como le seguimos llamando buen tiempo no lo vamos a arreglar nunca.

Fidel Moreno: Tu literatura suele tener como protagonistas a personajes que están fuera de lugar, que no encajan en el mundo que les ha tocado vivir, ¿por qué esta predilección por los inadaptados?

Ray Loriga: Porque probablemente lo siento así. Aunque soy una persona social y agradable, o me tengo por tal, siempre he sentido desde pequeño que no encajaba en el sitio donde estaba. Desde la primera clase de parvulario, ¿esta gente quién es?, ¿qué pinto yo aquí? Y sí, tengo tendencia a personajes no tanto marginados sino autoesquinados, gente que da un paso atrás. 

Fidel Moreno: No sueles poner el foco en las cuestiones colectivas.

Ray Loriga: Es verdad que nunca he tenido la tentación de escribir una historia que definiera un colectivo. Primero porque no me fío de la gente que se autonombra apropiada para decir «nosotros», desconfío mucho, en política, por ejemplo, cuando un candidato o candidata dice «nosotros», «el pueblo»…  ¿Quién es usted para hablar en plurales mayestáticos? Quitando al Papa, los demás no tenemos permiso. Desde el ángulo humilde de uno se puede ver también a los demás, no juzgar a los demás, pero sí mirarlos. Y, bueno, alguna novela sí he escrito, como Tokio ya no nos quiere, que habla desde un ángulo muy privado de un fenómeno colectivo. Esa novela la escribí entre el 97 y el 99 y ya hablaba de héroes virtuales, de drogas que no solo cambian la percepción sino los recuerdos, de programas que reencarnaban a seres, lo que ahora llamamos deepfake.

Fidel Moreno: Veinticuatro años después de la publicación de Tokio ya no nos quiere parece que algunas de tus intuiciones se han confirmado.

Ray Loriga: Sí, porque los deepfake ya se están haciendo. Hablar con tu madre muerta, por ejemplo, eso va a pasar pasado mañana. En vez de una urna con cenizas te darán un cacharro, un programa de inteligencia artificial con el que puedas conversar. Con un patrón de respuestas y conductas podrían crear una madre muerta eterna con la que puedas hablar siempre que quieras, y probablemente tengas las mismas conversaciones que solías tener con ella en vida. No es nada fuera de lo previsible, pero todo eso que estaba en la novela ha sucedido, hasta aviones que volaban muy bajo y torres que eran muy altas y se iban a tener que encontrar en algún momento.

Fidel Moreno: En esta novela no se habla del fin del mundo, pero sí del final posible de Yorick y Luiz, sus protagonistas. Cada uno encara la muerte de una forma distinta. Yorick viene de un episodio que casi le cuesta la vida y Luiz se plantea acabar voluntariamente con ella. Una forma narrativamente muy astuta de abordar la complejidad de la eutanasia, sobre todo cuando reparamos en que los protagonistas están en la cincuentena y Luiz además en perfectas condiciones físicas.

Ray Loriga: Me parecían bien esos dos ángulos. Uno viene de sobrevivir sin saber muy bien por qué, ha estado tumbado en la cama de un hospital y ha hecho lo que le han dicho que tenía que hacer, no ha sido un acto heroico; y el otro, en cambio, teniendo una situación perfecta toma esta extraña decisión. ¿Por qué Luiz se quiere morir? Me gustaría quedarme con cosas sin saber de los personajes que hago, como de la gente a la que quiero, de la que no sé todo, afortunadamente, pero intuyo que es porque Luiz quiere cerrar su vida en un capítulo hermoso y teme que lo siguiente pueda no ser tan hermoso. La vida no te ofrece muchas oportunidades de terminar donde quieres y como quieres. Creo que es un sentimiento común el tener un día tan perfecto que dices «ojalá me fulminara un rayo y me muera como el tío más feliz del mundo». Porque después de estos picos vienen valles, es inevitable, y especialmente con la edad, uno va a morir después de un largo proceso de mermas, degeneraciones y pérdidas, de ver gente morir a la que uno quiere. Cuanto más vives, más gente ves morir, y tú mismo vas a ir desmereciendo. Y eso es a lo que teme Luiz.

Fidel Moreno: Parte del gancho del libro está en eso, en que Luiz al pensar en morir sin esperar a estar medio muerto desafía el instinto de autoconservación de la especie. Aunque aceptemos el derecho a morir dignamente, matarse en esas condiciones resulta perturbador, ¿no crees?

Ray Loriga: Eso es lo que le sorprende al amigo y quiere primero entenderlo, luego evitarlo y finalmente asimilarlo. Realmente es un proceso de asimilación. Tampoco parece que Luiz, que es tirando a vago, tenga una urgencia desmesurada en eso de morirse, pero coquetea ya muy cerca.

Fidel Moreno: El tema clásico del memento mori está también presente en la elección del nombre del protagonista. Yorick, ese bufón amigo de Hamlet, que aparece en la obra de Shakespeare como la calavera desenterrada a la que Hamlet se dirige, es junto con Pedro Páramo, uno de los muertos más famosos de la literatura. ¿Por qué elegiste el nombre de Yorick para el narrador protagonista? 

Ray Loriga: Primero por hacer un juego, Yorick es Jorge, que es el nombre que yo desterré siendo muy pequeño. También por la broma, empecé con esto de «mi padre adoraba a Shakespeare como otra gente adora las patatas fritas, el sexo o la mentira», y como el niño lloraba mucho, el padre que era shakesperiano lo llamó Yorick, por llorica. Como el personaje es un llorica, siempre quejándose de sí mismo sobre todo, me hizo gracia.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

La amistad y el pene de Cassady

Fidel Moreno: No es habitual encontrarse novelas que retraten una amistad masculina. En el caso de Cualquier verano es un final se trata además de una amistad bastante amorosa.

Ray Loriga: Aunque la historia vaya por otro lado, cuando escribía sí tenía muy presente Retorno a Brideshead, con esa relación que nunca acabas de saber si es amistosa, amorosa o pasional, porque ellos no quieren definirla, que es un poco como hago yo. Uno siente lo que siente, ¿por qué tiene que ir contándolo? Y es verdad que no hay muchas novelas más sobre la amistad masculina, las habrá, pero no se me ocurren. Está, por ejemplo, En el camino, de Kerouac, que es una historia de amor de dos, y también pasional y sexual a veces. De hecho, me acuerdo que, cuando sacaron el rollo mecanografiado original de En el camino, lo volví a leer y están recuperados los nombres originales, no los alias, y hay más referencias sexuales. Y me hizo gracia una en concreto al pene de Cassady: Kerouac admiraba el pene de Cassady, Jack admiraba el pene de Neal y habla del pene de Neal con una gran devoción. Eso es muy raro de ver en una novela, que un hombre hable muy bien del pene de otro, con fascinación. Sin llegar tan lejos, sí que hay algo de esto en mi novela. Me pareció bonito este territorio no tan trillado del romance masculino, porque es una historia de amor y tiene todos los elementos del amor: la idealización, la sublimación, la desesperación en la ausencia del otro, el anhelo de volverlo a ver.

Fidel Moreno: Al comentarlo estás asumiendo la perspectiva de Yorick, que se mueve entre la idealización y el miedo al abandono. Pero Luiz lo vive de manera completamente distinta.

Ray Loriga: Sí, y eso es parte de la fascinación que le produce a Yorick, que Luiz es un tipo que parece que podría vivir sin él, lo cual es muy cruel en el amor, a no ser que lo asumas de la manera correcta. La necesidad imperiosa de estar con alguien puede llegar a ser muy agobiante, y que el otro no la tenga… El otro está muy bien contigo, pero te da la sensación de que también podría estar muy bien sin ti. Eso es muy difícil de lidiar en el amor.

«Aunque la historia vaya por otro lado, cuando escribía sí tenía muy presente Retorno a Brideshead, con esa relación que nunca acabas de saber si es amistosa, amorosa o pasional, porque ellos no quieren definirla, que es un poco como hago yo. Uno siente lo que siente, ¿por qué tiene que ir contándolo?».

Fidel Moreno: De hecho, la definición amorosa que da Luiz de la amistad que los une remite a un viejo matrimonio: «Parecemos una pareja que lleva lustros sin sexo y empieza de pronto, un jueves, a hacerse reproches». Nos hablan siempre de la reciprocidad y de la igualdad, tanto en el amor como en la amistad, sin embargo, parece más bien lo contrario, siempre hay alguien que quiere más.

Ray Loriga: No me voy a poner en plan Doctor Amor, pero sí que me interesa esa mecánica de las emociones. Yo creo que si amando tanto te satisfaces lo suficiente, deja al otro en paz, que ame como quiera. Si el otro se presta a ser tu objeto de devoción, ya se deja atrapar por tus sueños, te da lo suficiente para hacerte tu entelequia. Por eso con Alma tienen conflictos, porque ella no se piensa dejar atrapar por el sueño de ninguno de los dos. Alma va a lo suyo y hace bien.

Fidel Moreno: En el libro hablas de la amistad como una callada complicidad y como una forma de infancia recuperada. ¿Qué es para ti la amistad?

Ray Loriga: Mi idea perfecta de la amistad sería estar en silencio mirando en direcciones distintas, sin compartir lo que cada uno está viendo o pensando, y estar, sin embargo, tan a gusto con esa persona que no la cambiarías por otra. Luego lo que pasa es que también tienes amigos a los que adoras que son todo lo contrario, tremendamente ruidosos y expansivos. Otra idea recurrente que tengo desde niño es la idea de que el amigo es el que no te propone ni retos ni desafíos ni metas, y estás seguro de que no te va a tirar del árbol. Porque cuando eres niño siempre te subes al árbol con alguien y siempre hay alguien que le da por empujarte, del árbol o del borde de la piscina, o que le da por desafiarte: «a que llego antes que tú al final de la calle», «a que nado más deprisa que tú». Pues un buen amigo sería aquel que no fuera competitivo, que no tuviera todos estos elementos de desafío constante.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

«Efecto Martini»

Fidel Moreno: El gran atractivo de la novela está en ese tono más cómico que trágico. Después de haber estado tú mismo un ratito muerto, supongo que no te apetecía abordar el asunto como un drama, ¿no?

Ray Loriga: En absoluto. No es una novela que hable de mi vida en concreto, aunque utilizo este episodio como pistoletazo de salida. Si no me hubiera pasado, no me habría atrevido a hablar de la muerte con tanto sentido del humor, me habría parecido arrogante, una bravata: «¡Yo la muerte no la temo, me enfrentaría a ella riéndome!». Pero la he visto, sí, y muy por dentro, muy cerca y muy alrededor, porque, en un hospital, el que no está como tú está peor. Y te has hecho un amigo o una amiga que tarifa de este lado, y vas por el pasillo mal que bien a preguntarle cómo va y ves de pronto que están haciendo la cama, que ese ya se ha ido a otro sitio que no sé cual es. Y oyes los gruñidos y los gritos por la noche y los dolores, y, claro, te vas acostumbrando a ello y entonces sí puedes hablar con naturalidad de este tema. Porque lo has tenido en tu cama y te han dado un pronóstico incierto, te han dicho «esta operación que te vamos a practicar no siempre sale bien», y cuando te dice eso un médico te cuadras, y te van diciendo también «despídase usted de quien tenga que despedirse, porque esto puede que no salga bien».

Fidel Moreno: En la novela desmitificas a la muerte y a las creencias trascendentes con las que se suele asociar: «Estuve muerto durante un par de minutos largos en la mesa de operaciones y ni vi a Dios ni nada parecido. Ni luz al final del túnel». 

Ray Loriga: Ni túnel siquiera.

Fidel Moreno: De alguna forma la gran pregunta no es tanto si hay vida después de la muerte, sino si hay vida antes de la muerte, si merece la pena seguir vivo hasta el final o conviene más salirse antes por la tangente. 

Ray Loriga: Lo que sí pensé es que la muerte es de a uno, no hay experiencias compartibles de la muerte, la muerte es como un orgasmo, cada uno sabe cómo lo siente, pero no sabe exactamente cómo lo siente el de al lado. Me dio la sensación de que todas esas teorías de despedirse del cuerpo, de elevarse, de ver el túnel o ver una luz, responden a que cada uno se lleva a ese viaje el último sueño que tiene. El que sueña con Dios llega a verlo, llega a ver, pongamos, esa luz de la presencia de lo divino. Y el que es fundamentalmente y racionalmente agnóstico, como es mi caso, ve lo que vería un televisor cuando lo apagas, del on al off.

«Mi idea perfecta de la amistad sería estar en silencio mirando en direcciones distintas, sin compartir lo que cada uno está viendo o pensando, y estar, sin embargo, tan a gusto con esa persona que no la cambiarías por otra».

Fidel Moreno: Entiendo que cada uno traduce la experiencia según su propia mitología, pero la experiencia es una experiencia tranquila, ¿no?

Ray Loriga: Sí, muy tranquila. En un hospital especialmente, donde no te mueres debajo de unos escombros, agónicamente, sino que estás sedado. Sedado es un eufemismo para decir drogado y los que nos hemos drogado sabemos que es un mundo paralelo. Claro que el cerebro funciona cuando estás drogado, pero funciona en otro mundo paralelo, que no es menos real que este, pero es otro. Y entonces todo eso te tranquiliza muchísimo, porque no vas andando solo, vas andando dopado, pero bien dopado, porque las mejores drogas están en los hospitales, como bien nos enseño Drugstore Cowboy, en las farmacias y en los hospitales, lo que pillamos en la calle es una puta mierda. Entonces estás en todo lo bueno y eso ayuda mucho, pero, luego, sí que creo que cada uno, según su propia mitología, en el último aliento de pensamiento lúcido busca las imágenes de amparo que durante toda su proyección vital se ha ido creando. Por eso tiene cierta lógica que en el cielo solo estarán aquellos que han soñado con Dios, los que no hemos soñado con Dios no estaremos nunca en el cielo.

Fidel Moreno: Una vez aceptado el derecho a elegir tu propia muerte, está el problema de qué tipo de muerte concreta quieres. El protagonista especula con algunas posibilidades, ¿tú has pensado en cuál sería tu muerte ideal?

Ray Loriga: «Efecto Martini», lo he pensado tanto que lo he investigado. 

Fidel Moreno: Te refieres a la narcosis de nitrógeno de la que habla el protagonista de la novela, una intoxicación al alcance de los submarinistas que altera la conciencia como si de una placentera borrachera se tratase, y que puede ser letal.

Ray Loriga: Sí, es una mezcla de nitrógeno, oxígeno y helio… Drogas, una vez más, porque eso te peta en la cabeza y te mueres. Hice un curso de buceo y me avisaron de este efecto eufórico que puede pasar cuando la mezcla de la botella no es la correcta, y yo investigué un poco, aunque no es el tema esencial de la novela, porque no va de crímenes. Ya publicado el libro me llamó un amigo que es buzo profesional y me dijo «la mezcla que has puesto no es exacta porque es 0,5 de…» Bueno, para la siguiente edición lo corrijo; como al final era una entelequia del protagonista, tampoco importa mucho.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

El buen humor

Fidel Moreno: ¿Cómo has sobrellevado una promoción en la que una y otra vez te han preguntado por la enfermedad, por ese tumor y sus secuelas que le has prestado al protagonista de tu novela?

Ray Loriga: Una vez que lo he ficcionalizado, me he reído de ello a gusto y le he quitado dramatismo, bien. Cuando te dedicas a la literatura hay gente que te dice que su vida o la de su madre es una novela, simplemente porque le han pasado cosas. La enfermedad son cosas que te pasan, pero en cada planta les pasan a los seiscientos que hay ahí y, claro, una novela de cada uno… Que cada uno la escriba, pero tendrá que buscarle un ángulo interesante, porque el mero hecho de tener un tumor o algo más grave no basta. Lo bueno de un tumor como el mío es que era benigno, pero mortal, cosa que me hizo mucha gracia. «Benigno, pero mortal», me dijo el médico y pensé que era la expresión más graciosa que había oído en mi vida, no pude evitar reírme, hasta pensé en titular así el libro. Es benigno porque no es cancerígeno, pero tampoco es cancerígeno que te atraviesen con una lanza, la única ventaja es que si se extirpa y se consigue que no te mueras en la operación, que es muy delicada, no se reproduce.

Fidel Moreno: Cuando el protagonista habla, sin perder el buen humor, de las secuelas de la enfermedad no he podido evitar acordarme de Antonio Gasset. De cuando Gasset, que era cojo desde niño a consecuencia de la polio, contaba el día que lo llamaron de Mira quién baila para invitarlo a participar. Lo que podía ser una historia humillante, contada desde el buen humor resultaba tronchante.

Ray Loriga: Cómo echo de menos a Antonio. Cuando le llamaron de Mira quien baila respondió: «Señorita, lo que usted me está proponiendo es casi un insulto, yo soy cojo». Y la señorita de producción, según contaba Antonio, acabó diciéndole que mejor todavía, que era «motivacional». ¡Les parecía más guay tener un cojo que intentara bailar! Antonio tenía mil historias de por qué era cojo, yo se las he visto contar y me he muerto de la risa. Coincidías con el en el Festival de Cannes o de Venecia y, después de los pases de las películas, lo veías con una periodista impresionable y monísima, alemana o tailandesa o de donde fuera, y él diciéndole: «La maldita curva de Monza. Yo era piloto de rallies y en esa curva de Monza dejé mi andar. Esa maldita curva de Monza. Me habían avisado, pero iba no sé qué piloto delante y yo tenía que pasarle en la curva más maldita de Monza…». Y las chicas con los ojos como platos considerándole un héroe. El hijo de puta las engañaba a todas con la curva de Monza.

Fidel Moreno: ¿Nunca se te ha ocurrido escribir un perfil de Gasset?

Ray Loriga: No, no, Antonio saldría del infierno y me mataría. Éramos tan amigos que si me atreviese a hablar por él saldría del infierno y me mataría.

Fidel Moreno: Lo que me gusta de la novela tuya, y por eso me ha recordado a las anécdotas de Gasset es la idea de que el buen humor es lo único que nos salva de los desastres de la vida.

Ray Loriga: Absolutamente.

«La muerte es como un orgasmo, cada uno sabe cómo lo siente, pero no sabe exactamente cómo lo siente el de al lado. Me dio la sensación de que todas esas teorías de despedirse del cuerpo, de elevarse, de ver el túnel o ver una luz, responden a que cada uno se lleva a ese viaje el último sueño que tiene».

Fidel Moreno: Un poco como la visión que tenía Albert Camus del mito de Sísifo. Camus hablaba de la sonrisa de Sísifo, de la liberación que supone aceptar la condena absurda que es la vida.

Ray Loriga: Sí, sí, lo acepta y se descojona, porque es que no hay otra. Las cosas son tan arbitrarias, especialmente para un hombre sin fe. Yo tengo una creencia política muy relativa, con el paso de los años cada día más, porque he visto las mejores ideas destruir a las mejores personas y a las mejores ideas colectivas volverse infiernos. Con esa cantidad de desengaño y desilusión casi que es el último recurso: «Venid a por mí, que me estaré riendo».

Fidel Moreno: También hablas en la novela de la sonrisa de Elis Regina.

Ray Loriga: La sonrisa de Elis Regina me parece la cosa más bonita del mundo. Sonríe porque no lo puede evitar; es también la sonrisa frente a la desgracia, frente al desastre, porque mira que le fue fatal todo en su vida, que no paró de ser desgraciada, pero no paraba de sonreír al mismo tiempo.

Fidel Moreno: El atribulado protagonista de tu novela también encuentra paz al aceptar lo absurdo de la vida: «Hay cierta gloria en esto de intentar llevar a cabo grandes tareas a sabiendas de que se fracasará sin remedio». ¿No es eso como ir hacia el infierno cantando?

Ray Loriga: Sí, porque ¿por qué temer lo que ya tienes? La vida me parece un infierno consolado con la amistad. En la amistad incluyo a mi mujer y a mis hijos, pequeños momentos y grandes sensaciones de amistad. Todo lo demás me parece un infierno. Me parece un infierno tener que trabajar para ganarse la vida, el que ha inventado eso es la persona más insensata del mundo. Uno podría estar tumbado a la bartola tan contento, no le pide tanto a la vida, no quiere un Ferrari, no quiere nada, solo quiere un amparo, un techo y algo de comer. Somos gente sencilla y toda esta carrera me parece tan grotesca.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

Ray Loriga. Crédito: Diego Lafuente.

El mecanismo narrativo

Fidel Moreno: ¿Te ha dado mucho trabajo esta novela? Lo digo porque te pones a escribirla después de haber estado muerto, aunque solo fuera por un rato.

Ray Loriga: La escribí con la ilusión de saber que podía, que era mi único pánico, no poder.

Fidel Moreno: ¿Pero ese pánico no te estuvo de alguna forma pesando?

Ray Loriga: No, fue un momento. Si tiene que ser el final que sea el final final, no lo contrario, que sería estar sin estar y ser encima una carga y un horror para los que te quieren: ahora tu padre que fue escritor en una silla y turnarse los hermanos, y tu mujer ahí, atada un tiempo, que luego diría «tengo que seguir viviendo, ¿dónde tiro esto?». No ser eso, que me parece horroroso, y no tener conciencia de que no eres capaz de hacer lo que te apasiona, que es leer y escribir. Me acuerdo en la UCI, que lo primero que pensé fue «puedes mover la máquina», no me refiero a la máquina corporal, ni siquiera me había dado cuenta de si podía mover los pies y las piernas y los brazos, y pensé «si un hombre sale del hospital y hace no sé qué…», y me dije vale, vale, descansa, sigue el mecanismo.

Fidel Moreno: ¿El mecanismo narrativo, la capacidad de narrar?

Ray Loriga: Sí, para mí el mecanismo narrativo es la clave de la vida. Lo otro es que te pasen cosas, pero, claro, ahí estás al socaire, ahí no puedes hacer nada, eres como la bola de la ruleta, tú le tocas al once, al doce o al trece, pero a ti no te dan nada. ¡Qué historia más buena contaría una bola de ruleta! Si tienes ese mecanismo narrativo ya es otra historia.

«"Benigno, pero mortal", me dijo el médico y pensé que era la expresión más graciosa que había oído en mi vida, no pude evitar reírme, hasta pensé en titular así el libro. Es benigno porque no es cancerígeno, pero tampoco es cancerígeno que te atraviesen con una lanza».

Fidel Moreno: Hay momentos verdaderamente inspirados en la novela, las primeras treinta páginas está entre lo mejor que has escrito. No es una más de tus novelas, te ha salido muy bien.

Ray Loriga: Gracias. Eso ha dicho la crítica unánimemente, cosa rara, no sé si es por aquello de «vamos a tratar bien al tullido», que también me cabe esa duda, o es que la novela está bien. La novela me ha costado, la he trabajado muchísimo, pero siempre con la bandera de que no se note. Suelo poner el ejemplo de Fred Astaire, que decía «mi trabajo es que no se note que estoy bailando. Entreno horas y horas para que luego la gente piense, ah, este señor es estupendo, está hablando sentado en una mesa y de pronto coge el sombrero y se pone a bailar». Que eso parezca natural, para eso se ensaya y para eso se trabaja, para crear esa falsa impresión, que es el logro total, de que el relato fluye. En cuanto al principio, claro, yo me lancé a escribir entusiasmado y si alguna vez detengo esa corriente es porque tenía que contar un poco de trama también, que es necesaria para ponerle tres puntales a la historia. Decía Paul Schrader, hablando de guiones, que si no le pones tres puntales a la historia no es un circo. Un circo es como una historia: tienes la carpa, pero tienes que poner un puntal muy alto y luego dos más pequeños y luego tirar unos vientos.

Fidel Moreno: Tu narrativa debe mucho a la oralidad.

Ray Loriga: La narración oral es fascinante porque se hacía de una manera muy natural, por ensayo y error. Cuando sientes que puedes estar perdiendo al público, que en el caso de la narración oral es una respuesta inmediata, dices elevando un poco el tono «¿y entonces sabéis lo que paso?», y así recuperas un poco la atención, para que los niños o los que están alrededor de la hoguera no se te duerman. Esas técnicas narrativas a lo largo de los años las naturalizas, pero las tienes, tú sabes que están ahí, notas los momentos en los que puedes estar perdiendo la atención del lector.

«Si Virginia Woolf no se hubiera dedicado a esto, ¿qué prestigio tendría este absurdo asunto del libro? La gente podría ir directamente a lo de las series, hacerse lo de Georgina o ganarse un reality».

Fidel Moreno: Aunque no tiene un eje cronológico claro y la trama avanza con vaivenes, la estructura de la novela funciona muy bien.

Ray Loriga: Eso era para mí una clave, y viene también de mis lecturas. He estado obsesionado con la mecánica de Tristram Shandy, que es una de mis novelas favoritas. O la mecánica de At Swim-Two-Birds (En Nadar-dos-pájaros) de Flann O'Brien, que es un tiempo narrativo con una cronología interna y, sin embargo, puede ser comprensible. Cómo jugar con esto sin perder al lector, mantenerle en un tiempo aparentemente caprichoso, pero que no lo es. Por resumir mucho, hay un momento en la novela en que digo «ahora, en el ahora del entonces que les estoy contando», así atrapas a la gente en una conversación que se quedó perdida hace cien páginas pero que vuelve en el recuerdo del que se habla y se convierten en presentes paralelos. Es toda una estructura matemática, tal y como la creó Laurence Sterne.

Fidel Moreno: En Cualquier verano es un final no abundan, aunque también las hay, esas frases deslumbrantes tan habituales en tus anteriores novelas. 

Ray Loriga: Yo leo a mis críticos, y en algunos confío, y puede que tengan un punto de razón en que a veces me deslumbro demasiado a mí mismo. Pensar que una buena frase es un gol y que si metes tres, cuatro, diez, veinte, ya has ganado el partido por goleada. Pero por crear un efecto ingenioso puedes perder la tensión, la cadencia, el ritmo. Entonces, con la edad, me autocensuro un poco, a veces me digo: «Qué frase más chula, pero no la pongas». Me acuerdo de esa vieja máxima de Hemingway: «Escribe una historia, quítale las mejores frases y mira a ver si se sujeta».

Fidel Moreno: Tú que has hecho cine y te has aventurado en otras disciplinas, ¿qué papel tiene hoy la literatura?

Ray Loriga: Sirve para hacer series… No, no lo sé. Estaba el otro día en Sant Jordi y hablaba con amigos escritores sobre el lugar residual que tiene hoy la literatura en la industria del libro. El que no lo acepte es que no ve lo que hay, la literatura tiene hoy un lugar muy residual. Y eso que es el amparo de prestigio de toda esta industria, ¿por qué coño va a querer Anita Obregón o el famoso que sale por la tele o el presentador de Telediarios escribir un libro? Si Virginia Woolf no se hubiera dedicado a esto, ¿qué prestigio tendría este absurdo asunto del libro? La gente podría ir directamente a lo de las series, hacerse lo de Georgina o ganarse un reality. ¿Qué ganan estos advenedizos viniendo a Sant Jordi? El prestigio que esta historia ha tenido a lo largo de los siglos, cuando no había realities, viene desde la tradición oral de las hogueras y continuará hasta que el último de nosotros hable. La literatura es el último amparo del prestigio, la punta de todo este paraguas, pero, dicho esto, la posición de los escritores y escritoras literarias en todo este negocio es residual, solo consiste en mantener ese prestigio del libro.