Entrevistas

El caso Pegasus en cinco preguntas

En 2013, un empleado de la Agencia de Seguridad Nacional (NSA) huyó a Hong Kong, desde donde filtró documentos clasificados que revelaban que Estados Unidos espiaba a sus propios ciudadanos. Aquel escándalo destapado por Edward Snowden ya tiene una segunda parte con Pegasus, un software utilizado para infiltrar a 65 líderes del independentismo catalán en momentos políticos críticos y, según el gobierno español, también al presidente Pedro Sánchez. El autor de «Confesiones de un bot ruso» (Debate), ex «troll» arrepentido que trabajó durante años manipulando la conversación en internet, responde el cuestionario de LENGUA sobre este nuevo caso de ciberespionaje y confirma las peores fantasías conspirativas: ya no hay nada ni nadie imposible de espiar.

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Aquel esc\u00e1ndalo destapado por Edward Snowden ya tiene una segunda parte con Pegasus, un software utilizado para infiltrar a 65 l\u00edderes del independentismo catal\u00e1n en momentos pol\u00edticos cr\u00edticos y, seg\u00fan el gobierno espa\u00f1ol, tambi\u00e9n al presidente Pedro S\u00e1nchez. El autor de \u00abConfesiones de un bot ruso\u00bb (Debate), ex \u00abtroll\u00bb arrepentido que trabaj\u00f3 durante a\u00f1os manipulando la conversaci\u00f3n en internet, responde el cuestionario de LENGUA sobre este nuevo caso de ciberespionaje y confirma las peores fantas\u00edas conspirativas: ya no hay nada ni nadie imposible de espiar.<\/p>\n<p><\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"kqu03z0\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a0El gobierno espa\u00f1ol asegura que el presidente Pedro S\u00e1nchez tambi\u00e9n ha sido espiado con el software Pegasus.\u00a0Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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\u00bf<\/b><strong>C\u00f3mo hace\u00a0Pegasus para espiar un dispositivo?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Bot ruso:<\/strong>\u00a0Pegasus es un software que entra en la categor\u00eda de <em>spyware<\/em>, es decir, es\u00a0una\u00a0aplicaci\u00f3n de espionaje. Lo m\u00e1s llamativo de este programa inform\u00e1tico es tiene una opci\u00f3n de contagio \u00abcero\u00a0<em>click<\/em>\u00bb. Dicho de otra forma: no necesita de ninguna acci\u00f3n por parte de la v\u00edctima para infectar un dispositivo. Es suficiente, por ejemplo, con el env\u00edo de un mensaje de WhatsApp para que el tel\u00e9fono quede infectado. Sin embargo, no es la \u00fanica opci\u00f3n. En el caso de que no sea posible ese contagio \u00abcero\u00a0<em>click<\/em>\u00bb, este <em>software<\/em> puede ser instalado por un agente que tenga acceso al dispositivo o a trav\u00e9s de una acci\u00f3n de <em>spear phishing<\/em>, logrando que la v\u00edctima, por ejemplo, haga <em>click<\/em> en un enlace. Tambi\u00e9n es posible infectar un dispositivo determinado con un agente posicionado a una distancia pr\u00f3xima del dispositivo de la v\u00edctima, sin necesidad de tener acceso al mismo: imaginemos, por ejemplo, que una persona en el metro instala este <em>spyware<\/em> en el <em>smartphone<\/em> de otro usuario. Esto es posible a causa de las vulnerabilidades del sistema operativo del <em>smartphone<\/em>, <em>tablet<\/em> o PC. Cualquiera puede ser v\u00edctima de este <em>spyware<\/em> y es muy dif\u00edcil darse cuenta. Est\u00e1 dise\u00f1ado para ser casi indetectable e incluso puede autodestruirse si la situaci\u00f3n as\u00ed lo requiere.\u00a0<\/p><p><b>LENGUA:\u00a0<\/b><strong>\u00bfQu\u00e9 hace Pegasus concretamente?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Bot ruso:<\/strong>\u00a0Una vez que el dispositivo ha sido infectado, Pegasus tiene acceso a gran cantidad de informaci\u00f3n: agenda de contactos, registro de llamadas, galer\u00eda de im\u00e1genes. El agente encargado del espionaje puede solicitarle a la app que lea los mensajes de texto o escuche las llamadas, que obtenga las contrase\u00f1as o que localice a la persona a trav\u00e9s del GPS del dispositivo. Adem\u00e1s, permite acceder (y activar) la c\u00e1mara y el micr\u00f3fono del dispositivo sin que el usuario se d\u00e9 cuenta. Tambi\u00e9n puede acceder a las fotograf\u00edas, o acceder a la informaci\u00f3n de aplicaciones y redes sociales, pudiendo leer incluso conversaciones en iMessage, WhatsApp y Telegram, entre otras acciones. Eso me lleva a otro planteamiento: \u00bfser\u00eda aceptado un dispositivo infectado con Pegasus como prueba de un delito, teniendo en cuenta que los agentes podr\u00edan manipular pruebas?\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/thebotruso.com\/\\\">La opini\u00f3n de este Bot Ruso<\/a><\/span> es que no deber\u00eda poder permitirse un smartphone infectado como prueba en un eventual juicio puesto que el agente tendr\u00eda la capacidad de sembrar pruebas 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se contrata y cu\u00e1nto puede costar un servicio de este tipo?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Bot ruso:<\/strong>\u00a0Pegasus se considera una de las aplicaciones de espionaje m\u00e1s sofisticadas del mercado. Su coste, seg\u00fan public\u00f3 <em>The New York Times<\/em> en 2016, rondar\u00eda la friolera de 500 mil d\u00f3lares por la instalaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s 650 mil d\u00f3lares por cada diez dispositivos infectados. La propiedad y comercializaci\u00f3n del <em>spyware<\/em>\u00a0Pegasus es de NSO Group, una empresa israel\u00ed sujeta al control del gobierno de Israel por considerar que este <em>software<\/em> es un ciberarma. NSO Group cuenta con una infraestructura de red tremendamente sofisticada que se ofrece desde nubes privadas y p\u00fablicas y que cambia y evoluciona constantemente para que los servidores o dominios que emplea no se puedan utilizar en los indicadores de ataque o en listas de bloqueo. Esta empresa, que ya ha cumplido ocho a\u00f1os, considera a Pegasus una herramienta para la lucha contra el crimen, el terrorismo y otras amenazas para la seguridad nacional de los diferentes Estados y gobiernos. Y asegura que el <em>software<\/em> solo puede ser adquirido y utilizado por clientes gubernamentales y fuerzas de seguridad, y siempre con una orden judicial. Sin embargo, con las informaciones que se han publicado en los \u00faltimos d\u00edas, eso queda en entredicho. Entiendo que en la parte del \u00abCatalangate\u00bb\u00a0pudiera haber una orden judicial. Sin embargo, \u00bfqui\u00e9n contrat\u00f3 a Pegasus para espiar a Pedro S\u00e1nchez o Grande Marlaska, entre otros, y qu\u00e9 excusa dio a la compa\u00f1\u00eda?\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfEl ciber espionaje es un asunto de Estado o un negocio privado?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Bot ruso:\u00a0<\/strong>\u00bfLos gobiernos nos esp\u00edan? Algunas personas parecen sorprendidas del espionaje a ciudadanos por parte de gobiernos y fuerzas de seguridad. Sin embargo, hubo alguien que nos lo cont\u00f3 mucho antes que Pegasus saliera al mercado: Edward Snowden. En 2013, Snowden nos comparti\u00f3 documentos clasificados como alto secreto en los que dejaba claro que los servicios de inteligencia estadounidenses llevaban a cabo una vigilancia masiva. Por otro lado, Pegasus lleva m\u00e1s de un lustro en el mercado y no es el primer esc\u00e1ndalo que salpica a la compa\u00f1\u00eda. Es algo sobre lo que ya est\u00e1bamos avisados. Lo que sucede es que tenemos poca memoria.<\/p><p><b>LENGUA: \u00bfHay algo o alguien que hoy sea imposible de espiar?<\/b><\/p><p><strong>Bot ruso:<\/strong> No hay nada imposible. Y si te llamas Pedro S\u00e1nchez y eres presidente del Gobierno de Espa\u00f1a, esta pregunta sobra. S\u00ed, has sido espiado. Sin embargo, en la mayor\u00eda de los casos, debemos respirar tranquilos. El coste que supone la instalaci\u00f3n y utilizaci\u00f3n de este <em>software<\/em> hace que sea utilizado exclusivamente con objetivos clave. Pero nunca se debe descartar nada, y se pueden tomar varias precauciones, como las bolsas de se\u00f1al de protecci\u00f3n o evitar el uso de ciertas aplicaciones, porque la inversi\u00f3n que hacen estas compa\u00f1\u00edas en materia de investigaci\u00f3n es tan grande que no existe un 100% de garant\u00eda. Ni siquiera para el Nokia antiguo de Revilla. Muchas empresas, durante la pandemia, prohib\u00edan a sus empleados trabajar en habitaciones donde hubiera dispositivos del tipo Google Home o similares precisamente por ese mismo riesgo. Estamos rodeados de tecnolog\u00eda y no somos conscientes del riesgo que eso supone. Nos creemos que lo de Skynet en \u00abTerminator\u00bb\u00a0es ficci\u00f3n pura pero...A ver, no creo que Arnold Schwarzenegger venga del futuro convertido en un <em>cyborg<\/em> para matar a un nonato, pero eso no quiere decir que no haya compa\u00f1\u00edas con capacidades tecnol\u00f3gicas muy inquietantes, sobre todo, para quienes vemos cierta similitud en los gobiernos actuales y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\">la novela 1984, de George 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CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/elon-musk-twitter-marta-peirano\\\">Elon Musk y el futuro de Twitter en cinco preguntas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/facebook-manipulados-sheera-frenkel-cecilia-kang\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">C\u00f3mo Facebook nos convirti\u00f3 en anunciantes: la historia detr\u00e1s del \u00abMe gusta\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/hector-garcia-barnes-futurofobia-sergio-del-molino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">V\u00edctimas de la \u00abfuturofobia\u00bb: una generaci\u00f3n triste con fotos 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5 minutos

 El gobierno español asegura que el presidente Pedro Sánchez también ha sido espiado con el software Pegasus. Crédito: Getty Images.

LENGUA: ¿Cómo hace Pegasus para espiar un dispositivo? 

Bot ruso: Pegasus es un software que entra en la categoría de spyware, es decir, es una aplicación de espionaje. Lo más llamativo de este programa informático es tiene una opción de contagio «cero click». Dicho de otra forma: no necesita de ninguna acción por parte de la víctima para infectar un dispositivo. Es suficiente, por ejemplo, con el envío de un mensaje de WhatsApp para que el teléfono quede infectado. Sin embargo, no es la única opción. En el caso de que no sea posible ese contagio «cero click», este software puede ser instalado por un agente que tenga acceso al dispositivo o a través de una acción de spear phishing, logrando que la víctima, por ejemplo, haga click en un enlace. También es posible infectar un dispositivo determinado con un agente posicionado a una distancia próxima del dispositivo de la víctima, sin necesidad de tener acceso al mismo: imaginemos, por ejemplo, que una persona en el metro instala este spyware en el smartphone de otro usuario. Esto es posible a causa de las vulnerabilidades del sistema operativo del smartphone, tablet o PC. Cualquiera puede ser víctima de este spyware y es muy difícil darse cuenta. Está diseñado para ser casi indetectable e incluso puede autodestruirse si la situación así lo requiere. 

LENGUA: ¿Qué hace Pegasus concretamente?

Bot ruso: Una vez que el dispositivo ha sido infectado, Pegasus tiene acceso a gran cantidad de información: agenda de contactos, registro de llamadas, galería de imágenes. El agente encargado del espionaje puede solicitarle a la app que lea los mensajes de texto o escuche las llamadas, que obtenga las contraseñas o que localice a la persona a través del GPS del dispositivo. Además, permite acceder (y activar) la cámara y el micrófono del dispositivo sin que el usuario se dé cuenta. También puede acceder a las fotografías, o acceder a la información de aplicaciones y redes sociales, pudiendo leer incluso conversaciones en iMessage, WhatsApp y Telegram, entre otras acciones. Eso me lleva a otro planteamiento: ¿sería aceptado un dispositivo infectado con Pegasus como prueba de un delito, teniendo en cuenta que los agentes podrían manipular pruebas? La opinión de este Bot Ruso es que no debería poder permitirse un smartphone infectado como prueba en un eventual juicio puesto que el agente tendría la capacidad de sembrar pruebas falsas.

LENGUA: ¿Cómo se contrata y cuánto puede costar un servicio de este tipo?

Bot ruso: Pegasus se considera una de las aplicaciones de espionaje más sofisticadas del mercado. Su coste, según publicó The New York Times en 2016, rondaría la friolera de 500 mil dólares por la instalación más 650 mil dólares por cada diez dispositivos infectados. La propiedad y comercialización del spyware Pegasus es de NSO Group, una empresa israelí sujeta al control del gobierno de Israel por considerar que este software es un ciberarma. NSO Group cuenta con una infraestructura de red tremendamente sofisticada que se ofrece desde nubes privadas y públicas y que cambia y evoluciona constantemente para que los servidores o dominios que emplea no se puedan utilizar en los indicadores de ataque o en listas de bloqueo. Esta empresa, que ya ha cumplido ocho años, considera a Pegasus una herramienta para la lucha contra el crimen, el terrorismo y otras amenazas para la seguridad nacional de los diferentes Estados y gobiernos. Y asegura que el software solo puede ser adquirido y utilizado por clientes gubernamentales y fuerzas de seguridad, y siempre con una orden judicial. Sin embargo, con las informaciones que se han publicado en los últimos días, eso queda en entredicho. Entiendo que en la parte del «Catalangate» pudiera haber una orden judicial. Sin embargo, ¿quién contrató a Pegasus para espiar a Pedro Sánchez o Grande Marlaska, entre otros, y qué excusa dio a la compañía? 

LENGUA: ¿El ciber espionaje es un asunto de Estado o un negocio privado?

Bot ruso: ¿Los gobiernos nos espían? Algunas personas parecen sorprendidas del espionaje a ciudadanos por parte de gobiernos y fuerzas de seguridad. Sin embargo, hubo alguien que nos lo contó mucho antes que Pegasus saliera al mercado: Edward Snowden. En 2013, Snowden nos compartió documentos clasificados como alto secreto en los que dejaba claro que los servicios de inteligencia estadounidenses llevaban a cabo una vigilancia masiva. Por otro lado, Pegasus lleva más de un lustro en el mercado y no es el primer escándalo que salpica a la compañía. Es algo sobre lo que ya estábamos avisados. Lo que sucede es que tenemos poca memoria.

LENGUA: ¿Hay algo o alguien que hoy sea imposible de espiar?

Bot ruso: No hay nada imposible. Y si te llamas Pedro Sánchez y eres presidente del Gobierno de España, esta pregunta sobra. Sí, has sido espiado. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de los casos, debemos respirar tranquilos. El coste que supone la instalación y utilización de este software hace que sea utilizado exclusivamente con objetivos clave. Pero nunca se debe descartar nada, y se pueden tomar varias precauciones, como las bolsas de señal de protección o evitar el uso de ciertas aplicaciones, porque la inversión que hacen estas compañías en materia de investigación es tan grande que no existe un 100% de garantía. Ni siquiera para el Nokia antiguo de Revilla. Muchas empresas, durante la pandemia, prohibían a sus empleados trabajar en habitaciones donde hubiera dispositivos del tipo Google Home o similares precisamente por ese mismo riesgo. Estamos rodeados de tecnología y no somos conscientes del riesgo que eso supone. Nos creemos que lo de Skynet en «Terminator» es ficción pura pero...A ver, no creo que Arnold Schwarzenegger venga del futuro convertido en un cyborg para matar a un nonato, pero eso no quiere decir que no haya compañías con capacidades tecnológicas muy inquietantes, sobre todo, para quienes vemos cierta similitud en los gobiernos actuales y la novela 1984, de George Orwell.

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