Literatura

Primero, la rebelión; después, el futuro: la improbable génesis de «1984», la obra magna de George Orwell

Gran Hermano, pensamiento de grupo, habitación 101... La fuerza con que se instalaron estas expresiones en el lenguaje común de nuevas generaciones prueba la brutal vigencia de las ideas que formuló George Orwell en «1984», su novela más famosa y madre de las distopías que se han apoderado de la narrativa actual. El escritor le dio forma en la inaccesible casona en la sombría Jura, una isla de las Hébridas que fue su refugio cuando «Rebelión en la granja» lo había convertido en una figura demasiado solicitada en Londres, penaba las muertes de su madre, su esposa y su hermana y ya lo afectaba la tuberculosis que acabaría con su vida. Esta es la historia de la misteriosa génesis de una de las obras más influyentes del siglo XX.

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class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/24582-1984-edicion-definitiva-avalada-por-the-orwell-estate\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">1984<\/a><\/em><\/span>, de George Orwell, es uno de\u00a0esos libros que\u00a0forman\u00a0sus propias\u00a0historias.\u00a0Junto con\u00a0la adopci\u00f3n\u00a0contempor\u00e1nea\u00a0de t\u00e9rminos como \u00abpensamiento de grupo\u00bb, \u00abGran Hermano\u00bb y \u00abhabitaci\u00f3n 101\u00bb, ha suscitado el mito\u00a0de que fue\u00a0fruto del sufrimiento;\u00a0que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4593-george-orwell\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Orwell<\/a><\/span>,\u00a0afligido\u00a0por la m\u00faltiple tragedia de haber perdido a su madre, a su esposa\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">por un ataque card\u00edaco<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00a0y a su hermana\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">por una enfermedad renal<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00a0en muy poco tiempo, y bregando en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os de su vida mientras\u00a0la tuberculosis lo acribillaba, cre\u00f3 la distop\u00eda\u00a0en\u00a0una casa aislada <strong>en el borde de una remota y agreste isla de las\u00a0H\u00e9bridas: Jura.<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Es una historia rom\u00e1ntica, pero no del todo\u00a0cierta.\u00a0En realidad,\u00a0Orwell hizo de\u00a0Barnhill,\u00a0su casa en Jura,\u00a0una especie de\u00a0lugar de\u00a0retiro\u00a0poco com\u00fan, y no solo para \u00e9l, sino\u00a0para su hijo,\u00a0para\u00a0la hermana que le quedaba y\u00a0para los\u00a0muchos escritores y amigos que\u00a0tambi\u00e9n\u00a0emprendieron\u00a0un viaje de 48 horas para visitar\u00a0aquel\u00a0bulto de tierra con forma de pedernal,\u00a0alejado de la costa oeste de Escocia. <strong>Escribi\u00f3\u00a0<i>1984<\/i>\u00a0durante su estancia all\u00ed,\u00a0contemplando\u00a0por la ventana de su\u00a0cuarto\u00a0la vastedad del Mar del Norte y las colinas que se\u00a0adentran\u00a0en\u00a0\u00e9l.<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00a0<\/strong><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Podr\u00eda decirse que\u00a0Barnhill,\u00a0la casa que alquil\u00f3 Orwell,\u00a0no era\u00a0nada\u00a0acogedora. Aunque espaciosa\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">constaba de\u00a0cinco habitaciones, sal\u00f3n de estar, comedor y una cocina\u00a0grande<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">, no ten\u00eda electricidad. Orwell recurr\u00eda al gas butano\u00a0para cocinar y calentar agua,\u00a0a la\u00a0turba y\u00a0al\u00a0carb\u00f3n para caldear\u00a0la casa\u00a0y a la parafina para\u00a0encender\u00a0los candiles. Margaret Fletcher, propietaria de la finca\u00a0Ardlussa, en la que se ubicaba\u00a0Barnhill,\u00a0y una de las vecinas m\u00e1s cercanas de Orwell, viv\u00eda a varios kil\u00f3metros, camino abajo desde\u00a0Barnhill. <strong>\u00abTen\u00eda\u00a0solo\u00a0lo necesario: una cama plegable,\u00a0una mesa,\u00a0un par de sillas y\u00a0algunos\u00a0utensilios de cocina indispensables.<\/strong> Le prestamos algunos muebles y\u00a0despu\u00e9s\u00a0se\u00a0hizo con m\u00e1s, pero ni siquiera\u00a0hacia el final de su tiempo\u00a0en Jura la casa\u00a0result\u00f3\u00a0c\u00f3moda\u00bb, recuerda Fletcher en\u00a0<i>Jura and George Orwell<\/i>.\u00a0<\/span>\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Y tambi\u00e9n estaba\u00a0demasiado\u00a0aislada,\u00a0incluso para lo normal en Jura.\u00a0Orwell dec\u00eda que estaba <strong>\u00aben un lugar sumamente inaccesible\u00bb;<\/strong>\u00a0para llegar all\u00ed hab\u00eda que tomar dos ferris, recorrer 32\u00a0kil\u00f3metros por carretera y despu\u00e9s otros once\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">en motocicleta o cabalgando\u00a0un poni\u00a0terco<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00a0por un camino de tierra hasta\u00a0Barnhill. La tienda m\u00e1s cercana estaba a 40\u00a0kil\u00f3metros. El correo,\u00a0que ven\u00eda\u00a0con\u00a0ejemplares\u00a0de\u00a0cortes\u00eda del<i>\u00a0New\u00a0Yorker\u00a0<\/i>para\u00a0Orwell, se repart\u00eda los jueves.<\/span>\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\"><strong>\u00bfEn qu\u00e9 momento\u00a0surge\u00a0<i>1984<\/i>?<\/strong> Es dif\u00edcil saberlo con precisi\u00f3n. Aunque el libro fue escrito en Jura, Orwell no dej\u00f3 constancia\u00a0en su diario\u00a0de\u00a0c\u00f3mo iba progresando\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">ni de lo contrario<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">, aunque s\u00ed hay\u00a0varias y\u00a0extra\u00f1as menciones\u00a0a\u00a0las\u00a0tardes que pasaba arreglando\u00a0renuentes\u00a0m\u00e1quinas de escribir. 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class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Pero \u00bfqu\u00e9 lo oblig\u00f3 a irse all\u00ed? Orwell nunca lo respondi\u00f3 de forma directa. Siempre mantuvo un diario, y sus entradas correspondientes a los a\u00f1os que estuvo en Jura, a pesar de lo detallado que era la descripci\u00f3n de su vida all\u00ed, carecen llamativamente de reflexi\u00f3n emocional. Sus bi\u00f3grafos han debatido diferentes teor\u00edas desde entonces. Pero uno de ellos, Dorian Lynskey, que el a\u00f1o pasado public\u00f3 <strong><em>The Ministry of Truth: A Biography of George Orwell's 1984 (El Ministerio de la Verdad: una biograf\u00eda de 1984 de Orwell)<\/em><\/strong> sostiene que Jura le ofreci\u00f3 a Orwell un escape.\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Adem\u00e1s, era un escape que llevaba mucho tiempo planific\u00e1ndose: las \u00faltimas cartas de Eileen, la esposa de Orwell, muestran la determinaci\u00f3n de la pareja de dejar atr\u00e1s el aire viciado de Londres para emprender una nueva vida en las H\u00e9bridas. <strong>\u00ab\u00c9l estaba bastante obsesionado con Jura\u00bb<\/strong>, me cuenta Lynskey. \u00abLos planes estaban en marcha antes de que Eileen muriera. Que \u00e9l siguiera adelante con ellos parece m\u00e1s un homenaje hacia ella que una reacci\u00f3n a su muerte.\u00bb Orwell no se estaba retrayendo ante el dolor, sino que cumpl\u00eda un sue\u00f1o alimentado por la mujer que amaba.\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: 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class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Y con ello dejaba\u00a0atr\u00e1s una exitosa carrera a la que muchos solo podr\u00edan aspirar en sue\u00f1os. El fen\u00f3meno de\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/36232-rebelion-en-la-granja-edicion-definitiva-avalada-por-the-orwell-estate-9788499890951\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rebeli\u00f3n en la granja<\/a><\/span><\/em>, publicado en 1945, hizo que el valor de Orwell se disparara. Era un periodista endiabladamente cotizado. \u00abNo deja de\u00a0contactarme\u00a0gente que quiere que d\u00e9 una conferencia, que escriba panfletos por encargo, que me una a esto y aquello, etc.\u00bb,\u00a0le escribi\u00f3 a su colega periodista Arthur Koestler en abril de 1946.\u00a0<strong>\u00abNo sabes c\u00f3mo anhelo liberarme de todo y tener tiempo para volver a pensar.\u00bb<\/strong>\u00a0Sin duda, la vida en Jura pod\u00eda\u00a0ofrec\u00e9rselo: el \u00fanico contacto con el mundo exterior\u00a0era\u00a0a trav\u00e9s de\u00a0una radio\u00a0de\u00a0pilas.<\/span>\u00a0<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00abSiempre se quejaba de Londres, del estr\u00e9s y el agobio\u00bb,\u00a0dice\u00a0Lynskey.\u00a0\u00abQuer\u00eda alejarse del periodismo y concentrarse en la\u00a0narrativa.\u00a0<strong>Cre\u00eda que su verdadero destino era ser\u00a0un\u00a0novelista con su propia casa en el campo.\u00bb<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">A finales de mayo lleg\u00f3 la hermana de Orwell,\u00a0Avril, quien\u00a0quer\u00eda cambiar de vida, y se qued\u00f3 con \u00e9l.\u00a0El\u00a0fuego que ella manten\u00eda\u00a0encendido, recuerda\u00a0Margaret Fletcher,\u00a0era\u00a0el\u00a0\u00fanico\u00a0rinc\u00f3n\u00a0acogedor\u00a0de la casa. Cuando la primavera\u00a0se convirti\u00f3\u00a0en verano, Orwell fue a Londres a recoger a su hijo, Richard, entonces beb\u00e9, para llev\u00e1rselo a\u00a0Barnhill. <strong>Recorri\u00f3 a pie los \u00faltimos cinco kil\u00f3metros del viaje con su hijo\u00a0en\u00a0hombros.<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Vivir en\u00a0Barnhill\u00a0era\u00a0mucho trabajo, cuyos\u00a0pormenores\u00a0aparecen diseminados\u00a0en\u00a0el diario de Orwell.\u00a0Se\u00a0pon\u00eda a\u00a0trabajar\u00a0temprano\u00a0y\u00a0araba\u00a0la tierra alrededor de la casa para plantar verduras,\u00a0e incluso\u00a0mand\u00f3\u00a0traer \u00e1rboles frutales para\u00a0despu\u00e9s\u00a0plantarlos. \u00c9l y\u00a0Avril\u00a0pescaban, a veces con\u00a0resultados\u00a0bastante impresionantes que despu\u00e9s\u00a0salaban\u00a0y almacenaban para los meses de mayor escasez. <strong>Hasta que\u00a0se hizo con una vaca, conseguir leche\u00a0requer\u00eda\u00a0una caminata\u00a0larga.<\/strong> Orwell ten\u00eda gallinas y llevaba la cuenta de los huevos\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">tanto de ese d\u00eda, como del total desde la llegada de la manada<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00a0en su diario. Los conejos, las babosas y los ciervos\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">de los que a\u00fan hoy\u00a0hay seis mil en Jura, cuya poblaci\u00f3n es de doscientos cincuenta habitantes<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00a0eran\u00a0una molestia constante. A pesar de estas dificultades, Orwell lo consideraba una especie de proto buena vida. \u00abLe gustaban\u00a0mucho\u00a0cosas como la jardiner\u00eda y plantar verduras\u00bb,\u00a0dice\u00a0Lynskey.\u00a0\u00abPasaba\u00a0bastante\u00a0tiempo al aire libre.\u00bb<\/span>\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Orwell, al que sus\u00a0pocos\u00a0vecinos conoc\u00edan por <strong>su verdadero nombre, Eric Blair,<\/strong> se convirti\u00f3 en parte familiar, aunque exc\u00e9ntrica, del paisaje. Despu\u00e9s de\u00a0que\u00a0le\u00a0vendieran\u00a0una camioneta que lograba llegar al muelle de Jura, pero no m\u00e1s all\u00e1, recurri\u00f3 a una vieja motocicleta para cubrir las\u00a0zonas\u00a0m\u00e1s\u00a0dif\u00edciles\u00a0de la isla. Tambi\u00e9n se le averiaba con frecuencia. En marcha o\u00a0estacionada,\u00a0en\u00a0la moto sol\u00eda\u00a0haber\u00a0una guada\u00f1a atada a la parte trasera para cortar la hierba alta que\u00a0pudiera obstaculizar\u00a0su viaje. \u202f<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Algunas\u00a0veces daba largos paseos para explorar la envergadura de la isla. Tras uno de ellos, dos semanas despu\u00e9s de su llegada en 1946, anot\u00f3 en su diario el descubrimiento de un \u00abviejo cr\u00e1neo humano, con algunos otros huesos, que yac\u00edan en la playa en\u00a0Glengarrisdale. <strong>Se dice que es un superviviente de la masacre de los\u00a0Maclean\u00a0a manos de los Campbell<\/strong> y, en todo caso, de hace al menos doscientos a\u00f1os. Todav\u00eda le quedan dos dientes (posteriores)\u00bb.<\/span>\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7v5k43u\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En enero de 1949, un a\u00f1o antes de su muerte a los cuarenta y seis, Orwell hizo su \u00faltimo viaje desde Jura, con destino a un sanatorio. Sab\u00eda que, si hubiese\u202fido\u202fantes, los m\u00e9dicos no le habr\u00edan dejado tener su m\u00e1quina de escribir, y estaba obsesionado con acabar el libro.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"f6jpa8n\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Porque hubo muchos visitantes.\u00a0Aunque algunos de los que iban a\u00a0Barnhill\u00a0se quedaban decepcionados tras un viaje tan largo,\u00a0Orwell abr\u00eda igualmente su\u00a0algo\u00a0r\u00fastica\u00a0casa\u00a0a los amigos que\u00a0buscaban\u00a0un\u00a0lugar para\u00a0descansar. La noticia de su\u00a0visita sol\u00eda llegar al mismo tiempo que ellos,\u00a0de modo que estos londinenses, agotados por el viaje, se quedaban dando vueltas durante horas en\u00a0una isla desconocida sin ninguna ayuda. Cuando\u00a0por\u00a0fin llegaban a\u00a0Barnhill,\u00a0<strong>era frecuente que Orwell estuviese distra\u00eddo o no mostrase mucho inter\u00e9s.\u00a0<\/strong>Cuando apareci\u00f3 una amiga suya, Lucy\u00a0Dakin, \u00e9l\u00a0la\u00a0salud\u00f3 como si solo se hubiese ausentado de la habitaci\u00f3n un par de horas: \u00abAh,\u00a0est\u00e1s\u00a0ah\u00ed, Lu\u00bb.<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">\u00abHab\u00eda muchas visitas\u00bb,\u00a0dice\u00a0Lynskey.\u00a0\u00a0\u00abEn realidad,\u00a0no estaba solo, lo que de nuevo contradice los mitos\u00a0acerca\u00a0de la estancia de\u00a0Orwell en Jura.\u00bb El\u00a0escritor\u00a0se\u00f1ala que, aunque\u00a0<strong>el tiempo que Orwell\u00a0pas\u00f3\u00a0en la isla inspir\u00f3 dos novelas y una serie de televisi\u00f3n,<\/strong>\u00a0en esta \u00faltima aparec\u00edan menos visitas de las que en realidad fueron.\u00a0Richard\u00a0Rees, por ejemplo, se qued\u00f3 el tiempo suficiente para pintar un cuadro del dormitorio de Orwell, e\u00a0Inez\u00a0Holden\u00a0hizo una larga visita tras volver de cubrir los juicios de N\u00faremberg.<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Lo\u00a0que es\u00a0m\u00e1s conocido\u00a0es el incidente casi fatal en el famoso\u00a0Corryvreckan, el tercer mayor remolino del mundo, frente a la costa norte de Jura. Durante la visita de unos sobrinos de Orwell, una excursi\u00f3n con acampada casi acaba en\u00a0cat\u00e1strofe\u00a0cuando el barco volc\u00f3 en la corriente y el hijo del escritor, de tres a\u00f1os,\u00a0fue arrastrado bajo el agua. Milagrosamente, todos sobrevivieron gracias a un pescador de langostas que pasaba por all\u00ed. La principal observaci\u00f3n\u00a0que hizo\u00a0Orwell\u00a0fue sobre\u00a0las focas que hab\u00edan presenciado el desastre: <strong>\u00abLo interesante\u00a0de las focas\u00a0es que\u00a0son\u00a0criaturas con mucha curiosidad\u00bb.<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00a0<\/strong><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Si todo\u00a0esto recuerda m\u00e1s a unas dram\u00e1ticas vacaciones de los Cinco que a una f\u00e1brica de distop\u00edas llena de fatalidades es porque, en parte, as\u00ed era.\u00a0Al margen de, claro est\u00e1, <strong>la cada vez m\u00e1s precaria salud de Orwell.<\/strong> En 1947, tras varios a\u00f1os\u00a0padeciendo\u00a0diversos problemas de bronquios, le\u00a0fue diagnosticada tuberculosis.\u00a0Lo que se dec\u00eda de Orwell por all\u00ed es que siempre\u00a0se ve\u00eda enfermo.\u00a0<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Aun\u00a0as\u00ed, sigui\u00f3 escribiendo. <strong>\u00abNo\u00a0encontr\u00e9 ninguna\u00a0prueba\u00a0de que \u00e9l\u00a0pensara que estaba muriendo, m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de\u00a0meras\u00a0presunciones\u00bb<\/strong>,\u00a0dice\u00a0Lynskey, que se\u00f1ala que\u00a0el Orwell veintea\u00f1ero jam\u00e1s pens\u00f3 que fuera a cumplir los treinta.\u00a0En septiembre de 1948 plant\u00f3 peon\u00edas,\u00a0quiz\u00e1\u00a0con la idea de verlas florecer el siguiente mayo.<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">Cuando ya estaba demasiado d\u00e9bil para escribir en\u00a0la\u00a0mesa, Orwell lo hac\u00eda en la cama, tosiendo sangre. \u00abEl logro f\u00edsico de acabar el libro: ah\u00ed fue donde su salud cruz\u00f3 el Rubic\u00f3n, y todos los dem\u00e1s parec\u00edan pensar que se estaba muriendo, excepto \u00e9l. <strong>Orwell no pensaba que\u00a0<i>1984<\/i>\u00a0iba\u00a0a ser <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4593-george-orwell\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su \u00faltimo libro<\/a><\/span>\u00bb<\/strong>, dice\u00a0Lynskey. El manuscrito qued\u00f3 terminado en diciembre de 1948.<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">En enero de 1949, un a\u00f1o antes de su muerte a los cuarenta y seis a\u00f1os, Orwell hizo su \u00faltimo viaje desde Jura, con destino a un sanatorio. \u00abSab\u00eda que, si hubiese\u00a0ido\u00a0antes, los m\u00e9dicos no le habr\u00edan dejado tener su m\u00e1quina de escribir, y <strong>estaba obsesionado con acabarlo\u00bb<\/strong>, dice\u00a0Lynskey.<\/span>\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"PARNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><span lang=\\\"ES\\\">El libro sali\u00f3 a la venta menos de seis meses despu\u00e9s, y\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/comic\/34531-1984-la-novela-grafica-9788466352062\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">fue un \u00e9xito inmediato<\/span>.<\/a> Orwell estaba de vuelta en Londres, enamor\u00e1ndose de Sonia\u00a0Brownwell, quien\u00a0lo cuid\u00f3 durante los siguientes seis meses, los \u00faltimos de su vida.\u00a0Con su muerte, Jura se convirti\u00f3 en parte del mito de Orwell, un lugar tan\u00a0inclemente\u00a0y\u00a0sombr\u00edo\u00a0que contribuy\u00f3 a su prematura desaparici\u00f3n.\u00a0Hoy se puede alquilar\u00a0Barnhill\u00a0como casa de vacaciones, pero\u00a0se encuentra en un\u00a0estado bastante parecido a cuando Orwell estuvo all\u00ed, hace setenta a\u00f1os. 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10 minutos

iStock / Max Rompo.

Por ALICE VINCENT

1984, de George Orwell, es uno de esos libros que forman sus propias historias. Junto con la adopción contemporánea de términos como «pensamiento de grupo», «Gran Hermano» y «habitación 101», ha suscitado el mito de que fue fruto del sufrimiento; que Orwell, afligido por la múltiple tragedia de haber perdido a su madre, a su esposa por un ataque cardíaco y a su hermana por una enfermedad renal en muy poco tiempo, y bregando en los últimos años de su vida mientras la tuberculosis lo acribillaba, creó la distopía en una casa aislada en el borde de una remota y agreste isla de las Hébridas: Jura. 

Es una historia romántica, pero no del todo cierta. En realidad, Orwell hizo de Barnhill, su casa en Jura, una especie de lugar de retiro poco común, y no solo para él, sino para su hijo, para la hermana que le quedaba y para los muchos escritores y amigos que también emprendieron un viaje de 48 horas para visitar aquel bulto de tierra con forma de pedernal, alejado de la costa oeste de Escocia. Escribió 1984 durante su estancia allí, contemplando por la ventana de su cuarto la vastedad del Mar del Norte y las colinas que se adentran en él. 

Podría decirse que Barnhill, la casa que alquiló Orwell, no era nada acogedora. Aunque espaciosa constaba de cinco habitaciones, salón de estar, comedor y una cocina grande, no tenía electricidad. Orwell recurría al gas butano para cocinar y calentar agua, a la turba y al carbón para caldear la casa y a la parafina para encender los candiles. Margaret Fletcher, propietaria de la finca Ardlussa, en la que se ubicaba Barnhill, y una de las vecinas más cercanas de Orwell, vivía a varios kilómetros, camino abajo desde Barnhill. «Tenía solo lo necesario: una cama plegable, una mesa, un par de sillas y algunos utensilios de cocina indispensables. Le prestamos algunos muebles y después se hizo con más, pero ni siquiera hacia el final de su tiempo en Jura la casa resultó cómoda», recuerda Fletcher en Jura and George Orwell 

Y también estaba demasiado aislada, incluso para lo normal en Jura. Orwell decía que estaba «en un lugar sumamente inaccesible»; para llegar allí había que tomar dos ferris, recorrer 32 kilómetros por carretera y después otros once en motocicleta o cabalgando un poni terco por un camino de tierra hasta Barnhill. La tienda más cercana estaba a 40 kilómetros. El correo, que venía con ejemplares de cortesía del New Yorker para Orwell, se repartía los jueves. 

¿En qué momento surge 1984? Es difícil saberlo con precisión. Aunque el libro fue escrito en Jura, Orwell no dejó constancia en su diario de cómo iba progresando ni de lo contrario, aunque sí hay varias y extrañas menciones a las tardes que pasaba arreglando renuentes máquinas de escribir. Pero tenemos los testimonios de los visitantes de Barnhill, donde el chasquido de las teclas salpicaba los días que pasaron allí. 

Pero ¿qué lo obligó a irse allí? Orwell nunca lo respondió de forma directa. Siempre mantuvo un diario, y sus entradas correspondientes a los años que estuvo en Jura, a pesar de lo detallado que era la descripción de su vida allí, carecen llamativamente de reflexión emocional. Sus biógrafos han debatido diferentes teorías desde entonces. Pero uno de ellos, Dorian Lynskey, que el año pasado publicó The Ministry of Truth: A Biography of George Orwell's 1984 (El Ministerio de la Verdad: una biografía de 1984 de Orwell) sostiene que Jura le ofreció a Orwell un escape. 

Además, era un escape que llevaba mucho tiempo planificándose: las últimas cartas de Eileen, la esposa de Orwell, muestran la determinación de la pareja de dejar atrás el aire viciado de Londres para emprender una nueva vida en las Hébridas. «Él estaba bastante obsesionado con Jura», me cuenta Lynskey. «Los planes estaban en marcha antes de que Eileen muriera. Que él siguiera adelante con ellos parece más un homenaje hacia ella que una reacción a su muerte.» Orwell no se estaba retrayendo ante el dolor, sino que cumplía un sueño alimentado por la mujer que amaba. 

¿Qué lo obligó a irse a Jura? El fenómeno de Rebelión en la granja, en 1945, era inmenso. «No sabes cómo anhelo liberarme de todo y tener tiempo para volver a pensar», le escribió a su amigo Koestler en 1946. 

Y con ello dejaba atrás una exitosa carrera a la que muchos solo podrían aspirar en sueños. El fenómeno de Rebelión en la granja, publicado en 1945, hizo que el valor de Orwell se disparara. Era un periodista endiabladamente cotizado. «No deja de contactarme gente que quiere que dé una conferencia, que escriba panfletos por encargo, que me una a esto y aquello, etc.», le escribió a su colega periodista Arthur Koestler en abril de 1946. «No sabes cómo anhelo liberarme de todo y tener tiempo para volver a pensar.» Sin duda, la vida en Jura podía ofrecérselo: el único contacto con el mundo exterior era a través de una radio de pilas. «Siempre se quejaba de Londres, del estrés y el agobio», dice Lynskey. «Quería alejarse del periodismo y concentrarse en la narrativa. Creía que su verdadero destino era ser un novelista con su propia casa en el campo.» 

A finales de mayo llegó la hermana de Orwell, Avril, quien quería cambiar de vida, y se quedó con él. El fuego que ella mantenía encendido, recuerda Margaret Fletcher, era el único rincón acogedor de la casa. Cuando la primavera se convirtió en verano, Orwell fue a Londres a recoger a su hijo, Richard, entonces bebé, para llevárselo a Barnhill. Recorrió a pie los últimos cinco kilómetros del viaje con su hijo en hombros. 

Vivir en Barnhill era mucho trabajo, cuyos pormenores aparecen diseminados en el diario de Orwell. Se ponía a trabajar temprano y araba la tierra alrededor de la casa para plantar verduras, e incluso mandó traer árboles frutales para después plantarlos. Él y Avril pescaban, a veces con resultados bastante impresionantes que después salaban y almacenaban para los meses de mayor escasez. Hasta que se hizo con una vaca, conseguir leche requería una caminata larga. Orwell tenía gallinas y llevaba la cuenta de los huevos tanto de ese día, como del total desde la llegada de la manada en su diario. Los conejos, las babosas y los ciervos de los que aún hoy hay seis mil en Jura, cuya población es de doscientos cincuenta habitantes eran una molestia constante. A pesar de estas dificultades, Orwell lo consideraba una especie de proto buena vida. «Le gustaban mucho cosas como la jardinería y plantar verduras», dice Lynskey. «Pasaba bastante tiempo al aire libre.» 

Orwell, al que sus pocos vecinos conocían por su verdadero nombre, Eric Blair, se convirtió en parte familiar, aunque excéntrica, del paisaje. Después de que le vendieran una camioneta que lograba llegar al muelle de Jura, pero no más allá, recurrió a una vieja motocicleta para cubrir las zonas más difíciles de la isla. También se le averiaba con frecuencia. En marcha o estacionada, en la moto solía haber una guadaña atada a la parte trasera para cortar la hierba alta que pudiera obstaculizar su viaje.   

Algunas veces daba largos paseos para explorar la envergadura de la isla. Tras uno de ellos, dos semanas después de su llegada en 1946, anotó en su diario el descubrimiento de un «viejo cráneo humano, con algunos otros huesos, que yacían en la playa en Glengarrisdale. Se dice que es un superviviente de la masacre de los Maclean a manos de los Campbell y, en todo caso, de hace al menos doscientos años. Todavía le quedan dos dientes (posteriores)». 

En enero de 1949, un año antes de su muerte a los cuarenta y seis, Orwell hizo su último viaje desde Jura, con destino a un sanatorio. Sabía que, si hubiese ido antes, los médicos no le habrían dejado tener su máquina de escribir, y estaba obsesionado con acabar el libro. 

Porque hubo muchos visitantes. Aunque algunos de los que iban a Barnhill se quedaban decepcionados tras un viaje tan largo, Orwell abría igualmente su algo rústica casa a los amigos que buscaban un lugar para descansar. La noticia de su visita solía llegar al mismo tiempo que ellos, de modo que estos londinenses, agotados por el viaje, se quedaban dando vueltas durante horas en una isla desconocida sin ninguna ayuda. Cuando por fin llegaban a Barnhill, era frecuente que Orwell estuviese distraído o no mostrase mucho interés. Cuando apareció una amiga suya, Lucy Dakin, él la saludó como si solo se hubiese ausentado de la habitación un par de horas: «Ah, estás ahí, Lu». 

«Había muchas visitas», dice Lynskey.  «En realidad, no estaba solo, lo que de nuevo contradice los mitos acerca de la estancia de Orwell en Jura.» El escritor señala que, aunque el tiempo que Orwell pasó en la isla inspiró dos novelas y una serie de televisión, en esta última aparecían menos visitas de las que en realidad fueron. Richard Rees, por ejemplo, se quedó el tiempo suficiente para pintar un cuadro del dormitorio de Orwell, e Inez Holden hizo una larga visita tras volver de cubrir los juicios de Núremberg. 

Lo que es más conocido es el incidente casi fatal en el famoso Corryvreckan, el tercer mayor remolino del mundo, frente a la costa norte de Jura. Durante la visita de unos sobrinos de Orwell, una excursión con acampada casi acaba en catástrofe cuando el barco volcó en la corriente y el hijo del escritor, de tres años, fue arrastrado bajo el agua. Milagrosamente, todos sobrevivieron gracias a un pescador de langostas que pasaba por allí. La principal observación que hizo Orwell fue sobre las focas que habían presenciado el desastre: «Lo interesante de las focas es que son criaturas con mucha curiosidad». 

Si todo esto recuerda más a unas dramáticas vacaciones de los Cinco que a una fábrica de distopías llena de fatalidades es porque, en parte, así era. Al margen de, claro está, la cada vez más precaria salud de Orwell. En 1947, tras varios años padeciendo diversos problemas de bronquios, le fue diagnosticada tuberculosis. Lo que se decía de Orwell por allí es que siempre se veía enfermo.  

Aun así, siguió escribiendo. «No encontré ninguna prueba de que él pensara que estaba muriendo, más allá de meras presunciones», dice Lynskey, que señala que el Orwell veinteañero jamás pensó que fuera a cumplir los treinta. En septiembre de 1948 plantó peonías, quizá con la idea de verlas florecer el siguiente mayo. 

Cuando ya estaba demasiado débil para escribir en la mesa, Orwell lo hacía en la cama, tosiendo sangre. «El logro físico de acabar el libro: ahí fue donde su salud cruzó el Rubicón, y todos los demás parecían pensar que se estaba muriendo, excepto él. Orwell no pensaba que 1984 iba a ser su último libro», dice Lynskey. El manuscrito quedó terminado en diciembre de 1948. 

En enero de 1949, un año antes de su muerte a los cuarenta y seis años, Orwell hizo su último viaje desde Jura, con destino a un sanatorio. «Sabía que, si hubiese ido antes, los médicos no le habrían dejado tener su máquina de escribir, y estaba obsesionado con acabarlo», dice Lynskey. 

El libro salió a la venta menos de seis meses después, y fue un éxito inmediato. Orwell estaba de vuelta en Londres, enamorándose de Sonia Brownwell, quien lo cuidó durante los siguientes seis meses, los últimos de su vida. Con su muerte, Jura se convirtió en parte del mito de Orwell, un lugar tan inclemente y sombrío que contribuyó a su prematura desaparición. Hoy se puede alquilar Barnhill como casa de vacaciones, pero se encuentra en un estado bastante parecido a cuando Orwell estuvo allí, hace setenta años. La casa no tiene mucho de museo; el único rastro del escritor es el lugar por donde pudo haber pisado, en el camino de tierra que aún conduce a la casa. Ninguno de los doscientos cincuenta habitantes de Jura recuerda su estancia allí.   

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