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La neuroquímica del capitalismo: narcisismo, dopamina y testosterona

¿Puede una persona volverse adicta al dinero y el poder tanto o más que a la cocaína? ¿Por qué quienes deciden en la política y la economía pierden empatía con aquellos a quienes gobiernan? ¿Es la codicia excesiva un rasgo fundamentalmente masculino? Publicamos una selección de fragmentos de «Capitalismo» (Taurus), en el que la economista alemana Jeannette Von Wolfersdorff revela la dinámica orgánica de un sistema que premia a quienes están dispuestos a manipular para permanecer en el poder, y señala al responsable de las crisis globales recurrentes y los comportamientos irracionales en los mercados: el cerebro de los líderes.

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lo largo de la historia del capitalismo, la humanidad ha quedado atrapada en excesivas crisis y polarizaciones entre empresarios, entre empresarios y trabajadores o entre el empresariado y la sociedad. Esos conflictos son en general el resultado de comportamientos que, en su mayor\u00eda, no son racionales, en el sentido de favorecer la evoluci\u00f3n humana en el respectivo momento. Dado que los comportamientos irracionales en los mercados se repiten peri\u00f3dicamente (por ejemplo, la falta de di\u00e1logo y de disposici\u00f3n a una reconciliaci\u00f3n honesta entre los intereses de los principales actores del mercado), es interesante preguntarse si una parte de las dificultades para lograr una adecuada regulaci\u00f3n de los mercados podr\u00eda ser consecuencia del funcionamiento y de la arquitectura de nuestro cerebro, es decir, de nuestro sistema cognitivo y emocional.<\/p><p>A continuaci\u00f3n, se repasan algunos de los hallazgos m\u00e1s interesantes realizados desde la neurociencia, con estudios sobre el funcionamiento del cerebro y del sistema emocional y cognitivo que pueden dar luces para entender los problemas actuales de nuestra organizaci\u00f3n econ\u00f3mica y financiera, es decir, los desaf\u00edos neurol\u00f3gicos del capitalismo. En primer lugar, destaca el fen\u00f3meno del narcisismo, que est\u00e1 en estrecha relaci\u00f3n con la codicia.<\/p><p>El problema de fondo es que los narcisistas tienen un funcionamiento cerebral distinto del com\u00fan de las personas. \u00abSaben que est\u00e1n mintiendo y no les molesta. 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origen de ese comportamiento puede estar relacionado con las hormonas, los neurotransmisores y, en general, con el funcionamiento del cerebro de personas cuyo nivel de narcisismo grandioso es elevado. \u00bfQu\u00e9 dice la ciencia sobre el funcionamiento del cerebro que pudiera tener implicancias para la \u00abpersonalidad del liderazgo\u00bb que presenciamos con frecuencia en directorios, gerencias y gremios empresariales? Aqu\u00ed hay un resumen de algunos estudios interesantes:<\/p><p>De forma simplificada, se podr\u00eda resumir lo siguiente:<\/p><p><\/p><ul><li>En personas con altos niveles de testosterona, el poder provoca un aumento de dichos niveles, lo que adem\u00e1s guarda una relaci\u00f3n positiva con el neurotransmisor dopamina.<\/li><li>Al recibir m\u00e1s poder, las personas con altos niveles de testosterona tienen una mayor probabilidad de tomar decisiones motivadas por la codicia, que pueden ser antisociales o corruptas.<\/li><li>La dopamina funciona como un sistema interior de premio y motivaci\u00f3n. Las personas con altos niveles de testosterona son especialmente sensibles de ir \u00abpor m\u00e1s\u00bb y, adem\u00e1s, pueden tender a ser m\u00e1s agresivas.<\/li><li>Un aumento de la testosterona podr\u00e1 provocar una menor relevancia de un \u00e1rea del cerebro que est\u00e1 a cargo de la generosidad y del altruismo.<\/li><li>En personas de perfil narcisista, el cerebro muestra, adem\u00e1s, una reducci\u00f3n de la materia gris en una zona del cerebro que est\u00e1 relacionada con la percepci\u00f3n de la empat\u00eda. Se disminuye, entonces, la capacidad para percibir, comprender y experimentar los sentimientos de los dem\u00e1s en relaci\u00f3n con uno mismo, lo que resulta relevante porque, sin esa disposici\u00f3n o capacidad de reflexionar sobre los fundamentos emocionales de otras personas y de uno mismo al momento de dialogar, no puede haber una conversaci\u00f3n real, como explic\u00f3 el destacado bi\u00f3logo chileno Humberto Maturana.<\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zxly48b\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La expectativa de recibir m\u00e1s dinero activa las mismas regiones del cerebro que el deseo de coca\u00edna, y se convierte, entonces, en un deseo profundo y adictivo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"env334e\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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explicaci\u00f3n de por qu\u00e9 las personas pueden quedar atrapadas en emociones como la codicia y la envidia y no logran maximizar su propio inter\u00e9s con un \u00abego\u00edsmo racional\u00bb, puede ser el funcionamiento arcaico del sistema l\u00edmbico de nuestro cerebro, a cargo de las emociones y por tanto de la codicia. Varios estudios han mostrado que, en general, todas las emociones influyen en nuestra toma de decisiones, pero normalmente pasan antes por un proceso interno de control que permite a cada persona evitar resultados sub\u00f3ptimos o destructivos. Ese control y ajuste de emociones pasa tanto expl\u00edcitamente a trav\u00e9s de la raz\u00f3n (el sistema cognitivo del cerebro situado en el neoc\u00f3rtex) como impl\u00edcitamente a trav\u00e9s del propio sistema de emociones y sus aprendizajes. En otras palabras, en nuestro cerebro siempre hay una interacci\u00f3n entre las distintas emociones y entre las emociones y los pensamientos m\u00e1s racionales. Si las se\u00f1ales desde el sistema emocional son lo suficientemente fuertes, tienen la capacidad de anular el control cognitivo, lo que pasa en el caso de las adicciones, pero tambi\u00e9n de las emociones fuertes.<\/p><p>Nuevamente, aqu\u00ed destacan personas con caracter\u00edsticas narcisistas, dado que justo se caracterizan por ser especialmente sensibles a las recompensas, sin cultivar en paralelo preocupaciones sobre los posibles costos. Se ha demostrado en varios estudios que el narcisismo est\u00e1 positivamente relacionado con el sistema que controla la motivaci\u00f3n en el ser humano (BAS, por sus siglas en ingl\u00e9s); cuando este funciona en un nivel elevado, provoca que las personas tengan deseos significativamente m\u00e1s fuertes y los lleva a ser muy ambiciosos e impulsivos. En caso de ser excesiva, la codicia podr\u00e1, entonces, interferir a nivel emocional en la toma de decisiones, sin contar con la ponderaci\u00f3n adecuada del sistema cognitivo.<\/p><p>No es solo el caso de los narcisistas explotativos y adictos al poder sino tambi\u00e9n de cualquier persona que entre en la trampa neuroqu\u00edmica del capitalismo: la adicci\u00f3n a la dopamina y al dinero. Como mostraron Hans Breiter, neurocient\u00edfico y psiquiatra de la Universidad de Harvard, y otros colegas (entre ellos, el economista del comportamiento Daniel Kahneman), la expectativa de recibir m\u00e1s dinero activa las mismas regiones del cerebro que el deseo de coca\u00edna, y se convierte, entonces, en un deseo profundo y adictivo. Pero mientras un adicto a la coca\u00edna se hace da\u00f1o a s\u00ed mismo y a sus m\u00e1s cercanos, lo aterrador de la adicci\u00f3n al dinero es que el costo puede ser enorme para muchos, como recuerda el periodista estadounidense Tony Schwartz en el <em>Harvard Business Review<\/em>. De ese modo, ning\u00fan negocio puede ser lo suficientemente agresivo, ning\u00fan yate lo suficientemente grande, ninguna joya lo suficientemente valiosa, ninguna fiesta lo suficientemente lujosa. Quien entra en esa adicci\u00f3n no sale f\u00e1cilmente de ella. Quiz\u00e1s lo anterior explica tambi\u00e9n por qu\u00e9 las personas m\u00e1s poderosas tienden a naturalizar la desigualdad, la codicia y la inferioridad, lo que hace que se eternicen.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q582dln\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En las mujeres, la dopamina es m\u00e1s sensible a las recompensas relacionadas con la generosidad que con el ego\u00edsmo, mientras que en el caso de los hombres ocurre lo contrario.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"94lz6qk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Aun cuando la combinaci\u00f3n entre testosterona y dopamina podr\u00eda explicar la excesiva codicia en personas con perfil narcisista y su af\u00e1n de recibir m\u00e1s y m\u00e1s, lo interesante es que la dopamina tiene un efecto contrario en las mujeres. En ellas, el sistema de dopamina es m\u00e1s sensible a las recompensas relacionadas con la generosidad que con el ego\u00edsmo, mientras que en el caso de los hombres ocurre lo contrario, como expone un estudio publicado en la revista <em>Nature Human Behaviour<\/em>. Ello no es necesariamente un resultado irrevocable y condicionado \u00fanicamente por el g\u00e9nero. Es posible que las personas aprendan a sentirse bien cuando son generosas y que la dopamina se active tambi\u00e9n en caso de logros sociales, por lo que el cerebro podr\u00eda ser capaz de aprender a \u00abpremiar\u00bb en casos de generosidad, seg\u00fan los investigadores. Eso s\u00ed, podr\u00eda haber un problema para los hombres narcisistas: la dificultad de aprender f\u00e1cilmente a usar su sistema de dopamina para la generosidad, porque su alto nivel de testosterona puede tender a reducir la actividad en la regi\u00f3n del cerebro que procesa la generosidad y el altruismo. En ese caso, probablemente ser\u00eda m\u00e1s efectivo lograr un aprendizaje proempat\u00eda y cooperaci\u00f3n a trav\u00e9s del dinero mismo. En el caso de gerentes y directores de empresas, deber\u00edan ser sustanciales los bonos monetarios en casos de lograr metas en materia de sostenibilidad, por ejemplo. Ese principio podr\u00eda aplicarse tambi\u00e9n a nivel sist\u00e9mico, con rebajas tributarias (o impuestos adicionales) en caso de considerar (o no) un est\u00e1ndar m\u00ednimo de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social.<\/p><p>En lo que respecta a las empresas, otra posibilidad para reducir el impacto negativo del liderazgo narcisista, menos viable pero igualmente debatido, ser\u00eda realizar an\u00e1lisis sobre los niveles de narcisismo de cada candidato, antes de elegir qui\u00e9n entra en los cargos de gerencia o directorio. Asimismo, otra alternativa ser\u00eda la aplicada en empresas como Nucor o Haier: la evaluaci\u00f3n de los gerentes desde los empleados, <em>bottom-up<\/em>.<\/p><p>Invocar la biolog\u00eda para explicar comportamientos da\u00f1inos en el capitalismo no significa absolver de las respectivas acciones ni quitar responsabilidad a las personas que act\u00faan de forma perjudicial frente a la empresa, econom\u00eda o sociedad, pero un primer paso para avanzar hacia mejores regulaciones implica entender, sin trivializar, que el narcisismo es un fen\u00f3meno humano general, aunque en el capitalismo se convierte en un problema sist\u00e9mico porque all\u00ed donde hay m\u00e1s dinero, hay m\u00e1s narcisistas tambi\u00e9n.<\/p><p>Entender mejor la \u00abqu\u00edmica y neurociencia del capitalismo\u00bb permite, ante todo, optimizar el sistema en s\u00ed mismo, en el sentido de construir incentivos y regulaciones efectivas y m\u00e1s adecuadas que alineen los intereses de los actores, considerando precisamente las fallas naturales en el estilo de liderazgo y el actuar de las personas que se encuentran en posiciones de poder en los mercados.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1rhr2vx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Uno deber\u00eda desconfiar de las personas que est\u00e1n en el poder porque pueden tener m\u00e1s inter\u00e9s propio que en el bien com\u00fan, especialmente cuando se trata de personas en exceso narcisistas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bdggr9m\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pareciera que las personas necesitaran creer que los exitosos se preocupan de los dem\u00e1s o que los que detentan posiciones de poder lo hacen porque son buenos. Pero esa creencia no sirve m\u00e1s que para despreciar lo que la historia ense\u00f1a, como reflexiona el antrop\u00f3logo Michael Maccoby en su libro <em>El narcisista productivo<\/em>. El resumen de los hallazgos m\u00e1s importantes hasta la fecha sobre el narcisismo, realizados por los acad\u00e9micos Charles O\u2019Reilly, de la Universidad de Stanford, y Jennifer Chatman, de la Universidad de California en Berkeley, muestra que, en realidad, uno deber\u00eda hacer todo lo contrario: desconfiar de las personas que est\u00e1n en el poder porque pueden tener m\u00e1s inter\u00e9s propio que en el bien com\u00fan, especialmente cuando se trata de personas en exceso narcisistas. Los estudios tambi\u00e9n argumentan que algo de narcisismo puede ser positivo para las empresas, pero en grandes cantidades resulta alta\u00acmente riesgoso.<\/p><p>Asimismo, es interesante analizar el efecto de los l\u00edderes narcisistas sobre las personas en las empresas, sobre todo en el desempe\u00f1o de estas \u00faltimas. Diversos estudios acad\u00e9micos han expuesto que los l\u00edderes dominantes y narcisistas tienden a inducir sentimientos negativos en las personas a las cuales lideran verticalmente. \u00ab\u00bfCu\u00e1ndo comenzamos a llamar a los gerentes \u201cl\u00edderes\u201d? Un l\u00edder es alguien a quien la gente elige seguir\u00bb, plantea Gary Hamel, reconocido autor en el \u00e1mbito de la gesti\u00f3n. Un an\u00e1lisis de ocho estudios que involucraron a casi ciento cincuenta mil personas, realizado por la London Business School y la Universidad de Duke, revel\u00f3 que el estilo de liderazgo por dominancia, vertical y m\u00e1s bien narcisista, puede afectar considerablemente al comportamiento prosocial de los empleados de una empresa, a causa de fomentar un pensamiento de \u00absuma cero\u00bb en los equipos. Eso significa crear una cultura en la cual se percibe que la ganancia de uno es la p\u00e9rdida de otro, lo que resulta en una menor ayuda interpersonal.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"05305hv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El dinero y las inversiones crean un c\u00edrculo vicioso y adictivo en nuestro cerebro que nos hace preferir el \u00e9xito r\u00e1pido.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kdvp225\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abPor supuesto, ninguno de nosotros es codicioso, solo el otro lo es\u00bb, dijo una vez entre risas Milton Friedman. Quiz\u00e1s lo m\u00e1s complejo de la codicia sea eso mismo: que uno no detecta su propia condici\u00f3n precisamente porque carece de un adecuado procesamiento cognitivo. No solo \u00abtodos eran codiciosos\u00bb, sino tambi\u00e9n \u00absoy una buena persona\u00bb, sosten\u00eda desde la c\u00e1rcel Bernard Madoff, cuyo sistema de estafa piramidal caus\u00f3 un da\u00f1o de m\u00e1s de sesenta mil millones de d\u00f3lares.<\/p><p>La codicia no siempre ha sido tan perjudicial para la evoluci\u00f3n humana. Probablemente, en un pasado m\u00e1s lejano, cuando los recursos naturales parec\u00edan infinitos y los desaf\u00edos de convivencia eran menos complejos, la codicia podr\u00eda haber llevado, hasta ciertos l\u00edmites, a una mayor competencia entre grupos humanos o dentro de los propios grupos, lo que a su vez podr\u00eda incluso haber contribuido a nuestra evoluci\u00f3n como especie. En algunos casos, los l\u00edderes narcisistas, dotados de codicia y agresividad, podr\u00edan haber llevado guerras de forma exitosa.<\/p><p>Con el cambio clim\u00e1tico, la p\u00e9rdida de biodiversidad y la contaminaci\u00f3n a lo largo y ancho del planeta, ser codicioso en el siglo XXI es distinto, aunque al respecto nuestro cerebro funciona de manera parecida a como lo hac\u00eda miles de a\u00f1os atr\u00e1s. El capitalismo no tiene la responsabilidad de todos los males que existen en este planeta, pero lo cierto es que no puede sustraerse de uno principal: en efecto, el dinero y las inversiones crean un c\u00edrculo vicioso y adictivo en nuestro cerebro que nos hace preferir el \u00e9xito r\u00e1pido, con estilos de liderazgo verticales pese a que omitan hacerse cargo de los desaf\u00edos complejos que plantean la humanidad y el planeta en el siglo XXI.<\/p><p>Como hemos visto, las hormonas y los neurotransmisores de nuestro cuerpo parecen estar poco preparados para facilitar la transici\u00f3n hacia un capitalismo que se haga cargo de la complejidad de la situaci\u00f3n actual y que permita avanzar hacia una versi\u00f3n m\u00e1s equitativa, es decir, un capitalismo de stakeholders en el cual se premie la creaci\u00f3n de valor para las personas en y alrededor de una empresa, sin da\u00f1ar la naturaleza. Pese a su discurso sostenible, el capitalismo de hoy hace justo lo contrario: premia y refuerza a las personas narcisistas que se sienten superiores a los dem\u00e1s, que son incapaces de aceptar cr\u00edticas e ideas distintas y que est\u00e1n dispuestos a manipular y explotar lo que sea que est\u00e9 a su alcance para estar en el poder. Esta es, quiz\u00e1s, la raz\u00f3n central de todas las tendencias autodestructivas del capitalismo.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. Sandel: estos son los fantasmas que recorren nuestro mundo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/walter-isaacson-el-codigo-de-la-vida\\\">Walter Isaacson: gen\u00e9tica, covid y el futuro de la humanidad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/hector-garcia-barnes-futurofobia-sergio-del-molino\\\">V\u00edctimas de la \u00abfuturofobia\u00bb: una generaci\u00f3n triste con fotos 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10 minutos
Víctimas de la «futurofobia»: una generación triste con fotos felices

Crédito: Getty Images.

A lo largo de la historia del capitalismo, la humanidad ha quedado atrapada en excesivas crisis y polarizaciones entre empresarios, entre empresarios y trabajadores o entre el empresariado y la sociedad. Esos conflictos son en general el resultado de comportamientos que, en su mayoría, no son racionales, en el sentido de favorecer la evolución humana en el respectivo momento. Dado que los comportamientos irracionales en los mercados se repiten periódicamente (por ejemplo, la falta de diálogo y de disposición a una reconciliación honesta entre los intereses de los principales actores del mercado), es interesante preguntarse si una parte de las dificultades para lograr una adecuada regulación de los mercados podría ser consecuencia del funcionamiento y de la arquitectura de nuestro cerebro, es decir, de nuestro sistema cognitivo y emocional.

A continuación, se repasan algunos de los hallazgos más interesantes realizados desde la neurociencia, con estudios sobre el funcionamiento del cerebro y del sistema emocional y cognitivo que pueden dar luces para entender los problemas actuales de nuestra organización económica y financiera, es decir, los desafíos neurológicos del capitalismo. En primer lugar, destaca el fenómeno del narcisismo, que está en estrecha relación con la codicia.

El problema de fondo es que los narcisistas tienen un funcionamiento cerebral distinto del común de las personas. «Saben que están mintiendo y no les molesta. No sienten vergüenza», describe Charles O’Reilly.

El origen de ese comportamiento puede estar relacionado con las hormonas, los neurotransmisores y, en general, con el funcionamiento del cerebro de personas cuyo nivel de narcisismo grandioso es elevado. ¿Qué dice la ciencia sobre el funcionamiento del cerebro que pudiera tener implicancias para la «personalidad del liderazgo» que presenciamos con frecuencia en directorios, gerencias y gremios empresariales? Aquí hay un resumen de algunos estudios interesantes:

De forma simplificada, se podría resumir lo siguiente:

  • En personas con altos niveles de testosterona, el poder provoca un aumento de dichos niveles, lo que además guarda una relación positiva con el neurotransmisor dopamina.
  • Al recibir más poder, las personas con altos niveles de testosterona tienen una mayor probabilidad de tomar decisiones motivadas por la codicia, que pueden ser antisociales o corruptas.
  • La dopamina funciona como un sistema interior de premio y motivación. Las personas con altos niveles de testosterona son especialmente sensibles de ir «por más» y, además, pueden tender a ser más agresivas.
  • Un aumento de la testosterona podrá provocar una menor relevancia de un área del cerebro que está a cargo de la generosidad y del altruismo.
  • En personas de perfil narcisista, el cerebro muestra, además, una reducción de la materia gris en una zona del cerebro que está relacionada con la percepción de la empatía. Se disminuye, entonces, la capacidad para percibir, comprender y experimentar los sentimientos de los demás en relación con uno mismo, lo que resulta relevante porque, sin esa disposición o capacidad de reflexionar sobre los fundamentos emocionales de otras personas y de uno mismo al momento de dialogar, no puede haber una conversación real, como explicó el destacado biólogo chileno Humberto Maturana.

La expectativa de recibir más dinero activa las mismas regiones del cerebro que el deseo de cocaína, y se convierte, entonces, en un deseo profundo y adictivo.

Una explicación de por qué las personas pueden quedar atrapadas en emociones como la codicia y la envidia y no logran maximizar su propio interés con un «egoísmo racional», puede ser el funcionamiento arcaico del sistema límbico de nuestro cerebro, a cargo de las emociones y por tanto de la codicia. Varios estudios han mostrado que, en general, todas las emociones influyen en nuestra toma de decisiones, pero normalmente pasan antes por un proceso interno de control que permite a cada persona evitar resultados subóptimos o destructivos. Ese control y ajuste de emociones pasa tanto explícitamente a través de la razón (el sistema cognitivo del cerebro situado en el neocórtex) como implícitamente a través del propio sistema de emociones y sus aprendizajes. En otras palabras, en nuestro cerebro siempre hay una interacción entre las distintas emociones y entre las emociones y los pensamientos más racionales. Si las señales desde el sistema emocional son lo suficientemente fuertes, tienen la capacidad de anular el control cognitivo, lo que pasa en el caso de las adicciones, pero también de las emociones fuertes.

Nuevamente, aquí destacan personas con características narcisistas, dado que justo se caracterizan por ser especialmente sensibles a las recompensas, sin cultivar en paralelo preocupaciones sobre los posibles costos. Se ha demostrado en varios estudios que el narcisismo está positivamente relacionado con el sistema que controla la motivación en el ser humano (BAS, por sus siglas en inglés); cuando este funciona en un nivel elevado, provoca que las personas tengan deseos significativamente más fuertes y los lleva a ser muy ambiciosos e impulsivos. En caso de ser excesiva, la codicia podrá, entonces, interferir a nivel emocional en la toma de decisiones, sin contar con la ponderación adecuada del sistema cognitivo.

No es solo el caso de los narcisistas explotativos y adictos al poder sino también de cualquier persona que entre en la trampa neuroquímica del capitalismo: la adicción a la dopamina y al dinero. Como mostraron Hans Breiter, neurocientífico y psiquiatra de la Universidad de Harvard, y otros colegas (entre ellos, el economista del comportamiento Daniel Kahneman), la expectativa de recibir más dinero activa las mismas regiones del cerebro que el deseo de cocaína, y se convierte, entonces, en un deseo profundo y adictivo. Pero mientras un adicto a la cocaína se hace daño a sí mismo y a sus más cercanos, lo aterrador de la adicción al dinero es que el costo puede ser enorme para muchos, como recuerda el periodista estadounidense Tony Schwartz en el Harvard Business Review. De ese modo, ningún negocio puede ser lo suficientemente agresivo, ningún yate lo suficientemente grande, ninguna joya lo suficientemente valiosa, ninguna fiesta lo suficientemente lujosa. Quien entra en esa adicción no sale fácilmente de ella. Quizás lo anterior explica también por qué las personas más poderosas tienden a naturalizar la desigualdad, la codicia y la inferioridad, lo que hace que se eternicen.

En las mujeres, la dopamina es más sensible a las recompensas relacionadas con la generosidad que con el egoísmo, mientras que en el caso de los hombres ocurre lo contrario.

Aun cuando la combinación entre testosterona y dopamina podría explicar la excesiva codicia en personas con perfil narcisista y su afán de recibir más y más, lo interesante es que la dopamina tiene un efecto contrario en las mujeres. En ellas, el sistema de dopamina es más sensible a las recompensas relacionadas con la generosidad que con el egoísmo, mientras que en el caso de los hombres ocurre lo contrario, como expone un estudio publicado en la revista Nature Human Behaviour. Ello no es necesariamente un resultado irrevocable y condicionado únicamente por el género. Es posible que las personas aprendan a sentirse bien cuando son generosas y que la dopamina se active también en caso de logros sociales, por lo que el cerebro podría ser capaz de aprender a «premiar» en casos de generosidad, según los investigadores. Eso sí, podría haber un problema para los hombres narcisistas: la dificultad de aprender fácilmente a usar su sistema de dopamina para la generosidad, porque su alto nivel de testosterona puede tender a reducir la actividad en la región del cerebro que procesa la generosidad y el altruismo. En ese caso, probablemente sería más efectivo lograr un aprendizaje proempatía y cooperación a través del dinero mismo. En el caso de gerentes y directores de empresas, deberían ser sustanciales los bonos monetarios en casos de lograr metas en materia de sostenibilidad, por ejemplo. Ese principio podría aplicarse también a nivel sistémico, con rebajas tributarias (o impuestos adicionales) en caso de considerar (o no) un estándar mínimo de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social.

En lo que respecta a las empresas, otra posibilidad para reducir el impacto negativo del liderazgo narcisista, menos viable pero igualmente debatido, sería realizar análisis sobre los niveles de narcisismo de cada candidato, antes de elegir quién entra en los cargos de gerencia o directorio. Asimismo, otra alternativa sería la aplicada en empresas como Nucor o Haier: la evaluación de los gerentes desde los empleados, bottom-up.

Invocar la biología para explicar comportamientos dañinos en el capitalismo no significa absolver de las respectivas acciones ni quitar responsabilidad a las personas que actúan de forma perjudicial frente a la empresa, economía o sociedad, pero un primer paso para avanzar hacia mejores regulaciones implica entender, sin trivializar, que el narcisismo es un fenómeno humano general, aunque en el capitalismo se convierte en un problema sistémico porque allí donde hay más dinero, hay más narcisistas también.

Entender mejor la «química y neurociencia del capitalismo» permite, ante todo, optimizar el sistema en sí mismo, en el sentido de construir incentivos y regulaciones efectivas y más adecuadas que alineen los intereses de los actores, considerando precisamente las fallas naturales en el estilo de liderazgo y el actuar de las personas que se encuentran en posiciones de poder en los mercados.

Uno debería desconfiar de las personas que están en el poder porque pueden tener más interés propio que en el bien común, especialmente cuando se trata de personas en exceso narcisistas.

Pareciera que las personas necesitaran creer que los exitosos se preocupan de los demás o que los que detentan posiciones de poder lo hacen porque son buenos. Pero esa creencia no sirve más que para despreciar lo que la historia enseña, como reflexiona el antropólogo Michael Maccoby en su libro El narcisista productivo. El resumen de los hallazgos más importantes hasta la fecha sobre el narcisismo, realizados por los académicos Charles O’Reilly, de la Universidad de Stanford, y Jennifer Chatman, de la Universidad de California en Berkeley, muestra que, en realidad, uno debería hacer todo lo contrario: desconfiar de las personas que están en el poder porque pueden tener más interés propio que en el bien común, especialmente cuando se trata de personas en exceso narcisistas. Los estudios también argumentan que algo de narcisismo puede ser positivo para las empresas, pero en grandes cantidades resulta alta¬mente riesgoso.

Asimismo, es interesante analizar el efecto de los líderes narcisistas sobre las personas en las empresas, sobre todo en el desempeño de estas últimas. Diversos estudios académicos han expuesto que los líderes dominantes y narcisistas tienden a inducir sentimientos negativos en las personas a las cuales lideran verticalmente. «¿Cuándo comenzamos a llamar a los gerentes “líderes”? Un líder es alguien a quien la gente elige seguir», plantea Gary Hamel, reconocido autor en el ámbito de la gestión. Un análisis de ocho estudios que involucraron a casi ciento cincuenta mil personas, realizado por la London Business School y la Universidad de Duke, reveló que el estilo de liderazgo por dominancia, vertical y más bien narcisista, puede afectar considerablemente al comportamiento prosocial de los empleados de una empresa, a causa de fomentar un pensamiento de «suma cero» en los equipos. Eso significa crear una cultura en la cual se percibe que la ganancia de uno es la pérdida de otro, lo que resulta en una menor ayuda interpersonal.

El dinero y las inversiones crean un círculo vicioso y adictivo en nuestro cerebro que nos hace preferir el éxito rápido.

«Por supuesto, ninguno de nosotros es codicioso, solo el otro lo es», dijo una vez entre risas Milton Friedman. Quizás lo más complejo de la codicia sea eso mismo: que uno no detecta su propia condición precisamente porque carece de un adecuado procesamiento cognitivo. No solo «todos eran codiciosos», sino también «soy una buena persona», sostenía desde la cárcel Bernard Madoff, cuyo sistema de estafa piramidal causó un daño de más de sesenta mil millones de dólares.

La codicia no siempre ha sido tan perjudicial para la evolución humana. Probablemente, en un pasado más lejano, cuando los recursos naturales parecían infinitos y los desafíos de convivencia eran menos complejos, la codicia podría haber llevado, hasta ciertos límites, a una mayor competencia entre grupos humanos o dentro de los propios grupos, lo que a su vez podría incluso haber contribuido a nuestra evolución como especie. En algunos casos, los líderes narcisistas, dotados de codicia y agresividad, podrían haber llevado guerras de forma exitosa.

Con el cambio climático, la pérdida de biodiversidad y la contaminación a lo largo y ancho del planeta, ser codicioso en el siglo XXI es distinto, aunque al respecto nuestro cerebro funciona de manera parecida a como lo hacía miles de años atrás. El capitalismo no tiene la responsabilidad de todos los males que existen en este planeta, pero lo cierto es que no puede sustraerse de uno principal: en efecto, el dinero y las inversiones crean un círculo vicioso y adictivo en nuestro cerebro que nos hace preferir el éxito rápido, con estilos de liderazgo verticales pese a que omitan hacerse cargo de los desafíos complejos que plantean la humanidad y el planeta en el siglo XXI.

Como hemos visto, las hormonas y los neurotransmisores de nuestro cuerpo parecen estar poco preparados para facilitar la transición hacia un capitalismo que se haga cargo de la complejidad de la situación actual y que permita avanzar hacia una versión más equitativa, es decir, un capitalismo de stakeholders en el cual se premie la creación de valor para las personas en y alrededor de una empresa, sin dañar la naturaleza. Pese a su discurso sostenible, el capitalismo de hoy hace justo lo contrario: premia y refuerza a las personas narcisistas que se sienten superiores a los demás, que son incapaces de aceptar críticas e ideas distintas y que están dispuestos a manipular y explotar lo que sea que esté a su alcance para estar en el poder. Esta es, quizás, la razón central de todas las tendencias autodestructivas del capitalismo.





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Víctimas de la «futurofobia»: una generación triste con fotos felices

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