Mapa de las Lenguas 2021

«Tejer la oscuridad», de Emiliano Monge: material y materia latinoamericanas

Todo mapa es una representación del mundo que refleja la visión de quien lo dibuja, y el Mapa de las Lenguas no tiene fronteras ni capitales: trece libros, un año y un territorio común para la literatura de veintiún países que comparten un idioma con tantas voces y lenguas como hablantes. Invitados por LENGUA, los autores de esta edición exponen su geografía literaria. Aquí, Emiliano Monge sobre su novela «Tejer la oscuridad».

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9175-emiliano-monge\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">EMILIANO 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hace a\u00f1os, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span>: \u00abCon Borges a m\u00ed me sucede una cosa: es uno de los autores que m\u00e1s leo y que m\u00e1s he le\u00eddo y tal vez sea el que menos me gusta. A Borges lo leo por su extraordinaria capacidad de artificio verbal; es un hombre que ense\u00f1a a escribir, es decir, que ense\u00f1a a afinar el instrumento para decir las cosas\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como sol\u00eda hacer,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-garcia-marquez-camino-a-macondo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span> tambi\u00e9n escribi\u00f3 que le\u00eda a Borges a diario o que no lo le\u00eda, porque lo hac\u00eda enfurecer. Que el argentino lo intimidaba profundamente o que le generaba algo parecido a la gracia. Que era, el nativo de Buenos Aires, el \u00fanico escritor decente de derechas \u2014tan honesto, dir\u00eda tambi\u00e9n Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, que por eso no hab\u00eda ganado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/le-clezio-cancion-de-infancia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el Premio Nobel<\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/le-clezio-cancion-de-infancia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u2014<\/a>\u00a0o que, en el fondo, no era tan de derechas, pues su obra contribu\u00eda, irremediablemente, al progreso de la humanidad.<\/p><p>Siempre, a pesar de las contradicciones intr\u00ednsecas que marcaron su lectura de Borges, Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez reconoc\u00eda, como gran virtud, como virtud intachable, incuestionable y acaso inigualable de la obra del mayor prosista de nuestra lengua, su trabajo con el lenguaje, con las palabras y los silencios, pues, ese elemento material que determina la forma, antes que el fondo: \u00abMe fascina el viol\u00edn que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/400-jorge-luis-borges\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Borges<\/a><\/span> utiliza para expresarse, para clarificar todas las cosas; es, sin duda, el escritor que necesitamos cuando hablamos de exploraci\u00f3n del lenguaje, exploraci\u00f3n que es, al final, el problema m\u00e1s serio al que nos enfrentamos los escritores\u00bb.<\/p><p>Resulta curioso, sin embargo, a la luz de esas <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/monologo-de-isabel-viendo-llover-en-macondo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">lecturas de Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span>, que lo muestran principalmente atento a lo que \u00e9l mismo llama \u00abel artificio verbal borgiano\u00bb, encontrarme, mientras releo el cuento \u00abLos te\u00f3logos\u00bb, del libro <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30657-el-aleph-9788426406392\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El Aleph<\/a><\/em><\/span>, los siguientes tres p\u00e1rrafos, p\u00e1rrafos que, si uno, adem\u00e1s de leerlos, se los imagina siendo le\u00eddos, todas las noches, por otro escritor \u2014esta imagen no podr\u00eda, adem\u00e1s, ser m\u00e1s borgiana\u2014, no resulta imposible, ni siquiera dif\u00edcil, adivinar a d\u00f3nde podr\u00edan conducir, en germen de qu\u00e9, pues, se podr\u00edan o se habr\u00edan de convertir: \u00abUn siglo despu\u00e9s, Aureliano, coadjutor de Aquilea, supo que a orillas del Danubio la nov\u00edsima secta de los mon\u00f3tonos (llamados tambi\u00e9n anulares) profesaba que la historia es un c\u00edrculo y que nada es que no haya sido y que no ser\u00e1\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>El segundo de los p\u00e1rrafos de \u00abLos te\u00f3logos\u00bb al que me refiero es el siguiente: \u00abHay quien busca el amor de una mujer para olvidarse de ella, para no pensar m\u00e1s en ella; Aureliano, parejamente, quer\u00eda superar a Juan Panonia para curarse del rencor que \u00e9ste le infund\u00eda, no para hacerle mal. Atemperado por el mero trabajo, por la fabricaci\u00f3n de silogismos y la invenci\u00f3n de injurias, por los nego y los autem y los nequaquam, pudo olvidar ese rencor\u00bb. Y he ac\u00e1 el tercer y \u00faltimo p\u00e1rrafo del que quer\u00eda dejar y del que dejo constancia, p\u00e1rrafo que, por su parte, dice as\u00ed: \u00abAureliano, laboriosamente trivial, los equipar\u00f3 con Ixi\u00f3n, con el h\u00edgado de Prometeo, con S\u00edsifo, con aquel rey de Tebas que vio dos soles, con la tartamudez, con loros, con espejos, con ecos, con mulas de noria y con silogismos bicornutos (las f\u00e1bulas gent\u00edlicas perduraban, rebajadas a adornos)\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>No se me ocurre ning\u00fan ejemplo m\u00e1s claro que el anterior \u2014me refiero, obviamente, al influjo de los p\u00e1rrafos apenas citados sobre el autor de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cien a\u00f1os de soledad<\/a><\/em><\/span> y sobre el universo mismo que esa novela habr\u00eda de desplegar\u2014 para demostrar que, a veces, cuando un escritor est\u00e1 hablando de la forma, est\u00e1 hablando, tambi\u00e9n, aunque lo haga de modo inconsciente, del fondo, tanto como, cuando un escritor pretende hablar del fondo, habla tambi\u00e9n de la forma \u2014por mucho que Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez admirara e insistiera en su admiraci\u00f3n por el estilo de Borges, por \u00abel artificio verbal borgiano\u00bb, pues, queda claro, si uno lee con atenci\u00f3n, que fue la imaginaci\u00f3n del argentino, \u00abel artificio inventivo borgiano\u00bb, pues, el que habr\u00eda de arraigar en el hueso y en la m\u00e9dula de la espina creativa del colombiano.<\/p><p>Y es que forma y fondo, al final, no pueden separarse ni pensarse individualmente, pues se trata de elementos \u2014sucesos, en realidad\u2014 que s\u00f3lo se pueden conjugar en plural. Pero volvamos <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez-Mario-Vargas-Llosa-Dos-soledades\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez y a sus lecturas de Borges<\/a><\/span>, que \u00e9stas a\u00fan nos pueden aclarar otras aristas del asunto, aunque no sea \u2014aunque no fuera\u2014 \u00e9ste el objetivo del colombiano: \u00abBorges trabaj\u00f3 siempre sobre realidades mentales, es, por lo tanto, pura evasi\u00f3n\u00bb, asever\u00f3 alguna vez el autor colombiano, quien tambi\u00e9n habr\u00eda de asegurar \u2014contradici\u00e9ndose, de paso, una vez m\u00e1s, o jugando, m\u00e1s bien, a contradecirse\u2014 en <em>La novela en Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/em>: \u00abEn el fondo, la irrealidad en Borges es falsa; no es la irrealidad de Am\u00e9rica Latina. Aqu\u00ed entramos en paradojas: <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la irrealidad de Am\u00e9rica Latina es tan real y cotidiana que est\u00e1 confundida con lo que se entiende por realidad<\/a>\u00bb<\/span>.<\/p><p>El error de Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez \u2014aunque \u00e9ste, tal vez, fuera s\u00f3lo falta de tiempo\u2014 en este asunto es haber pensado que la irrealidad y la realidad de Am\u00e9rica Latina eran un asunto perteneciente\u00a0\u00fanicamente al fondo, es decir, a aquello que se puede o no evadir, cuando dicho asunto, la realidad y la irrealidad de Am\u00e9rica Latina, tambi\u00e9n es, ha sido y lo seguir\u00e1 siendo para siempre, <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el lenguaje de Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span>, es decir, la forma, aquello que no se puede ni se podr\u00e1 evadir nunca: nuestros silencios y nuestras palabras \u2014si es verdad, como asevero, que la forma y el fondo no se pueden separar, es verdad tambi\u00e9n que la irrealidad borgiana es irreal\u2014. Pero insisto, a Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez s\u00f3lo le falt\u00f3 tiempo para decir, por ejemplo: \u00abBorges trabaj\u00f3 siempre con el lenguaje latinoamericano, es, por lo tanto, pura realidad\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\/escritoras-latinoamericanas-parte-III\\\">\u00bfQu\u00e9 es m\u00e1s latinoamericano, aquello que contamos o c\u00f3mo lo contamos?<\/a><\/span>\u00a0Esta pregunta, igual que su respuesta, es absurda. Tan absurda como querer demostrar, por ejemplo, que Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez es m\u00e1s latinoamericano y real por lo que escribi\u00f3 que Borges por c\u00f3mo escribi\u00f3. Am\u00e9rica Latina vive en estas l\u00edneas: \u00abAntes de que Arcadio tuviera tiempo de reaccionar, le descarg\u00f3 el primer verjagazo. \\\"Atr\u00e9vete, asesino\\\", gritaba. \\\"Y m\u00e1tame tambi\u00e9n a m\u00ed, hijo de mala madre. 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10 minutos

Foto de Oswaldo Ruiz.

Escribió, hace años, Gabriel García Márquez: «Con Borges a mí me sucede una cosa: es uno de los autores que más leo y que más he leído y tal vez sea el que menos me gusta. A Borges lo leo por su extraordinaria capacidad de artificio verbal; es un hombre que enseña a escribir, es decir, que enseña a afinar el instrumento para decir las cosas». 

Como solía hacer, García Márquez también escribió que leía a Borges a diario o que no lo leía, porque lo hacía enfurecer. Que el argentino lo intimidaba profundamente o que le generaba algo parecido a la gracia. Que era, el nativo de Buenos Aires, el único escritor decente de derechas —tan honesto, diría también García Márquez, que por eso no había ganado el Premio Nobel o que, en el fondo, no era tan de derechas, pues su obra contribuía, irremediablemente, al progreso de la humanidad.

Siempre, a pesar de las contradicciones intrínsecas que marcaron su lectura de Borges, García Márquez reconocía, como gran virtud, como virtud intachable, incuestionable y acaso inigualable de la obra del mayor prosista de nuestra lengua, su trabajo con el lenguaje, con las palabras y los silencios, pues, ese elemento material que determina la forma, antes que el fondo: «Me fascina el violín que Borges utiliza para expresarse, para clarificar todas las cosas; es, sin duda, el escritor que necesitamos cuando hablamos de exploración del lenguaje, exploración que es, al final, el problema más serio al que nos enfrentamos los escritores».

Resulta curioso, sin embargo, a la luz de esas lecturas de García Márquez, que lo muestran principalmente atento a lo que él mismo llama «el artificio verbal borgiano», encontrarme, mientras releo el cuento «Los teólogos», del libro El Aleph, los siguientes tres párrafos, párrafos que, si uno, además de leerlos, se los imagina siendo leídos, todas las noches, por otro escritor —esta imagen no podría, además, ser más borgiana—, no resulta imposible, ni siquiera difícil, adivinar a dónde podrían conducir, en germen de qué, pues, se podrían o se habrían de convertir: «Un siglo después, Aureliano, coadjutor de Aquilea, supo que a orillas del Danubio la novísima secta de los monótonos (llamados también anulares) profesaba que la historia es un círculo y que nada es que no haya sido y que no será». 

El segundo de los párrafos de «Los teólogos» al que me refiero es el siguiente: «Hay quien busca el amor de una mujer para olvidarse de ella, para no pensar más en ella; Aureliano, parejamente, quería superar a Juan Panonia para curarse del rencor que éste le infundía, no para hacerle mal. Atemperado por el mero trabajo, por la fabricación de silogismos y la invención de injurias, por los nego y los autem y los nequaquam, pudo olvidar ese rencor». Y he acá el tercer y último párrafo del que quería dejar y del que dejo constancia, párrafo que, por su parte, dice así: «Aureliano, laboriosamente trivial, los equiparó con Ixión, con el hígado de Prometeo, con Sísifo, con aquel rey de Tebas que vio dos soles, con la tartamudez, con loros, con espejos, con ecos, con mulas de noria y con silogismos bicornutos (las fábulas gentílicas perduraban, rebajadas a adornos)». 

No se me ocurre ningún ejemplo más claro que el anterior —me refiero, obviamente, al influjo de los párrafos apenas citados sobre el autor de Cien años de soledad y sobre el universo mismo que esa novela habría de desplegar— para demostrar que, a veces, cuando un escritor está hablando de la forma, está hablando, también, aunque lo haga de modo inconsciente, del fondo, tanto como, cuando un escritor pretende hablar del fondo, habla también de la forma —por mucho que García Márquez admirara e insistiera en su admiración por el estilo de Borges, por «el artificio verbal borgiano», pues, queda claro, si uno lee con atención, que fue la imaginación del argentino, «el artificio inventivo borgiano», pues, el que habría de arraigar en el hueso y en la médula de la espina creativa del colombiano.

Y es que forma y fondo, al final, no pueden separarse ni pensarse individualmente, pues se trata de elementos —sucesos, en realidad— que sólo se pueden conjugar en plural. Pero volvamos a García Márquez y a sus lecturas de Borges, que éstas aún nos pueden aclarar otras aristas del asunto, aunque no sea —aunque no fuera— éste el objetivo del colombiano: «Borges trabajó siempre sobre realidades mentales, es, por lo tanto, pura evasión», aseveró alguna vez el autor colombiano, quien también habría de asegurar —contradiciéndose, de paso, una vez más, o jugando, más bien, a contradecirse— en La novela en América Latina: «En el fondo, la irrealidad en Borges es falsa; no es la irrealidad de América Latina. Aquí entramos en paradojas: la irrealidad de América Latina es tan real y cotidiana que está confundida con lo que se entiende por realidad».

El error de García Márquez —aunque éste, tal vez, fuera sólo falta de tiempo— en este asunto es haber pensado que la irrealidad y la realidad de América Latina eran un asunto perteneciente únicamente al fondo, es decir, a aquello que se puede o no evadir, cuando dicho asunto, la realidad y la irrealidad de América Latina, también es, ha sido y lo seguirá siendo para siempre, el lenguaje de América Latina, es decir, la forma, aquello que no se puede ni se podrá evadir nunca: nuestros silencios y nuestras palabras —si es verdad, como asevero, que la forma y el fondo no se pueden separar, es verdad también que la irrealidad borgiana es irreal—. Pero insisto, a García Márquez sólo le faltó tiempo para decir, por ejemplo: «Borges trabajó siempre con el lenguaje latinoamericano, es, por lo tanto, pura realidad».

¿Qué es más latinoamericano, aquello que contamos o cómo lo contamos? Esta pregunta, igual que su respuesta, es absurda. Tan absurda como querer demostrar, por ejemplo, que García Márquez es más latinoamericano y real por lo que escribió que Borges por cómo escribió. América Latina vive en estas líneas: «Antes de que Arcadio tuviera tiempo de reaccionar, le descargó el primer verjagazo. "Atrévete, asesino", gritaba. "Y mátame también a mí, hijo de mala madre. Así no tendré ojos para llorar la vergüenza de haber criado un fenómeno". Azotándolo sin misericordia, lo persiguió hasta el fondo del patio, donde Arcadio se enrolló como un caracol».

Pero América Latina también vive en estas otras líneas: «David Jerusalem era el prototipo del judío sefardí, si bien pertenecía a los depravados y aborrecidos Ashkenazim. Fui severo con él; no permití que me ablandaran ni la compasión ni su gloria. Yo había comprendido hace muchos años que no hay cosa en el mundo que no sea germen de un infierno posible; un rostro, una palabra, una brújula, un aviso de cigarrillos, podrían enloquecer a una persona, si ésta no logra olvidarlos».

«Artificio verbal» y «artificio inventivo», forma y fondo, material y materia, palabra e imagen, consciente e inconsciente. Ahí está la mejor literatura latinoamericana, aquella de la que descendemos casi todos los que hoy escribimos, sin importar el rincón en que lo hagamos, el territorio en que vivamos o el animal que estemos mirando.

Este año, en un mundo que está cerrando sus fronteras, asomarnos a otros territorios a través de la palabra cobra más relevancia que nunca. Mapa de las Lenguas es una colección panhispánica global que presenta la mejor literatura de veintiún países que comparten el idioma. Pero es, sobre todo, un itinerario de viaje por trece de los libros que el año pasado tuvieron mayor trascendencia en su país de origen y que, a lo largo del 2021, recorrerán el resto del ámbito del español.

Adentrarse en la obra de estas trece voces es transitar un territorio físico, tangible, pero también un espacio moral, intelectual, anímico, político y sociocultural. La lectura de un autor contemporáneo de cualquier país de habla hispana es una ventana a una forma de expresarse y escribir en español, pero también un modo de tomarle la temperatura a las preocupaciones y los anhelos de cada uno de esos lugares. 

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