Entrevistas

Sofi Oksanen contra el tirano (y la creciente misoginia en Rusia)

«La Rusia de Putin ha comenzado una guerra contra un sistema de valores, los occidentales, en el que los derechos de las mujeres son importantes. Lo que quieren es que tengamos un sistema de valores del siglo XIX, en el que las mujeres estaban en casa criando nuevos soldados». En «Dos veces el mismo río» (Salamandra), la veterana escritora finlandesa Sofi Oksanen señala con el dedo cómo los crímenes sexuales del ejército ruso en Ucrania son solo la punta del iceberg de una guerra sumergida contra las mujeres de todo el mundo. Al hilo de esta publicación, la periodista y editora Paloma Abad dialoga con ella sobre este entorno político plagado de silencios y caras que miran hacia otro lado, un contexto envenenado en el que los derechos de la mitad de la población vuelven a estar en grave peligro.

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piensas en el n\u00famero de libros que se publican sobre guerra (cualquiera de ellas), la mayor\u00eda de los que los autores son hombres y me temo que no prestan especial atenci\u00f3n a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/svetlana-alexievich-premio-nobel-literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">lo que la guerra significa e implica realmente para las mujeres<\/a><\/span>\u00bb. As\u00ed defiende la escritora finlandesa Sofi Oksanen la publicaci\u00f3n de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-de-historia\/339569-ebook-dos-veces-en-el-mismo-rio-9788419851413\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Dos veces el mismo r\u00edo<\/a><\/em><\/span> (Salamandra), un solemne ejercicio de justicia para con las mujeres y un grito urgente por la visibilizaci\u00f3n internacional de los cr\u00edmenes contra la mujer cometidos por Rusia a lo largo de la historia (pero especialmente desde la llegada de Vladimir Putin al poder).\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La novela <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28231-ebook-purga-9788415470007\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Purga<\/a><\/span><\/em> (Salamandra, 2011) fue la que la posicion\u00f3 como una de las autoras finlandesas m\u00e1s c\u00e9lebres del mundo. Vendi\u00f3 m\u00e1s de un mill\u00f3n de ejemplares en cuarenta pa\u00edses, gan\u00f3 el premio <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Premio_Femina\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Femina \u00c9tranger<\/a><\/span> y el de Mejor Novela Europea del A\u00f1o. Tambi\u00e9n le dio acceso a privilegiados atriles desde los que denunciar algo que en su familia de emigrantes estonios se sab\u00eda desde antes de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la disoluci\u00f3n de la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span>: el imperialismo ruso est\u00e1 basado en la perpetua expansi\u00f3n y ha comenzado una peligrosa lucha sin cuartel contra los derechos de las mujeres. <em>Dos veces el mismo r\u00edo<\/em> es un sublime acto de responsabilidad y valent\u00eda, de alzar la voz por los derechos de todas las mujeres del mundo en un entorno pol\u00edtico plagado de silencios y caras que miran hacia otro lado. 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Todos los cr\u00edmenes de guerra cometidos por Rusia contra las mujeres, que son muchos, siguen sin estar penalizados.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Espero que eso cambie en un futuro, pero requiere voluntad pol\u00edtica.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfNo son necesarias m\u00e1s mujeres en la pol\u00edtica para que esa voluntad cambie?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Exactamente. Si no hay voluntad pol\u00edtica, no hay dinero para investigaci\u00f3n. Necesitamos de eso, claro, pero si los l\u00edderes pol\u00edticos son solo hombres no creo que lo vean como una prioridad.\u00a0<\/p><p><b>LENGUA: <\/b><strong>\u00bfNo es horrible que, aunque las mujeres seamos la mitad de la poblaci\u00f3n del mundo, nos sigan tratando como a una minor\u00eda?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Exactamente, eso es lo que hacen: presentarlo como si fuera un asunto de una minor\u00eda. Los hombres tienen la palabra y tienen el espacio p\u00fablico, por eso hacen falta m\u00e1s mujeres en el espacio p\u00fablico. No importa qu\u00e9 espacio, basta con que sea p\u00fablico.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"eazsnqb\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abRusia ha comenzado una guerra contra un sistema de valores, los occidentales, en el que los derechos de las mujeres son importantes. Lo que quieren es que tengamos un sistema de valores del siglo XIX, en el que las mujeres estaban en casa criando nuevos soldados\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ak8bsl4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: El n\u00famero de marzo de la edici\u00f3n ucraniana de <em>Vogue<\/em> estaba protagonizado por una mujer ucraniana rodeada de compa\u00f1eros del ej\u00e9rcito. Todos estaban vestidos de militares... \u00bfEra una defensa del papel de la mujer en este conflicto?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Es un mensaje a Rusia, pero tambi\u00e9n es la imagen de la nueva Ucrania. Cuando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-ucrania-entre-este-y-oeste\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica se derrumb\u00f3 en los noventa<\/a><\/span>, el punto de partida de la igualdad de g\u00e9nero era el mismo en Rusia que en Ucrania. Empezaron en el mismo lugar, pero solo uno de los dos pa\u00edses ha hecho progreso en los derechos de las mujeres (esto es as\u00ed, entre otras cosas, porque las mujeres est\u00e1n en activo). Cuando comenz\u00f3 la guerra en el este de Ucrania en 2014, muchas chicas que hab\u00edan formado parte de la revoluci\u00f3n quisieron unirse al ej\u00e9rcito, pero r\u00e1pidamente se dieron cuenta de que ese no era un lugar seguro para ellas, as\u00ed que comenzaron a implementar cambios para hacerlo m\u00e1s igualitario. El ej\u00e9rcito ucraniano tiene la posibilidad de convertirse en el m\u00e1s igualitario del mundo. Y esto es muy importante, porque cuanta m\u00e1s mujeres se alisten, m\u00e1s improbable se vuelve que se cometan en su seno cr\u00edmenes sexuales. Repito: esto es muy importante. 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Da la sensaci\u00f3n de que <em>Dos veces el mismo r\u00edo<\/em> recoge la investigaci\u00f3n de toda una vida, casi una obsesi\u00f3n personal, sobre las afrentas rusas al g\u00e9nero femenino.\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Cuando empec\u00e9 mi carrera como autora publicada no imaginaba que veinte a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s tendr\u00eda que estar a\u00fan hablando de los mismos temas. Era joven y esperaba que el mundo cambiase m\u00e1s r\u00e1pido. Pero, por otra parte, siento que ha habido muchos progresos, aunque son algo diferentes de c\u00f3mo los visualic\u00e9. Cuando publiqu\u00e9 mi primera novela,<em> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/traficantes.net\/libros\/las-vacas-de-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Las vacas de Stalin<\/span><\/a><\/em>, en 2003, desde la perspectiva estonia se empezaba a ver c\u00f3mo los vientos pol\u00edticos en Rusia empezaban a revolverse. No soplaban en la direcci\u00f3n democr\u00e1tica que todo el mundo esperaba y cre\u00eda que hac\u00edan. En Estonia las cosas se ve\u00edan diferentes desde el punto de vista pol\u00edtico. De repente ya no hab\u00eda posibilidad de hablar de los cr\u00edmenes del pasado. En los noventa, los rusos admitieron que hab\u00edan ocupado Estonia, pero nunca m\u00e1s se volvi\u00f3 a hacer menci\u00f3n al asunto. No ten\u00edan inter\u00e9s. Tampoco les interesaba la ratificaci\u00f3n del Tratado de fronteras, eso fue una aut\u00e9ntica lucha. Hab\u00eda muchas se\u00f1ales de que los rusos no iban por el camino que todo el mundo pensaba. Comenzaron campa\u00f1as de desinformaci\u00f3n muy agresivas con respecto a Letonia, Lituania y Estonia\u2026 Me daba la impresi\u00f3n de que necesitaba escribir sobre este pasado reciente debido a la falta de conocimiento de la mayor\u00eda de la poblaci\u00f3n sobre el asunto. Porque si no sabes <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la historia de lo que ha ocurrido all\u00ed<\/a><\/span>, es imposible que entiendas lo que vino despu\u00e9s, ni por qu\u00e9 Rusia manifiesta tanta agresividad con esos pa\u00edses. A principios de los 2000, la propaganda era tan fuerte que cuando se hac\u00edan sondeos de opini\u00f3n en Rusia preguntando a sus habitantes cu\u00e1les eran los pa\u00edses que consideraban m\u00e1s enemigos, en segundo, tercer y cuarto lugar siempre estaban Letonia, Lituania y Estonia. Es un poco raro, porque son pa\u00edses muy peque\u00f1os, y Rusia es muy grande. \u00bfC\u00f3mo se entiende que un pa\u00eds de un mill\u00f3n y medio de habitantes pueda ser el gran enemigo de la Federaci\u00f3n Rusa? Creo que este tipo de informaci\u00f3n era una suerte de laboratorio, un ensayo para ver c\u00f3mo el resto del mundo reaccionaba a lo que ocurr\u00eda en esta agresi\u00f3n a los estados b\u00e1lticos. Se dieron cuenta de que nadie hac\u00eda nada, porque se consider\u00f3 algo muy local. Los rusos usaban los mismos esl\u00f3ganes que ahora se emplean con Ucrania. Mi sensaci\u00f3n era que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\">mi generaci\u00f3n en Finlandia no estaba nada interesada en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span>. Les parec\u00eda que hab\u00eda desaparecido y que no era necesario pensar en ella. Sin embargo, desde la perspectiva b\u00e1ltica, era absolutamente necesario entenderla, porque todos esos asuntos relacionados con la historia sovi\u00e9tica eran noticia cada d\u00eda. Hab\u00eda un enorme contraste entre lo que ocurr\u00eda en pa\u00edses muy similares y pr\u00f3ximos. Empec\u00e9 as\u00ed, y continu\u00e9 a lo largo del tiempo.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"98gprre\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLa Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica se basaba en expandir el comunismo y encontrar aliados en otros continentes, pero no a trav\u00e9s del odio hacia las mujeres. Hoy se centran en el odio a las minor\u00edas sexuales y los derechos de las mujeres\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"h8mjhqa\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Llevas muchos a\u00f1os alzando la voz sobre este asunto, advirtiendo sobre toda suerte de operaciones rusas, incluso en foros muy p\u00fablicos, desde el <a href=\\\"https:\/\/worldvoices.pen.org\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">PEN World Voices<\/span><\/a> hasta la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.biennaldepensament.barcelona\/es\/la-bienal\/presentacion\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Biennal del Pensament<\/a><\/span> de Barcelona. Pero nunca ning\u00fan gobierno ha hecho nada.\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Me remito a que uno de los asuntos claves es que Rusia nunca se ha hecho responsable de sus cr\u00edmenes pasados. Nadie se los ha hecho admitir, en parte porque los pa\u00edses occidentales no los conocen lo suficientemente bien. No los hemos hecho responsables de sus cr\u00edmenes porque no los entendemos.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Pero algunos cr\u00edmenes s\u00ed que han sido muy p\u00fablicos. Todos hemos visto a alg\u00fan disidente morir de manera sospechosa.\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> S\u00ed, y Rusia lleva cometiendo asesinatos pol\u00edticos much\u00edsimo tiempo. El de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Aleks%C3%A9i_Navalni\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Alexei Navalny<\/a><\/span> no fue el primero.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>En todos estos a\u00f1os de denuncia p\u00fablica de manera internacional, \u00bfno has tenido miedo?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Nac\u00ed rodeada por la KGB, as\u00ed que no\u2026 Aunque de peque\u00f1a viv\u00eda en Finlandia, \u00edbamos todo lo posible a ver a mi familia materna a la Estonia sovi\u00e9tica. De la misma manera que ahora Rusia tiene esta pol\u00edtica de compatriotas (esto es: est\u00e1 muy interesada en los rusos que viven en el extranjero), la KGB no perd\u00eda ojo a esa gente considerada sovi\u00e9tica, incluyendo a los estonios, que viv\u00eda fuera del pa\u00eds. Nos vigilaban todo el tiempo.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Da la sensaci\u00f3n de que est\u00e1s escribiendo ahora ese diario que llevabas de ni\u00f1a y cuya escritura se frenaba en cuanto pisabas suelo estonio. \u00bfCrees que lo que est\u00e1s haciendo puede ser suficiente para amortiguar esa idea de imperialismo que tiene Rusia?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/orlando-figes-sobre-la-rusia-de-putin-esto-es-una-guerra-imperial\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El imperialismo ruso<\/a><\/span> no conoce fronteras, porque no las tiene. Ese es el problema. Est\u00e1n constantemente buscando aliados en otros continentes, por eso financian su guerra con recursos que vienen de \u00c1frica. La idea de Rusia est\u00e1 basada en la expansi\u00f3n, y eso significa que necesita tener influencia en otros pa\u00edses. Lo que cuento en el libro es que han apostado por la misoginia porque le permite ganar aliados en otros pa\u00edses. Hablamos mucho de que Rusia repite patrones, pero este foco mis\u00f3gino es bastante nuevo. La Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica se basaba en expandir el comunismo y encontrar aliados en otros continentes, pero no a trav\u00e9s del odio hacia las mujeres. Hoy se centran en el odio a las minor\u00edas sexuales y los derechos de las mujeres.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfHay algo que podamos hacer para parar este avance?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Much\u00edsimas cosas. Para empezar, debemos se\u00f1alar el problema, ser conscientes de \u00e9l. Por eso quise escribir este libro. No se considera un gran problema, y creo que deber\u00eda tratarse como tal. Es una amenaza a nuestros sistemas democr\u00e1ticos, es una amenaza al futuro de las siguientes generaciones de mujeres. Rusia ha comenzado una guerra contra un sistema de valores, los occidentales, en el que los derechos de las mujeres son importantes. Lo que quieren es que tengamos un sistema de valores del siglo XIX, en el que las mujeres estaban en casa criando nuevos soldados.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfC\u00f3mo beneficia la invisibilizaci\u00f3n de las mujeres a su sistema?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> El objetivo principal del r\u00e9gimen de Putin es mantener el poder centralizado en el Kremlin, y como el poder y el dinero est\u00e1n en las manos de los hombres\u2026 Ah\u00ed radica el asunto. No van a ced\u00e9rselo a nadie m\u00e1s si lo pueden prevenir. Y lo pueden prevenir manteniendo a las mujeres en 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Cr\u00e9dito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mweoyy8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Sofi Oksanen. 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<\/strong><strong>Siempre hablamos de Putin como el malo de la pel\u00edcula. Si \u00e9l no estuviese ah\u00ed, \u00bfcontinuar\u00eda el todo igual?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> S\u00ed. \u00c9l solamente es la imagen del sistema. Fue elegido para liderar y lo est\u00e1 haciendo bien. Han creado este papel para que el siguiente que ocupe el cargo se encargue de salvar el sistema, a menos que este colapse o se destruya, pero eso es muy dif\u00edcil en estos momentos, porque el poder de las fuerzas de seguridad es muy alto (y para cambiar el sistema tienes que cambiar los \u00f3rganos de seguridad). Ahora mismo, no veo ning\u00fan motivo para que entreguen el poder.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Y eso que cuando Yevgueni Prigozhin se rebel\u00f3 contra el Kremlin, e hizo marchar al <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.nationalgeographic.com.es\/mundo-ng\/grupo-wagner-lider-muerto-avion-estrellado_20225\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Grupo Wagner<\/a><\/span> (mercenarios criminales) hacia Mosc\u00fa, a mucha gente le dio esperanza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Lo que fue radical de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Yevgueni_Prigozhin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Prigozhin<\/a><\/span> fue que \u00e9l dijo en voz alta que Rusia estaba entrando en guerra en Ucrania. Para nosotros est\u00e1 claro, pero decirlo en alto para su audiencia, que solo usa el t\u00e9rmino operaci\u00f3n especial, fue radical.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Le cost\u00f3 la vida.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> S\u00ed, lo hizo, pero el sistema Wagner continu\u00f3. No ha desaparecido y ha seguido expandiendo su poder en \u00c1frica.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Ahora, y tambi\u00e9n en el libro, hablas de las atrocidades de los rusos. Pero por momentos pareciese que un dedo invisible se\u00f1ale acusador a occidente por no ver lo que est\u00e1 ocurriendo. \u00bfTe enfada la actitud de nuestros pa\u00edses?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Es frustrante. Pero arroja algo de esperanza la idea de que el progreso es algo muy lento. Y el hecho de que t\u00fa est\u00e9s escribiendo esto en un medio de comunicaci\u00f3n ya es algo. Hace unos a\u00f1os hubiera sido imposible. El hecho de que podamos hablar en p\u00fablico sobre los cr\u00edmenes de guerra de Rusia en pa\u00edses occidentales ya tiene un valor. Cuando yo era peque\u00f1a no era una opci\u00f3n. As\u00ed que prefiero verlo desde esa perspectiva. Nac\u00ed en 1977 y recuerdo que en los 70 y los 80 hab\u00eda much\u00edsimas cosas que no pod\u00edas decir en p\u00fablico. Ahora, justo antes de esta entrevista, estaba ensayando una nueva obra sobre la homofobia de Rusia en el Teatro Nacional de Finlandia. El hecho de que pueda escribir una obra sobre el particular y que se represente en un lugar como ese es un cambio. Lo que est\u00e1 pasando es terrible, pero al menos estamos m\u00e1s al tanto de lo que es, podemos hablarlo en p\u00fablico. Ese es otro cambio. Tengo la sensaci\u00f3n de que el espacio temporal de las noticias y la gente es diferente, esperan que todo cambie en un segundo y no es el caso. Echa la vista atr\u00e1s, valora todo el trabajo de las defensoras de los derechos de la mujer y\u2026 \u00a1mira el tiempo que tardaron en conseguir el derecho al sufragio universal! Fue un proceso largu\u00edsimo.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Y ni siquiera nuestros derechos son para siempre. Hay algunos que van y vienen, y debemos pelearlos constantemente, como el del aborto.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Exacto. As\u00ed que tenemos que estar muy atentas todo el rato, porque cuando creemos que tenemos un derecho, que lo hemos logrado, nos sentamos y a la ma\u00f1ana siguiente ha desaparecido.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Algo as\u00ed les ha sucedido a las mujeres en Rusia.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Ahora muchas cl\u00ednicas privadas ya no practican abortos all\u00ed, y tampoco en la pen\u00ednsula de Crimea. Las leyes abortivas del pa\u00eds se van a ir limitando much\u00edsimo. Han encontrado el momento adecuado para hacer algo as\u00ed, veinte a\u00f1os atr\u00e1s no hubiera sido posible, las mujeres hubieran armado una revuelta. Han hecho falta <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/vladimir-putin-masha-gessen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">dos d\u00e9cadas de gobierno de Putin<\/a><\/span> para estrangular tanto el sistema que las cl\u00ednicas rechazan practicar abortos. Es paso a paso, gota a gota. El aborto se daba por sentado en Rusia, porque no hab\u00eda otro m\u00e9todo anticonceptivo. Era un procedimiento muy sencillo en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica. En veinte a\u00f1os se ha retrocedido por completo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"iiunpji\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abTenemos que estar muy atentas todo el rato, porque cuando creemos que tenemos un derecho, que lo hemos logrado, nos sentamos y a la ma\u00f1ana siguiente ha desaparecido\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7cxuzci\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Sorprende tambi\u00e9n cuando cuentas que en la narrativa oficial rusa, el Harvey Weinstein del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Me_Too_(movimiento)\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">#Metoo<\/a><\/span> se ve como un h\u00e9roe, un semental que no consegu\u00eda quitarse a las mujeres de encima. \u00bfC\u00f3mo ver\u00e1n entonces a Sofi Oksanen? \u00bfComo una criminal de guerra?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Probablemente s\u00ed, en t\u00e9rminos oficiales. Pero eso no significa que todo el mundo piense as\u00ed. Bastante a menudo, los rusos fingen apoyar al Kremlin. Muchos solo lo simulan, es su forma de sobrevivir. Y si algo cambia, tambi\u00e9n lo har\u00e1n los apoyos.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Pero si hay suficiente gente que aparenta un apoyo, alg\u00fan d\u00eda puede dejar de hacerlo en masa.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> S\u00ed, por eso cay\u00f3 la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica. Fingieron muy bien, y por eso los pa\u00edses occidentales no entendieron su colapso, porque no se dieron cuenta de que la gente estaba falseando su adherencia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfImaginas un futuro en que la Madre Rusia es una mujer presidenta?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> No s\u00e9 si veremos ese tipo de futuro. Seg\u00fan las encuestas, la actitud general sobre la idea de una presidenta en Rusia no era muy popular, aunque las cifras estaban subiendo, al menos hasta la invasi\u00f3n. Ten\u00edan una opini\u00f3n positiva sobre el asunto. No digo que sea imposible, han tenido mujeres gobernando antes, as\u00ed que no carecen de precedentes. Tuvieron a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/historia.nationalgeographic.com.es\/a\/catalina-grande-zarina-mas-poderosa_15860\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Catalina la Grande<\/a><\/span>, que no fue demasiado buena para el resto del mundo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfC\u00f3mo crees que acabar\u00e1 la guerra?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Se acabar\u00eda m\u00e1s f\u00e1cilmente si Ucrania tuviera m\u00e1s armas.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Y si Rusia no dispusiese de cabezas nucleares.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Este es el tema crucial. Rusia tiene que perder.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Pero no se pueden permitir perder. Prefieren que el mundo colapse.<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Corea del Norte les da sus misiles nucleares. China les ayuda, les llegan soldados de Nepal, Cuba\u2026. Realmente tienen aliados.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>Y en ese macroescenario en que los hombres hablan de guerras y de pol\u00edtica, hay violaciones y mujeres siendo humilladas en sus propias casas. Eso nunca abre las noticias en los peri\u00f3dicos. \u00bfVolvemos a la frustraci\u00f3n?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Efectivamente, es frustrante. Ya hab\u00eda denuncias de violaci\u00f3n de los derechos humanos cuando Rusia combat\u00eda en Chechenia, con cr\u00edmenes de guerra sexuales. Lo mismo ocurri\u00f3 en Georgia. La Federaci\u00f3n Rusa, incluso despu\u00e9s del colapso de la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica, tambi\u00e9n en Siria, ha seguido usando la violencia sexual como arma de guerra. Pero los hechos han pasado desapercibidos; as\u00ed sucedi\u00f3 en 2014, cuando invadieron por primera vez Ucrania. El mundo no se daba cuenta. Ha sido pasado por alto tanto tiempo que han decidido continuar de manera impune. En casa no solo no los reprenden, sino que las madres de los guerreros los felicitan.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfC\u00f3mo explicas esa actitud de las mujeres rusas?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> No consideran que las ucranianas sean sus iguales. Simplemente les parecen inferiores. Esa es una de las principales razones. La mujer ideal rusa es alguien que apoya la guerra mientras sus hijos y sus maridos la luchan. Eso no se cuestiona. El Kremlin premia todo esto\u2026 si no, no le habr\u00edan dado una medalla de honor a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/internacional\/2024-02-20\/putin-asciende-a-valeri-boyarinev-subjefe-de-prisiones-tras-la-muerte-en-la-carcel-de-navalni.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Valeri Boy\u00e1rinev<\/a><\/span>, subjefe de prisiones, despu\u00e9s del fallecimiento de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Aleks%C3%A9i_Navalni\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Aleks\u00e9i Navalni<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0Est\u00e1n galardonando a hombres que hacen esto. Creo que alinearse con el r\u00e9gimen es tambi\u00e9n es una manera de sobrevivir, de estar segura en Rusia.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <\/strong><strong>\u00bfEs posible acabar esta entrevista con alg\u00fan mensaje positivo?\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Sofi Oksanen:<\/strong> Aunque resulta muy frustrante ver c\u00f3mo los viejos cr\u00edmenes vuelven a cometerse, estoy sorprendida de que tanta gente est\u00e9 cansada y dispuesta a hacer algo. Todo el mundo puede aportar su granito de arena simplemente hablando del asunto. Basta con alzar la voz y no olvidar los cr\u00edmenes sexuales, porque si esto no recibe castigo impactar\u00e1 en las siguientes generaciones. Debemos levantarnos y apelar a los l\u00edderes pol\u00edticos. Puedes pensar, \u00bfqu\u00e9 va a conseguir una sola persona? Pero, ver\u00e1s, sin gotas el oc\u00e9ano no podr\u00eda existir.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jfxvz04\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/podcast\/revista-lengua-podcast-de-stalin-a-putin-finlandia-y-la-sonrisa-del-tirano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Revista LENGUA Podcast: de Stalin a Putin, Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Igort: el dibujante de la sombra rusa<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Anne Applebaum: la crisis ucraniana en cinco preguntas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/orlando-figes-sobre-la-rusia-de-putin-esto-es-una-guerra-imperial\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Orlando Figes sobre la Rusia de Putin: \u00abEsto es una guerra imperial\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/guerra-invasion-ucrania-rusia-andrei-kurkov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La invasi\u00f3n a Ucrania por Andr\u00e9i Kurkov: \u00abLa guerra nos ha radicalizado a todos\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: 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15 minutos
Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

«Si piensas en el número de libros que se publican sobre guerra (cualquiera de ellas), la mayoría de los que los autores son hombres y me temo que no prestan especial atención a lo que la guerra significa e implica realmente para las mujeres». Así defiende la escritora finlandesa Sofi Oksanen la publicación de Dos veces el mismo río (Salamandra), un solemne ejercicio de justicia para con las mujeres y un grito urgente por la visibilización internacional de los crímenes contra la mujer cometidos por Rusia a lo largo de la historia (pero especialmente desde la llegada de Vladimir Putin al poder).  

La novela Purga (Salamandra, 2011) fue la que la posicionó como una de las autoras finlandesas más célebres del mundo. Vendió más de un millón de ejemplares en cuarenta países, ganó el premio Femina Étranger y el de Mejor Novela Europea del Año. También le dio acceso a privilegiados atriles desde los que denunciar algo que en su familia de emigrantes estonios se sabía desde antes de la disolución de la Unión Soviética: el imperialismo ruso está basado en la perpetua expansión y ha comenzado una peligrosa lucha sin cuartel contra los derechos de las mujeres. Dos veces el mismo río es un sublime acto de responsabilidad y valentía, de alzar la voz por los derechos de todas las mujeres del mundo en un entorno político plagado de silencios y caras que miran hacia otro lado. Es señalar lo importante cuando la gente solo está atenta a lo urgente, un manual fundamental para entender que lo que está ocurriendo en Ucrania no es ni tan lejano ni mucho menos anecdótico.

  • ¡En oferta!

Dos veces en el mismo río

Una crónica tan urgente como necesaria sobre la guerra de Putin contra las mujeres

«Un libro contundente y valioso, que aborda los ataques contra las mujeres en tiempos de guerra y la misoginia de...

LENGUA: Todos los crímenes de guerra cometidos por Rusia contra las mujeres, que son muchos, siguen sin estar penalizados. 

Sofi Oksanen: Espero que eso cambie en un futuro, pero requiere voluntad política. 

LENGUA: ¿No son necesarias más mujeres en la política para que esa voluntad cambie?  

Sofi Oksanen: Exactamente. Si no hay voluntad política, no hay dinero para investigación. Necesitamos de eso, claro, pero si los líderes políticos son solo hombres no creo que lo vean como una prioridad. 

LENGUA: ¿No es horrible que, aunque las mujeres seamos la mitad de la población del mundo, nos sigan tratando como a una minoría? 

Sofi Oksanen: Exactamente, eso es lo que hacen: presentarlo como si fuera un asunto de una minoría. Los hombres tienen la palabra y tienen el espacio público, por eso hacen falta más mujeres en el espacio público. No importa qué espacio, basta con que sea público.

«Rusia ha comenzado una guerra contra un sistema de valores, los occidentales, en el que los derechos de las mujeres son importantes. Lo que quieren es que tengamos un sistema de valores del siglo XIX, en el que las mujeres estaban en casa criando nuevos soldados».

LENGUA: El número de marzo de la edición ucraniana de Vogue estaba protagonizado por una mujer ucraniana rodeada de compañeros del ejército. Todos estaban vestidos de militares... ¿Era una defensa del papel de la mujer en este conflicto? 

Sofi Oksanen: Es un mensaje a Rusia, pero también es la imagen de la nueva Ucrania. Cuando la Unión Soviética se derrumbó en los noventa, el punto de partida de la igualdad de género era el mismo en Rusia que en Ucrania. Empezaron en el mismo lugar, pero solo uno de los dos países ha hecho progreso en los derechos de las mujeres (esto es así, entre otras cosas, porque las mujeres están en activo). Cuando comenzó la guerra en el este de Ucrania en 2014, muchas chicas que habían formado parte de la revolución quisieron unirse al ejército, pero rápidamente se dieron cuenta de que ese no era un lugar seguro para ellas, así que comenzaron a implementar cambios para hacerlo más igualitario. El ejército ucraniano tiene la posibilidad de convertirse en el más igualitario del mundo. Y esto es muy importante, porque cuanta más mujeres se alisten, más improbable se vuelve que se cometan en su seno crímenes sexuales. Repito: esto es muy importante. Y por eso se necesitan más rostros femeninos en el entorno militar.

Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

LENGUA: Da la sensación de que Dos veces el mismo río recoge la investigación de toda una vida, casi una obsesión personal, sobre las afrentas rusas al género femenino.  

Sofi Oksanen: Cuando empecé mi carrera como autora publicada no imaginaba que veinte años después tendría que estar aún hablando de los mismos temas. Era joven y esperaba que el mundo cambiase más rápido. Pero, por otra parte, siento que ha habido muchos progresos, aunque son algo diferentes de cómo los visualicé. Cuando publiqué mi primera novela, Las vacas de Stalin, en 2003, desde la perspectiva estonia se empezaba a ver cómo los vientos políticos en Rusia empezaban a revolverse. No soplaban en la dirección democrática que todo el mundo esperaba y creía que hacían. En Estonia las cosas se veían diferentes desde el punto de vista político. De repente ya no había posibilidad de hablar de los crímenes del pasado. En los noventa, los rusos admitieron que habían ocupado Estonia, pero nunca más se volvió a hacer mención al asunto. No tenían interés. Tampoco les interesaba la ratificación del Tratado de fronteras, eso fue una auténtica lucha. Había muchas señales de que los rusos no iban por el camino que todo el mundo pensaba. Comenzaron campañas de desinformación muy agresivas con respecto a Letonia, Lituania y Estonia… Me daba la impresión de que necesitaba escribir sobre este pasado reciente debido a la falta de conocimiento de la mayoría de la población sobre el asunto. Porque si no sabes la historia de lo que ha ocurrido allí, es imposible que entiendas lo que vino después, ni por qué Rusia manifiesta tanta agresividad con esos países. A principios de los 2000, la propaganda era tan fuerte que cuando se hacían sondeos de opinión en Rusia preguntando a sus habitantes cuáles eran los países que consideraban más enemigos, en segundo, tercer y cuarto lugar siempre estaban Letonia, Lituania y Estonia. Es un poco raro, porque son países muy pequeños, y Rusia es muy grande. ¿Cómo se entiende que un país de un millón y medio de habitantes pueda ser el gran enemigo de la Federación Rusa? Creo que este tipo de información era una suerte de laboratorio, un ensayo para ver cómo el resto del mundo reaccionaba a lo que ocurría en esta agresión a los estados bálticos. Se dieron cuenta de que nadie hacía nada, porque se consideró algo muy local. Los rusos usaban los mismos eslóganes que ahora se emplean con Ucrania. Mi sensación era que mi generación en Finlandia no estaba nada interesada en la Unión Soviética. Les parecía que había desaparecido y que no era necesario pensar en ella. Sin embargo, desde la perspectiva báltica, era absolutamente necesario entenderla, porque todos esos asuntos relacionados con la historia soviética eran noticia cada día. Había un enorme contraste entre lo que ocurría en países muy similares y próximos. Empecé así, y continué a lo largo del tiempo. 

«La Unión Soviética se basaba en expandir el comunismo y encontrar aliados en otros continentes, pero no a través del odio hacia las mujeres. Hoy se centran en el odio a las minorías sexuales y los derechos de las mujeres».

LENGUA: Llevas muchos años alzando la voz sobre este asunto, advirtiendo sobre toda suerte de operaciones rusas, incluso en foros muy públicos, desde el PEN World Voices hasta la Biennal del Pensament de Barcelona. Pero nunca ningún gobierno ha hecho nada.  

Sofi Oksanen: Me remito a que uno de los asuntos claves es que Rusia nunca se ha hecho responsable de sus crímenes pasados. Nadie se los ha hecho admitir, en parte porque los países occidentales no los conocen lo suficientemente bien. No los hemos hecho responsables de sus crímenes porque no los entendemos. 

LENGUA: Pero algunos crímenes sí que han sido muy públicos. Todos hemos visto a algún disidente morir de manera sospechosa.  

Sofi Oksanen: Sí, y Rusia lleva cometiendo asesinatos políticos muchísimo tiempo. El de Alexei Navalny no fue el primero. 

LENGUA: En todos estos años de denuncia pública de manera internacional, ¿no has tenido miedo?

Sofi Oksanen: Nací rodeada por la KGB, así que no… Aunque de pequeña vivía en Finlandia, íbamos todo lo posible a ver a mi familia materna a la Estonia soviética. De la misma manera que ahora Rusia tiene esta política de compatriotas (esto es: está muy interesada en los rusos que viven en el extranjero), la KGB no perdía ojo a esa gente considerada soviética, incluyendo a los estonios, que vivía fuera del país. Nos vigilaban todo el tiempo. 

LENGUA: Da la sensación de que estás escribiendo ahora ese diario que llevabas de niña y cuya escritura se frenaba en cuanto pisabas suelo estonio. ¿Crees que lo que estás haciendo puede ser suficiente para amortiguar esa idea de imperialismo que tiene Rusia?  

Sofi Oksanen: El imperialismo ruso no conoce fronteras, porque no las tiene. Ese es el problema. Están constantemente buscando aliados en otros continentes, por eso financian su guerra con recursos que vienen de África. La idea de Rusia está basada en la expansión, y eso significa que necesita tener influencia en otros países. Lo que cuento en el libro es que han apostado por la misoginia porque le permite ganar aliados en otros países. Hablamos mucho de que Rusia repite patrones, pero este foco misógino es bastante nuevo. La Unión Soviética se basaba en expandir el comunismo y encontrar aliados en otros continentes, pero no a través del odio hacia las mujeres. Hoy se centran en el odio a las minorías sexuales y los derechos de las mujeres. 

LENGUA: ¿Hay algo que podamos hacer para parar este avance? 

Sofi Oksanen: Muchísimas cosas. Para empezar, debemos señalar el problema, ser conscientes de él. Por eso quise escribir este libro. No se considera un gran problema, y creo que debería tratarse como tal. Es una amenaza a nuestros sistemas democráticos, es una amenaza al futuro de las siguientes generaciones de mujeres. Rusia ha comenzado una guerra contra un sistema de valores, los occidentales, en el que los derechos de las mujeres son importantes. Lo que quieren es que tengamos un sistema de valores del siglo XIX, en el que las mujeres estaban en casa criando nuevos soldados. 

LENGUA: ¿Cómo beneficia la invisibilización de las mujeres a su sistema? 

Sofi Oksanen: El objetivo principal del régimen de Putin es mantener el poder centralizado en el Kremlin, y como el poder y el dinero están en las manos de los hombres… Ahí radica el asunto. No van a cedérselo a nadie más si lo pueden prevenir. Y lo pueden prevenir manteniendo a las mujeres en casa.

Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

LENGUA: Siempre hablamos de Putin como el malo de la película. Si él no estuviese ahí, ¿continuaría el todo igual?  

Sofi Oksanen: Sí. Él solamente es la imagen del sistema. Fue elegido para liderar y lo está haciendo bien. Han creado este papel para que el siguiente que ocupe el cargo se encargue de salvar el sistema, a menos que este colapse o se destruya, pero eso es muy difícil en estos momentos, porque el poder de las fuerzas de seguridad es muy alto (y para cambiar el sistema tienes que cambiar los órganos de seguridad). Ahora mismo, no veo ningún motivo para que entreguen el poder. 

LENGUA: Y eso que cuando Yevgueni Prigozhin se rebeló contra el Kremlin, e hizo marchar al Grupo Wagner (mercenarios criminales) hacia Moscú, a mucha gente le dio esperanza.  

Sofi Oksanen: Lo que fue radical de Prigozhin fue que él dijo en voz alta que Rusia estaba entrando en guerra en Ucrania. Para nosotros está claro, pero decirlo en alto para su audiencia, que solo usa el término operación especial, fue radical. 

LENGUA: Le costó la vida. 

Sofi Oksanen: Sí, lo hizo, pero el sistema Wagner continuó. No ha desaparecido y ha seguido expandiendo su poder en África. 

LENGUA: Ahora, y también en el libro, hablas de las atrocidades de los rusos. Pero por momentos pareciese que un dedo invisible señale acusador a occidente por no ver lo que está ocurriendo. ¿Te enfada la actitud de nuestros países?  

Sofi Oksanen: Es frustrante. Pero arroja algo de esperanza la idea de que el progreso es algo muy lento. Y el hecho de que tú estés escribiendo esto en un medio de comunicación ya es algo. Hace unos años hubiera sido imposible. El hecho de que podamos hablar en público sobre los crímenes de guerra de Rusia en países occidentales ya tiene un valor. Cuando yo era pequeña no era una opción. Así que prefiero verlo desde esa perspectiva. Nací en 1977 y recuerdo que en los 70 y los 80 había muchísimas cosas que no podías decir en público. Ahora, justo antes de esta entrevista, estaba ensayando una nueva obra sobre la homofobia de Rusia en el Teatro Nacional de Finlandia. El hecho de que pueda escribir una obra sobre el particular y que se represente en un lugar como ese es un cambio. Lo que está pasando es terrible, pero al menos estamos más al tanto de lo que es, podemos hablarlo en público. Ese es otro cambio. Tengo la sensación de que el espacio temporal de las noticias y la gente es diferente, esperan que todo cambie en un segundo y no es el caso. Echa la vista atrás, valora todo el trabajo de las defensoras de los derechos de la mujer y… ¡mira el tiempo que tardaron en conseguir el derecho al sufragio universal! Fue un proceso larguísimo. 

LENGUA: Y ni siquiera nuestros derechos son para siempre. Hay algunos que van y vienen, y debemos pelearlos constantemente, como el del aborto. 

Sofi Oksanen: Exacto. Así que tenemos que estar muy atentas todo el rato, porque cuando creemos que tenemos un derecho, que lo hemos logrado, nos sentamos y a la mañana siguiente ha desaparecido. 

LENGUA: Algo así les ha sucedido a las mujeres en Rusia. 

Sofi Oksanen: Ahora muchas clínicas privadas ya no practican abortos allí, y tampoco en la península de Crimea. Las leyes abortivas del país se van a ir limitando muchísimo. Han encontrado el momento adecuado para hacer algo así, veinte años atrás no hubiera sido posible, las mujeres hubieran armado una revuelta. Han hecho falta dos décadas de gobierno de Putin para estrangular tanto el sistema que las clínicas rechazan practicar abortos. Es paso a paso, gota a gota. El aborto se daba por sentado en Rusia, porque no había otro método anticonceptivo. Era un procedimiento muy sencillo en la Unión Soviética. En veinte años se ha retrocedido por completo.

«Tenemos que estar muy atentas todo el rato, porque cuando creemos que tenemos un derecho, que lo hemos logrado, nos sentamos y a la mañana siguiente ha desaparecido».

LENGUA: Sorprende también cuando cuentas que en la narrativa oficial rusa, el Harvey Weinstein del #Metoo se ve como un héroe, un semental que no conseguía quitarse a las mujeres de encima. ¿Cómo verán entonces a Sofi Oksanen? ¿Como una criminal de guerra?

Sofi Oksanen: Probablemente sí, en términos oficiales. Pero eso no significa que todo el mundo piense así. Bastante a menudo, los rusos fingen apoyar al Kremlin. Muchos solo lo simulan, es su forma de sobrevivir. Y si algo cambia, también lo harán los apoyos.  

LENGUA: Pero si hay suficiente gente que aparenta un apoyo, algún día puede dejar de hacerlo en masa. 

Sofi Oksanen: Sí, por eso cayó la Unión Soviética. Fingieron muy bien, y por eso los países occidentales no entendieron su colapso, porque no se dieron cuenta de que la gente estaba falseando su adherencia.  

LENGUA: ¿Imaginas un futuro en que la Madre Rusia es una mujer presidenta? 

Sofi Oksanen: No sé si veremos ese tipo de futuro. Según las encuestas, la actitud general sobre la idea de una presidenta en Rusia no era muy popular, aunque las cifras estaban subiendo, al menos hasta la invasión. Tenían una opinión positiva sobre el asunto. No digo que sea imposible, han tenido mujeres gobernando antes, así que no carecen de precedentes. Tuvieron a Catalina la Grande, que no fue demasiado buena para el resto del mundo.  

LENGUA: ¿Cómo crees que acabará la guerra?  

Sofi Oksanen: Se acabaría más fácilmente si Ucrania tuviera más armas. 

LENGUA: Y si Rusia no dispusiese de cabezas nucleares. 

Sofi Oksanen: Este es el tema crucial. Rusia tiene que perder. 

LENGUA: Pero no se pueden permitir perder. Prefieren que el mundo colapse. 

Sofi Oksanen: Corea del Norte les da sus misiles nucleares. China les ayuda, les llegan soldados de Nepal, Cuba…. Realmente tienen aliados.

LENGUA: Y en ese macroescenario en que los hombres hablan de guerras y de política, hay violaciones y mujeres siendo humilladas en sus propias casas. Eso nunca abre las noticias en los periódicos. ¿Volvemos a la frustración?  

Sofi Oksanen: Efectivamente, es frustrante. Ya había denuncias de violación de los derechos humanos cuando Rusia combatía en Chechenia, con crímenes de guerra sexuales. Lo mismo ocurrió en Georgia. La Federación Rusa, incluso después del colapso de la Unión Soviética, también en Siria, ha seguido usando la violencia sexual como arma de guerra. Pero los hechos han pasado desapercibidos; así sucedió en 2014, cuando invadieron por primera vez Ucrania. El mundo no se daba cuenta. Ha sido pasado por alto tanto tiempo que han decidido continuar de manera impune. En casa no solo no los reprenden, sino que las madres de los guerreros los felicitan.  

LENGUA: ¿Cómo explicas esa actitud de las mujeres rusas?  

Sofi Oksanen: No consideran que las ucranianas sean sus iguales. Simplemente les parecen inferiores. Esa es una de las principales razones. La mujer ideal rusa es alguien que apoya la guerra mientras sus hijos y sus maridos la luchan. Eso no se cuestiona. El Kremlin premia todo esto… si no, no le habrían dado una medalla de honor a Valeri Boyárinev, subjefe de prisiones, después del fallecimiento de Alekséi Navalni. Están galardonando a hombres que hacen esto. Creo que alinearse con el régimen es también es una manera de sobrevivir, de estar segura en Rusia. 

LENGUA: ¿Es posible acabar esta entrevista con algún mensaje positivo?  

Sofi Oksanen: Aunque resulta muy frustrante ver cómo los viejos crímenes vuelven a cometerse, estoy sorprendida de que tanta gente esté cansada y dispuesta a hacer algo. Todo el mundo puede aportar su granito de arena simplemente hablando del asunto. Basta con alzar la voz y no olvidar los crímenes sexuales, porque si esto no recibe castigo impactará en las siguientes generaciones. Debemos levantarnos y apelar a los líderes políticos. Puedes pensar, ¿qué va a conseguir una sola persona? Pero, verás, sin gotas el océano no podría existir.

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