La invasión rusa

Igort: el dibujante de la sombra rusa

Mucho se ha escrito en las últimas semanas sobre las raíces de la relación entre Rusia y Ucrania. Pero quizá pocos occidentales se han sumergido tanto en el tema como el novelista gráfico Igort (Italia, 1958). En 2010 y 2011, tras vivir dos años en Rusia, Ucrania y Siberia, publicó los «Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos» (ahora reeditados en un solo volumen por Salamandra Graphic), donde registra con una crudeza y una sensibilidad pocas veces vista en historieta los terribles testimonios recogidos sobre la hambruna genocida con la que Stalin sojuzgó al pueblo ucraniano a comienzos de los años 30, y luego da cuenta de la historia de la periodista Anna Politkóvskaya, asesinada por sus denuncias sobre las atrocidades cometidas por el ejercito ruso durante la guerra de Chechenia. Desde su casa en Bolonia, Igort habló con LENGUA sobre cómo fue aquel trabajo y la sombra rusa que cubre, una vez más, a Ucrania.

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Pero quiz\u00e1 pocos occidentales se han sumergido tanto en el tema como el novelista gr\u00e1fico Igort (Italia, 1958). En 2010 y 2011, tras vivir dos a\u00f1os en Rusia, Ucrania y Siberia, public\u00f3 los \u00abCuadernos ucranianos y rusos\u00bb (ahora reeditados en un solo volumen por Salamandra Graphic), donde registra con una crudeza y una sensibilidad pocas veces vista en historieta los terribles testimonios recogidos sobre la hambruna genocida con la que Stalin sojuzg\u00f3 al pueblo ucraniano a comienzos de los a\u00f1os 30, y luego da cuenta de la historia de la periodista Anna Politk\u00f3vskaya, asesinada por sus denuncias sobre las atrocidades cometidas por el ejercito ruso durante la guerra de Chechenia. Desde su casa en Bolonia, Igort habl\u00f3 con LENGUA sobre c\u00f3mo fue aquel trabajo y la sombra rusa que cubre, una vez m\u00e1s, a Ucrania.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"p3wqi04\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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empez\u00f3 casi como un viaje de placer. 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que, despu\u00e9s de una charla con su editor franc\u00e9s,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">parti\u00f3 hacia Ucrania<\/a><\/span> para intentar contar bajo esa premisa la historia de ese aut\u00e9ntico amor literario, un autor del que -confiesa- se asegura de tener toda su obra a mano en cada hogar en el que ha vivido. \u00abComo no me gusta ser un turista, alquil\u00e9 un departamento para intentar sumarme a la vida cotidiana del lugar, y comenc\u00e9 a percibir algo que me result\u00f3 extra\u00f1o: me cruzaba con hombres y mujeres muy hermosos, pero muy tristes\u00bb, explica el dibujante, que decidi\u00f3 entonces intentar descubrir qu\u00e9 era lo que estaba pasando.\u00a0<\/p><p>Se acercaba el aniversario de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/uy\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la ca\u00edda del Muro de Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/span>, as\u00ed que con esa excusa decidi\u00f3 salir de su estudio, tomar apuntes del natural, buscar testimonios. \u00abComenc\u00e9 a parar gente en la calle, con un int\u00e9rprete y una lista de preguntas que no se pod\u00edan responder con un s\u00ed o un no, que los obligaba a contar su historia\u00bb, explica Igort, que siempre se consider\u00f3 un hombre de visiones abiertas y orientadas hacia la izquierda, y estaba curioso por entender c\u00f3mo hab\u00eda sido la vida dentro del supuesto sue\u00f1o comunista. \u00abLos eleg\u00eda como un cart\u00f3grafo, de acuerdo a las l\u00edneas que cruzaban su rostro, trazadas por la vida, por alegr\u00edas y tristezas\u00bb.<\/p><p>El resultado final de esa b\u00fasqueda termin\u00f3 convirtiendo al proyecto original en algo totalmente distinto, ning\u00fan 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Pero fue all\u00ed donde empez\u00f3 su vida como historietista, hacia fines de los 70 y comienzos de los 80, cuando formaba parte del grupo Valvoline, junto a dibujantes extraordinarios como Lorenzo Mattotti, Giorgio Carpinteri o Daniele Brolli, entre otros. \u00abEramos j\u00f3venes idiotas\u00bb, se r\u00ede hoy Igort, que por entonces con sus amigos eran brillantes y famosos dentro del \u00e1mbito de la historieta italiana. \u00abTan idiotas como se puede ser cuando ten\u00e9s veinte a\u00f1os\u00bb, insiste el dibujante, que recuerda que en esa ciudad fue tambi\u00e9n donde dej\u00f3 los estudios por culpa de Jos\u00e9 Mu\u00f1oz y Carlos Sampayo.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abSe los he dicho a ellos, y no lo pueden creer\u00bb, dice con una carcajada, y explica que todo sucedi\u00f3 cuando public\u00f3 sus primeras historias en la misma revista donde sal\u00eda Alack Sinner, la obra maestra de la dupla argentina exiliada en Italia. \u00abYo estaba cursando en la Universidad de Semi\u00f3tica y Arte que invent\u00f3 Umberto Eco, y no me olvido jam\u00e1s el d\u00eda en que abr\u00ed un ejemplar en plena clase y recib\u00ed una lecci\u00f3n\u00bb, cuenta. \u00abAnte su historieta pens\u00e9: si quiero estar en esta liga, tengo que dejar de perder el tiempo en la universidad y dedicarme a dibujar todos los d\u00edas. Y eso hice\u00bb, se r\u00ede Igort, que asegura que Alberto Breccia, Hugo Pratt, Mu\u00f1oz y Sampayo fueron su verdadera universidad. \u00abYo soy de Cerde\u00f1a, donde la cultura latina y espa\u00f1ola son muy fuertes. As\u00ed que el sentimiento tr\u00e1gico es mi hogar, de alguna manera\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Amigo de Mu\u00f1oz, a quien considera como su padre en lo que respecta a la historieta, Igort consigui\u00f3 que Sampayo le escribiese un guion a medida: la biograf\u00eda del musico de jazz norteamericano Fats Weller. \u00abLe ped\u00ed que escribiese algo para m\u00ed cuando yo era m\u00e1s joven, y me entreg\u00f3 una historia ambientada en la noche y niebla del norte de Italia. En esa \u00e9poca estaba obsesionado con sue\u00f1os de palmeras y del tr\u00f3pico, as\u00ed que no supe qu\u00e9 hacer con ella: nuestros mundos no encajaban para nada entonces. En cambio con Fats Weller, treinta a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde, todo result\u00f3 perfecto\u00bb. 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quince a\u00f1os atr\u00e1s, tuve la oportunidad de ayudar a una mujer que hab\u00eda abandonado Moldovia\u00bb, recuerda Igort, que para cuando empez\u00f3 a trabajar en los que terminar\u00edan siendo sus <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/37629-libro-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-9788416131556\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos<\/a><\/em>\u00a0ya hab\u00eda dirigido varias revistas, y hasta hab\u00eda fundado una editorial, Coconino Press. \u00abPor entonces yo estaba viviendo en una casa grande, as\u00ed que como ten\u00eda una habitaci\u00f3n extra me ofrec\u00ed a hospedarla. En una de nuestras primeras charlas le dije al pasar algo as\u00ed como \\\"Yo soy comunista\\\", y ella se me qued\u00f3 mirando y me contest\u00f3, muy seria: \\\"No sab\u00e9s de lo que est\u00e1s hablando\\\". Me acuerdo perfectamente de ese momento, porque pens\u00e9 que en una de esas ten\u00eda raz\u00f3n. Despu\u00e9s de todo, nuestra visi\u00f3n era idealista, no estaba relacionada con la vida real. Siempre record\u00e9 esa frase\u00bb, asegura el dibujante, que evoca aquella conversaci\u00f3n como una forma de contestar a la pregunta sobre si sab\u00eda, como izquierdista, qu\u00e9 era lo que se ocultaba detr\u00e1s de aquel idealismo cuando se fue a vivir aquellos dos a\u00f1os en Ucrania y Rusia. \u00abMi amiga se llama Mar\u00eda Mocano, y antes de partir en ese viaje la llam\u00e9 y le dije: \\\"Me voy a la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica, tal vez ahora entienda lo que me intentaste contar entonces\\\"\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo que Igort entendi\u00f3 una vez que empez\u00f3 a preguntarles cosas a la gente en las calles ucranianas, es que el pasado segu\u00eda muy presente. \u00abCuando le pregunt\u00e9 qu\u00e9 recordaba de la hambruna, un hombre se qued\u00f3 petrificado. 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sentarse ante el tablero para dibujar esas historias comprendi\u00f3 ante qu\u00e9 clase de desaf\u00edo se estaba enfrentando. \u00abDesde un comienzo me dije que no iba a utilizar ning\u00fan truco, que iba a contar las cosas tal como hab\u00edan sido\u00bb, explica. \u00abPero el dibujo documental tambi\u00e9n es, de alguna manera, un truco. Cuando lo dibuj\u00e9 tal cual, o lo que yo cre\u00eda que era tal cual, descubr\u00ed que no transmit\u00eda nada parecido a lo que hab\u00eda sentido escuch\u00e1ndolo. As\u00ed que tuve que comprender c\u00f3mo usar todos los recursos de los que dispon\u00eda como contador de historias para tratar de reproducir esa tensi\u00f3n y esa experiencia\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los libros incluidos en la flamante reedici\u00f3n de Salamandra Graphic son dos, <em>Cuadernos ucranianos<\/em> y <em>Cuadernos rusos<\/em>. Aunque Igort aclara que la intenci\u00f3n original siempre fue que se editasen juntos. \u00abEs un solo libro\u00bb, resume. \u00abPero cuando empec\u00e9 me di cuenta de que, si esperaba terminarlo todo antes de publicarlo, pod\u00eda llegar a ser demasiado. Se pod\u00eda convertir en una monta\u00f1a muy alta para m\u00ed\u00bb. La soluci\u00f3n fue de su editor, que le propuso sacar dos libros, uno detr\u00e1s del otro, seg\u00fan los fuese terminando. \u00abYo sab\u00eda que hab\u00eda m\u00e1s historias para contar, pero cuando termin\u00e9 esa segunda parte mi mujer me pidi\u00f3 que por favor al menos en los pr\u00f3ximos a\u00f1os no hiciese esa clase de libros\u00bb, cuenta. \u00abY yo la entend\u00ed: es muy dif\u00edcil convivir con una persona obsesionada por este tipo de abusos y brutalidad humana. Empec\u00e9 con los<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/37598-libro-cuadernos-japoneses-9788416131228\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuadernos japoneses<\/a><\/span><\/em>, y fue como un regalo para m\u00ed, al poderme concentrar en un mundo tan bello y tan lleno de colores. \u00a1Reci\u00e9n entonces comprend\u00ed por qu\u00e9\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/joe-sacco-un-tributo-a-la-tierra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sacco<\/a><\/span> quiso escribir ese libro sobre los Rolling Stones despu\u00e9s de su \u00faltimo trabajo sobre Medio Oriente!\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"z7wtyqo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abComo nosotros tuvimos a Mussolini, toda esa ret\u00f3rica de \\\"ser patriota\\\", de \\\"nuestra tierra\\\", no tiene mucho sentido para nosotros. Mussolini nos cur\u00f3 de todo eso, no tenemos ni siquiera las banderas muy a la vista. As\u00ed que cuando los ucranianos me hablaban de lo patriotas que eran, yo siempre dud\u00e9. Y ahora estamos viendo que efectivamente es as\u00ed. Yo tengo muchos amigos ucranianos de entre 30 o 40 a\u00f1os, y no veo ninguna posibilidad de que ninguno se vuelva ruso\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nusdbrl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El sue\u00f1o de dibujar Hong Kong, edificios y autos viejos, volver a la ficci\u00f3n despu\u00e9s de dos d\u00e9cadas. Ambientada en 1938, con una trama en la que se puede ver a la Segunda Guerra acerc\u00e1ndose a lo lejos. \u00abEs un libro que realmente amo hacer\u00bb, asegura Igort sobre la historieta que estaba dibujando cuando estall\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-vladimir-putin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la guerra en Ucrania<\/a><\/span>. \u00abY por supuesto que la tuve que dejar de lado. Fue como si me hubiesen arrastrado de regreso a todo eso. \u00a1Como una pesadilla!\u00bb, se r\u00ede, tratando de aflojar la tensi\u00f3n respecto a un tema que lo tiene realmente preocupado.<\/p><p>\u00abEstuve hablando con Galia Ackerman en estos d\u00edas\u00bb, cuenta, refiri\u00e9ndose a la traductora al franc\u00e9s de Anna Politkovskaya, a la que convirti\u00f3 en personaje de sus <em>Cuadernos rusos<\/em>. \u00abPiensa que la cosa es muy seria y que no va a terminar tan f\u00e1cil. Yo no quisiera pensar como ella, pero supongo que tiene raz\u00f3n\u00bb, dice quien una d\u00e9cada atr\u00e1s dibuj\u00f3 los horrores de una guerra diferente pero que r\u00e1pidamente podr\u00eda ser similar, como la de Chechenia. \u00abOjal\u00e1 que Galia y yo estemos equivocados\u00bb, sacude su cabeza Igort, cuyos primeros pensamientos cuando empez\u00f3 la invasi\u00f3n fueron hacia sus amigos ucranianos. Lo que sinti\u00f3 despu\u00e9s fue la par\u00e1lisis, la incapacidad de hacer otra cosa salvo leer y escuchar las noticias, y telefonear a la gente que conoce all\u00e1, para preguntarles qu\u00e9 es lo que saben, c\u00f3mo viven, qu\u00e9 necesitan. Y por \u00faltimo la adrenalina de los llamados de los diarios, pregunt\u00e1ndole si quer\u00eda publicar algo al respecto. \u00abPero no pod\u00eda hacer nada\u00bb, confiesa Igort, salvo recopilar informaci\u00f3n, compartir datos estrictos (\u00abcomo un periodista\u00bb), y publicarlos en sus p\u00e1ginas de internet.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abDe noche, cuando todo est\u00e1 en calma, no puedo evitar pensar que toda esta quietud, este silencio, es un lujo que mis amigos en Ucrania no tienen, porque suenan las bombas afuera, porque siempre hay un ni\u00f1o llorando\u00bb, intenta explicar Igort, que no sabe muy bien qu\u00e9 hacer, que asegura que sus planes cambian cada semana. \u00abLo que Galia me dijo es que no es una guerra contra Ucrania, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">sino contra la visi\u00f3n que ellos tienen de Occidente<\/a><\/span>. Que no es ret\u00f3rica, y que no va a detenerse\u00bb, insiste. Y asegura que otra de las preguntas que se hizo apenas empez\u00f3 la invasi\u00f3n es si sus amigos ser\u00edan tan patriotas como dec\u00edan ser entonces. \u00abComo nosotros tuvimos a Mussolini, toda esa ret\u00f3rica de \\\"ser patriota\\\", de \\\"nuestra tierra\\\", no tiene mucho sentido para nosotros. Mussolini nos cur\u00f3 de todo eso, no tenemos ni siquiera las banderas muy a la vista. As\u00ed que cuando los ucranianos me hablaban de lo patriotas que eran, yo siempre dud\u00e9. Y ahora estamos viendo que efectivamente es as\u00ed. Yo tengo muchos amigos ucranianos de entre 30 o 40 a\u00f1os, y no veo ninguna posibilidad de que ninguno se vuelva ruso\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"oz6n51w\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abJoe Sacco, que es un maestro en esto, me pregunt\u00f3 cu\u00e1nto tiempo hab\u00eda pasado en Ucrania y Rusia, y cuando le dije que hab\u00edan sido dos a\u00f1os no lo pod\u00eda creer. \\\"Lo m\u00e1s que estuve en Palestina fue un mes\\\", me cont\u00f3. Pero la verdad que lo que yo sab\u00eda de estas historias despu\u00e9s de apenas un mes de estar ah\u00ed no me hubiese permitido contar nada de lo que est\u00e1 en el libro\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fxnbedq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hacia el final de la entrevista, cuando se le pide que resuma el trabajo que hizo en el libro que se acaba de reeditar en castellano, Igort es contundente: \u00abFue la \u00fanica vez que sent\u00ed que mi trabajo serv\u00eda para algo. Porque son historias que no son muy conocidas, incluso encontrar los casos de Chechenia fue algo muy dif\u00edcil, por toda la censura que las rodea\u00bb, explica. Pero enseguida vuelve sobre el tema que lo preocupa, que lo tiene llamando por tel\u00e9fono, escuchando historias, tratando de ayudar a sus amigos que tienen familiares o conocidos cada vez mas cerca del frente de batalla. \u00abCuando empez\u00e1s a ver cosas como las que estamos viendo, uno empieza a perder la fe en el ser humano, y esto es algo muy tr\u00e1gico. Porque yo realmente amo a la humanidad, soy un gran fan del ser humano. Sigo pensando que la belleza es lo que va a salvar a la humanidad... pero en estos d\u00edas estamos viendo demasiado dolor y pocas cosas bellas\u00bb.<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/carlos-gimenez-alvaro-pons\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Inmortal Carlos Gim\u00e9nez: \u00abSoy consciente de mi edad, soy quiz\u00e1 el autor de historietas en activo mas viejo de la profesi\u00f3n\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/art-spiegelman-liniers\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Art Spiegelman: \u00abAuschwitz estaba en mi patio trasero: era mi casa\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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batalla<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xdlrusq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Páginas interiores de Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos (Salamandra Graphic).

Todo empezó casi como un viaje de placer. Fanático de Chejov desde muy pequeño, al punto de que siempre consideró al autor ruso como uno de sus familiares, Igort decidió que para su nuevo proyecto iba a visitar todas las casas en las que había vivido el escritor ruso. «Cuando hacés historietas, tenés el privilegio de la miseria», se ríe al recordar aquellos primeros pasos. «Porque, comparado con un medio como el cine, resulta muy barato de producir».

Así que, después de una charla con su editor francés, partió hacia Ucrania para intentar contar bajo esa premisa la historia de ese auténtico amor literario, un autor del que -confiesa- se asegura de tener toda su obra a mano en cada hogar en el que ha vivido. «Como no me gusta ser un turista, alquilé un departamento para intentar sumarme a la vida cotidiana del lugar, y comencé a percibir algo que me resultó extraño: me cruzaba con hombres y mujeres muy hermosos, pero muy tristes», explica el dibujante, que decidió entonces intentar descubrir qué era lo que estaba pasando. 

Se acercaba el aniversario de la caída del Muro de Berlín, así que con esa excusa decidió salir de su estudio, tomar apuntes del natural, buscar testimonios. «Comencé a parar gente en la calle, con un intérprete y una lista de preguntas que no se podían responder con un sí o un no, que los obligaba a contar su historia», explica Igort, que siempre se consideró un hombre de visiones abiertas y orientadas hacia la izquierda, y estaba curioso por entender cómo había sido la vida dentro del supuesto sueño comunista. «Los elegía como un cartógrafo, de acuerdo a las líneas que cruzaban su rostro, trazadas por la vida, por alegrías y tristezas».

El resultado final de esa búsqueda terminó convirtiendo al proyecto original en algo totalmente distinto, ningún viaje de placer sino un descenso a los infiernos de la historia, ahora oportunamente reeditado en un libro titulado como Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos, con un subtítulo que sintetiza muy bien su contenido: Vida y muerte bajo el régimen soviético. En sus páginas, Igort narra con una crudeza y una sensibilidad pocas veces vista en historieta los terribles testimonios recogidos sobre la hambruna genocida con la que Stalin sojuzgó al pueblo ucraniano a comienzos de los años 30, y luego da cuenta de la historia de la periodista Anna Politkóvskaya, asesinada por sus denuncias sobre las atrocidades cometidas por el ejercito ruso durante la guerra de Chechenia.

«Tuve que volver a aprender desde cero cómo narrar una historia, porque lo que creía que sabía no me servía», explica Igort. «Joe Sacco, que es un maestro en esto, me preguntó cuánto tiempo había pasado en Ucrania y Rusia, y cuando le dije que habían sido dos años no lo podía creer. "Lo más que estuve en Palestina fue un mes", me contó. Pero la verdad que lo que yo sabía de estas historias después de apenas un mes de estar ahí no me hubiese permitido contar nada de lo que está en el libro. Cuando se trabaja con historias verdaderas hay que esperar que las cosas sucedan, y tratar de entender cómo contarlas... ¡y dibujarlas!».

«Comencé a parar gente en la calle, con un intérprete y una lista de preguntas que no se podían responder con un sí o un no, que los obligaba a contar su historia. Los elegía como un cartógrafo, de acuerdo a las líneas que cruzaban su rostro, trazadas por la vida, por alegrías y tristezas».

Nacido en Cagliari hace 63 años, Igor Tuveri -así es su nombre completo- atiende este llamado desde su hogar en Bolonia, ciudad a la que ha regresado después de un largo periplo por el mundo, durante una larga carrera que lo llevó a vivir en París, Nueva York e incluso en Tokio, dibujando para el mercado japonés. Pero fue allí donde empezó su vida como historietista, hacia fines de los 70 y comienzos de los 80, cuando formaba parte del grupo Valvoline, junto a dibujantes extraordinarios como Lorenzo Mattotti, Giorgio Carpinteri o Daniele Brolli, entre otros. «Eramos jóvenes idiotas», se ríe hoy Igort, que por entonces con sus amigos eran brillantes y famosos dentro del ámbito de la historieta italiana. «Tan idiotas como se puede ser cuando tenés veinte años», insiste el dibujante, que recuerda que en esa ciudad fue también donde dejó los estudios por culpa de José Muñoz y Carlos Sampayo. 

«Se los he dicho a ellos, y no lo pueden creer», dice con una carcajada, y explica que todo sucedió cuando publicó sus primeras historias en la misma revista donde salía Alack Sinner, la obra maestra de la dupla argentina exiliada en Italia. «Yo estaba cursando en la Universidad de Semiótica y Arte que inventó Umberto Eco, y no me olvido jamás el día en que abrí un ejemplar en plena clase y recibí una lección», cuenta. «Ante su historieta pensé: si quiero estar en esta liga, tengo que dejar de perder el tiempo en la universidad y dedicarme a dibujar todos los días. Y eso hice», se ríe Igort, que asegura que Alberto Breccia, Hugo Pratt, Muñoz y Sampayo fueron su verdadera universidad. «Yo soy de Cerdeña, donde la cultura latina y española son muy fuertes. Así que el sentimiento trágico es mi hogar, de alguna manera». 

Amigo de Muñoz, a quien considera como su padre en lo que respecta a la historieta, Igort consiguió que Sampayo le escribiese un guion a medida: la biografía del musico de jazz norteamericano Fats Weller. «Le pedí que escribiese algo para mí cuando yo era más joven, y me entregó una historia ambientada en la noche y niebla del norte de Italia. En esa época estaba obsesionado con sueños de palmeras y del trópico, así que no supe qué hacer con ella: nuestros mundos no encajaban para nada entonces. En cambio con Fats Weller, treinta años más tarde, todo resultó perfecto». Y si Muñoz es como su padre, al que considera como su abuelo -como el tronco principal de un imposible árbol genealógico- es al uruguayo Alberto Breccia. «Para mí es como Einsenstein en el cine: creo que generación tras generación de dibujantes todavía estamos aprendiendo algo de él», se entusiasma. «Me acuerdo que una vez estábamos en la redacción de la revista Linus, donde publicábamos con los Valvoline, y como sabían de nuestra fascinación con Breccia nos mostraron unos originales suyos. Nos asomamos a esas páginas increíbles, en las que había logrado llenar de vida unos pedazos de papel cortados con sus manos, y yo me caí de espaldas... ¡literalmente! Tropecé con Mattotti, que estaba detrás mío y por suerte me sostuvo sino me iba derecho al piso. Nunca me sucedió nada igual, y eso que me he pasado la vida, como dibujante, amigo y también como editor, viendo la obra de cientos de dibujantes». 

Páginas interiores de Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos (Salamandra Graphic).

«Unos quince años atrás, tuve la oportunidad de ayudar a una mujer que había abandonado Moldovia», recuerda Igort, que para cuando empezó a trabajar en los que terminarían siendo sus Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos ya había dirigido varias revistas, y hasta había fundado una editorial, Coconino Press. «Por entonces yo estaba viviendo en una casa grande, así que como tenía una habitación extra me ofrecí a hospedarla. En una de nuestras primeras charlas le dije al pasar algo así como "Yo soy comunista", y ella se me quedó mirando y me contestó, muy seria: "No sabés de lo que estás hablando". Me acuerdo perfectamente de ese momento, porque pensé que en una de esas tenía razón. Después de todo, nuestra visión era idealista, no estaba relacionada con la vida real. Siempre recordé esa frase», asegura el dibujante, que evoca aquella conversación como una forma de contestar a la pregunta sobre si sabía, como izquierdista, qué era lo que se ocultaba detrás de aquel idealismo cuando se fue a vivir aquellos dos años en Ucrania y Rusia. «Mi amiga se llama María Mocano, y antes de partir en ese viaje la llamé y le dije: "Me voy a la Unión Soviética, tal vez ahora entienda lo que me intentaste contar entonces"». 

Lo que Igort entendió una vez que empezó a preguntarles cosas a la gente en las calles ucranianas, es que el pasado seguía muy presente. «Cuando le pregunté qué recordaba de la hambruna, un hombre se quedó petrificado. Me preguntaba todo el tiempo: "¿Quién sos?"», recuerda el dibujante, que cuenta también que al final de la grabación le quiso dar algo de dinero, porque era evidente que lo necesitaba, pero no quería ni tocarlo. Tuvo que ponerle los billetes en la mano, y mantenérsela cerrada hasta que pudiese comprender su intención honesta. «El terror de los métodos estalinistas aún perduraba en él después de todo ese tiempo». El testimonio que más lo conmovió está en el libro, y es -como la mayoría de todos ellos- terrible, e incluso excede el marco de la hambruna stalinista. La historia de Nikolai Vasilievich, un hombre estafado y traicionado, es más bien una historia de pobreza y soledad extrema. «Me acuerdo que el hombre temblaba y lloraba mientras contaba lo que tal vez no le había contado a nadie, y la gente en la plaza donde estábamos hablando se nos empezó a acercar», cuenta Igort. «Nos pidió que nos fuéramos, que necesitaba tranquilizarse. Tres veces sucedió lo mismo, y las tres veces volvimos y nos siguió contando».

Páginas interiores de Cuadernos ucranianos y rusos (Salamandra Graphic).

Al sentarse ante el tablero para dibujar esas historias comprendió ante qué clase de desafío se estaba enfrentando. «Desde un comienzo me dije que no iba a utilizar ningún truco, que iba a contar las cosas tal como habían sido», explica. «Pero el dibujo documental también es, de alguna manera, un truco. Cuando lo dibujé tal cual, o lo que yo creía que era tal cual, descubrí que no transmitía nada parecido a lo que había sentido escuchándolo. Así que tuve que comprender cómo usar todos los recursos de los que disponía como contador de historias para tratar de reproducir esa tensión y esa experiencia». 

Los libros incluidos en la flamante reedición de Salamandra Graphic son dos, Cuadernos ucranianos y Cuadernos rusos. Aunque Igort aclara que la intención original siempre fue que se editasen juntos. «Es un solo libro», resume. «Pero cuando empecé me di cuenta de que, si esperaba terminarlo todo antes de publicarlo, podía llegar a ser demasiado. Se podía convertir en una montaña muy alta para mí». La solución fue de su editor, que le propuso sacar dos libros, uno detrás del otro, según los fuese terminando. «Yo sabía que había más historias para contar, pero cuando terminé esa segunda parte mi mujer me pidió que por favor al menos en los próximos años no hiciese esa clase de libros», cuenta. «Y yo la entendí: es muy difícil convivir con una persona obsesionada por este tipo de abusos y brutalidad humana. Empecé con los Cuadernos japoneses, y fue como un regalo para mí, al poderme concentrar en un mundo tan bello y tan lleno de colores. ¡Recién entonces comprendí por qué Sacco quiso escribir ese libro sobre los Rolling Stones después de su último trabajo sobre Medio Oriente!».

«Como nosotros tuvimos a Mussolini, toda esa retórica de "ser patriota", de "nuestra tierra", no tiene mucho sentido para nosotros. Mussolini nos curó de todo eso, no tenemos ni siquiera las banderas muy a la vista. Así que cuando los ucranianos me hablaban de lo patriotas que eran, yo siempre dudé. Y ahora estamos viendo que efectivamente es así. Yo tengo muchos amigos ucranianos de entre 30 o 40 años, y no veo ninguna posibilidad de que ninguno se vuelva ruso».

El sueño de dibujar Hong Kong, edificios y autos viejos, volver a la ficción después de dos décadas. Ambientada en 1938, con una trama en la que se puede ver a la Segunda Guerra acercándose a lo lejos. «Es un libro que realmente amo hacer», asegura Igort sobre la historieta que estaba dibujando cuando estalló la guerra en Ucrania. «Y por supuesto que la tuve que dejar de lado. Fue como si me hubiesen arrastrado de regreso a todo eso. ¡Como una pesadilla!», se ríe, tratando de aflojar la tensión respecto a un tema que lo tiene realmente preocupado.

«Estuve hablando con Galia Ackerman en estos días», cuenta, refiriéndose a la traductora al francés de Anna Politkovskaya, a la que convirtió en personaje de sus Cuadernos rusos. «Piensa que la cosa es muy seria y que no va a terminar tan fácil. Yo no quisiera pensar como ella, pero supongo que tiene razón», dice quien una década atrás dibujó los horrores de una guerra diferente pero que rápidamente podría ser similar, como la de Chechenia. «Ojalá que Galia y yo estemos equivocados», sacude su cabeza Igort, cuyos primeros pensamientos cuando empezó la invasión fueron hacia sus amigos ucranianos. Lo que sintió después fue la parálisis, la incapacidad de hacer otra cosa salvo leer y escuchar las noticias, y telefonear a la gente que conoce allá, para preguntarles qué es lo que saben, cómo viven, qué necesitan. Y por último la adrenalina de los llamados de los diarios, preguntándole si quería publicar algo al respecto. «Pero no podía hacer nada», confiesa Igort, salvo recopilar información, compartir datos estrictos («como un periodista»), y publicarlos en sus páginas de internet. 

«De noche, cuando todo está en calma, no puedo evitar pensar que toda esta quietud, este silencio, es un lujo que mis amigos en Ucrania no tienen, porque suenan las bombas afuera, porque siempre hay un niño llorando», intenta explicar Igort, que no sabe muy bien qué hacer, que asegura que sus planes cambian cada semana. «Lo que Galia me dijo es que no es una guerra contra Ucrania, sino contra la visión que ellos tienen de Occidente. Que no es retórica, y que no va a detenerse», insiste. Y asegura que otra de las preguntas que se hizo apenas empezó la invasión es si sus amigos serían tan patriotas como decían ser entonces. «Como nosotros tuvimos a Mussolini, toda esa retórica de "ser patriota", de "nuestra tierra", no tiene mucho sentido para nosotros. Mussolini nos curó de todo eso, no tenemos ni siquiera las banderas muy a la vista. Así que cuando los ucranianos me hablaban de lo patriotas que eran, yo siempre dudé. Y ahora estamos viendo que efectivamente es así. Yo tengo muchos amigos ucranianos de entre 30 o 40 años, y no veo ninguna posibilidad de que ninguno se vuelva ruso». 

«Joe Sacco, que es un maestro en esto, me preguntó cuánto tiempo había pasado en Ucrania y Rusia, y cuando le dije que habían sido dos años no lo podía creer. "Lo más que estuve en Palestina fue un mes", me contó. Pero la verdad que lo que yo sabía de estas historias después de apenas un mes de estar ahí no me hubiese permitido contar nada de lo que está en el libro».

Hacia el final de la entrevista, cuando se le pide que resuma el trabajo que hizo en el libro que se acaba de reeditar en castellano, Igort es contundente: «Fue la única vez que sentí que mi trabajo servía para algo. Porque son historias que no son muy conocidas, incluso encontrar los casos de Chechenia fue algo muy difícil, por toda la censura que las rodea», explica. Pero enseguida vuelve sobre el tema que lo preocupa, que lo tiene llamando por teléfono, escuchando historias, tratando de ayudar a sus amigos que tienen familiares o conocidos cada vez mas cerca del frente de batalla. «Cuando empezás a ver cosas como las que estamos viendo, uno empieza a perder la fe en el ser humano, y esto es algo muy trágico. Porque yo realmente amo a la humanidad, soy un gran fan del ser humano. Sigo pensando que la belleza es lo que va a salvar a la humanidad... pero en estos días estamos viendo demasiado dolor y pocas cosas bellas».


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