Fenómenos

Días de fantasmas... y de libros: un recorrido por la novela gótica y de terror

La creencia en lo sobrenatural es tan antigua como el propio mundo. Y está tan extendida que no hay quien escape a su embrujo. En Estados Unidos, la celebración del «truco o trato» se apodera de barrios enteros. Para los británicos, Halloween es una tradición antiquísima: se trataba de una festividad céltica conocida como Samhain. En la Europa cristiana, la Iglesia se apropió de esta festividad y la transformó en el día de Todos los Santos (1 de noviembre) y la noche de Ánimas (31 de octubre). En México, y por toda América del Sur y Central, el día de los Muertos es una fiesta llena de expresividad que se celebra durante los días 1 y 2 de noviembre para recordar y honrar a los espíritus de los difuntos. Y así podíamos seguir por el resto del mundo (China, Japón, los países Nórdicos...). La literatura, claro, no es ajena a este fenómeno... paranormal. En las siguientes líneas, la escritora Jeanette Winterson explica el carácter histórico y antropológico de esta creencia al tiempo que recorre algunos de los hitos más relevantes de la novela gótica y de terror (a través de nombres como Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Shirley Jackson, Stephen King, Mary Shelley, Washington Irving, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Charles Dickens, Horace Walpole, Henry James...). El texto, una introducción a su nuevo libro, «Días de fantasmas» (Lumen, octubre de 2023), es -en efecto- un acercamiento impecable al atractivo de los fantasmas en el imaginario popular, a esos seres que siguen siendo hoy lo que siempre han sido: una respuesta parcial al misterio de la muerte.

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Jeanette Winterson explica aqu\u00ed su origen al tiempo que recorre hitos de la novela de terror a trav\u00e9s de nombres como Edgar Allan Poe, Shirley Jackson, Stephen King, Mary Shelley...","meta_keywords":"Revista Lengua, Jeanette Winterson, libros de terror, novela g\u00f3tica, d\u00edas de fantasmas","short_content":"<p>La creencia en lo sobrenatural es tan antigua como el propio mundo. Y est\u00e1 tan extendida que no hay quien escape a su embrujo. En Estados Unidos, la celebraci\u00f3n del \u00abtruco o trato\u00bb se apodera de barrios enteros. Para los brit\u00e1nicos, Halloween es una tradici\u00f3n antiqu\u00edsima: se trataba de una festividad c\u00e9ltica conocida como Samhain. En la Europa cristiana, la Iglesia se apropi\u00f3 de esta festividad y la transform\u00f3 en el d\u00eda de Todos los Santos (1 de noviembre) y la noche de \u00c1nimas (31 de octubre). En M\u00e9xico, y por toda Am\u00e9rica del Sur y Central, el d\u00eda de los Muertos es una fiesta llena de expresividad que se celebra durante los d\u00edas 1 y 2 de noviembre para recordar y honrar a los esp\u00edritus de los difuntos. Y as\u00ed pod\u00edamos seguir por el resto del mundo (China, Jap\u00f3n, los pa\u00edses N\u00f3rdicos...). La literatura, claro, no es ajena a este fen\u00f3meno... paranormal. En las siguientes l\u00edneas, la escritora Jeanette Winterson explica el car\u00e1cter hist\u00f3rico y antropol\u00f3gico de esta creencia al tiempo que recorre algunos de los hitos m\u00e1s relevantes de la novela g\u00f3tica y de terror (a trav\u00e9s de nombres como Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Shirley Jackson, Stephen King, Mary Shelley, Washington Irving, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Charles Dickens, Horace Walpole, Henry James...). 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Respeta a los fantasmas y los dioses, pero mantente alejado de ellos.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">CONFUCIO<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2ln57zn\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfCrees en los fantasmas?\u00a0<\/p><p>El crujido en la escalera, el fr\u00edo que invade la habitaci\u00f3n, un olor extra\u00f1o, una luz tr\u00e9mula en la ventana. La casa antigua, el ala tapiada, niebla que avanza, almenas en ruinas, oscuridad impenetrable, mudo abandono, la tumba vac\u00eda con su mortaja en descomposici\u00f3n, el lecho h\u00famedo y demasiado blando al tacto. La presencia repentina de una presencia.\u00a0<\/p><p>Al ser humano le fascina su ser espectral.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y es una fascinaci\u00f3n desligada de la creencia en una deidad. A lo largo de la historia, uno de los aspectos curiosos relativos a los fantasmas es la cantidad considerable de personas que creen en su existencia a pesar de no hacerlo en la de ning\u00fan dios.\u00a0<\/p><p>Antes de la Edad Moderna, en los tiempos en que la mayor\u00eda de la gente cre\u00eda en alguna deidad, las entidades sobrenaturales formaban parte l\u00f3gica de la vida. Una vida que se desarrollaba en un mundo visible e invisible al mismo tiempo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Con la secularizaci\u00f3n del mundo, la creencia en lo sobrenatural deber\u00eda haber ido dejando a un lado las ofrendas a duendes y hadas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hemos llegado a la Luna. Vivimos al lado de sistemas operativos de inteligencia artificial (IA) \u2014y cada vez m\u00e1s dentro de ellos\u2014, ya se trate de tu asistente personal de Google o de tu casa dom\u00f3tica. Aun as\u00ed, las fiestas relacionadas con los fantasmas tienen gran aceptaci\u00f3n en todo el mundo.\u00a0<\/p><p>En Estados Unidos, la celebraci\u00f3n del \u00abtruco o trato\u00bb se apodera de calles y barrios enteros, una festividad durante la cual las familias decoran sus hogares con calabazas sonrientes y esqueletos iluminados, con colgaduras negras sobre las puertas y telara\u00f1as blancas que festonean las vallas. Los ni\u00f1os salen a divertirse vestidos con s\u00e1banas a las que se les han practicado agujeros para los ojos, o con disfraces extravagantes comprados en internet, peque\u00f1as pandillas de esp\u00edritus malignos y demonios, esqueletos y espectros ancestrales.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para los brit\u00e1nicos, Halloween es una tradici\u00f3n antiqu\u00edsima. Se remonta a la era precristiana, cuando se trataba de una festividad c\u00e9ltica conocida como Samhain, consagrada al fuego, que se celebraba a principios de noviembre, antes del comienzo del verdadero invierno.<\/p><p>La Iglesia cristiana se apropi\u00f3 de esta festividad y la transform\u00f3 en el d\u00eda de Todos los Santos (1 de noviembre) y la noche de \u00c1nimas (31 de octubre). Los fantasmas, como siempre, son m\u00e1s interesantes que los santos.\u00a0<\/p><p>El elemento ancestral del fuego sigue presente en los farolillos y en las fantasmag\u00f3ricas calabazas vaciadas. En una noche as\u00ed, los muertos podr\u00edan regresar.\u00a0<\/p><p>En M\u00e9xico, y por toda Am\u00e9rica del Sur y Central, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/bajo-el-volcan-malcolm-lowry\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el d\u00eda de los Muertos es una fiesta llena de expresividad<\/a><\/span> que se celebra durante el 1 y el 2 de noviembre para recordar y honrar a los esp\u00edritus de los difuntos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las familias reservan un sitio en la mesa a los parientes que han fallecido recientemente. En los desfiles, que recorren las calles de pueblos y ciudades por igual, conviven el rito de la procesi\u00f3n funeraria y la animaci\u00f3n de los carnavales.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los elaborados disfraces de esqueletos y las calaveras, los trajes de enterrador y los sudarios, la comida de color negro y los portadores de ata\u00fades, tienen la doble funci\u00f3n de dar la bienvenida y ahuyentar a los esp\u00edritus. Las ceremonias formales se\u00f1alan y protegen el breve tiempo durante el que se les permite regresar. Si la puerta se abre, debe cerrarse de nuevo.\u00a0<\/p><p>En China se honra a los muertos con distintos homenajes. En abril se celebra el Qingming (d\u00eda de la Limpieza de Tumbas), ocasi\u00f3n en que las familias escriben cartas a sus antepasados en las que les relatan cuanto ha ocurrido durante los \u00faltimos doce meses. M\u00e1s adelante, hacia mediados del s\u00e9ptimo mes lunar, se celebra el festival de los Fantasmas, una conmemoraci\u00f3n m\u00e1s larga y fastuosa, de ah\u00ed que dicho mes se conozca como el mes de los fantasmas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Estas tradiciones son tan antiguas que ya aparecen recogidas en las cr\u00f3nicas escritas en el a\u00f1o 840 por un peregrino japon\u00e9s.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los fantasmas chinos <em>gu\u012d<\/em> se dividen y subdividen en categor\u00edas muy gr\u00e1ficas como los embaucadores y los pesadillescos. Los fantasmas hambrientos son peque\u00f1os tormentos que se componen a su vez de nueve subtipos espantosos, entre ellos los de aliento de fuego y los de pelo apestoso, quienes justifican la clase a la que pertenecen con un comportamiento antisocial de mil demonios.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los fantasmas cordiales son contad\u00edsimos en China; sin embargo, todos ellos comparten con el resto de fantasmas del mundo, desde la Antig\u00fcedad hasta el presente, la necesidad de la intervenci\u00f3n humana. Los fantasmas regresan por algo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Su aparici\u00f3n puede responder al deseo de dar una sepultura digna al cad\u00e1ver, de manera que el fallecido logre descansar en paz. O a la necesidad de comunicar un mensaje urgente. O a la b\u00fasqueda de venganza, lo que el fantasma del padre de Hamlet ans\u00eda mientras deambula por las almenas azotadas por el viento a la espera de enfrentarse a su hijo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los fantasmas germ\u00e1nicos, islandeses y escandinavos del folclore n\u00f3rdico son esp\u00edritus b\u00e9licos dispuestos a luchar tanto al lado de los mortales como contra ellos a fin de defender un tesoro o reclamar las tierras que consideran suyas. En las antiguas religiones teut\u00f3nicas y pante\u00edsticas, los fantasmas \u00abviven\u00bb en todo tipo de lugares, incluidos los t\u00famulos donde est\u00e1n enterrados.<\/p><p>Estos esp\u00edritus est\u00e1n muy apegados a los sitios por los que sol\u00edan deambular y se aparecen en villas y palacios, a veces incluso se los ve cazando en los bosques. A Od\u00edn, el dios supremo n\u00f3rdico, tambi\u00e9n se lo conoc\u00eda como Draugadr\u00f3ttinn, Se\u00f1or de los Espectros, porque pod\u00eda invocar ej\u00e9rcitos de muertos. Un don muy \u00fatil que tambi\u00e9n aprovech\u00f3 Aragorn, rey de Gondor, en <em>El se\u00f1or de los anillos<\/em>. Es una parte consustancial a las pel\u00edculas y los videojuegos de zombis.<\/p><p>El pasado nunca muere.<\/p><p>Los humanos s\u00ed. Pero \u00bfy luego 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religi\u00f3n puede considerarse la primera empresa emergente subversiva de la humanidad, donde lo que se subvierte es la muerte.\u00a0<\/p><p>La religi\u00f3n promete que la muerte no es el final de la vida. Habr\u00e1 dicha eterna para unos y justicia para otros. Y volveremos a encontrarnos.\u00a0<\/p><p>El reencuentro podr\u00eda suceder antes de lo esperado; y no debido a la muerte s\u00fabita de quienes quedan atr\u00e1s, sino porque quienes han partido regresan de visita. Sin embargo, \u00bfde d\u00f3nde vienen esos esp\u00edritus? \u00bfDe la morada de los justos o del infierno reservado a los malvados? La divisi\u00f3n maniquea entre cielo e infierno no deja espacio suficiente a lo que atormenta a la imaginaci\u00f3n humana m\u00e1s que nada en este mundo: la duda.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfDe verdad eres mi esposa fallecida o un demonio disfrazado de mi esposa?\u00a0<\/p><p>A la Iglesia cat\u00f3lica nunca le han faltado ideas. S\u00ed, tenemos un cielo, un infierno y a sus habitantes, pero \u00bfy si extendemos el territorio?\u00a0<\/p><p>Esta ingeniosa expansi\u00f3n se llev\u00f3 a cabo mediante los conceptos cercanos, aunque no id\u00e9nticos, de purgatorio y limbo.<\/p><p>Dante, en la <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/poesia\/240181-libro-divina-comedia-infierno-purgatorio-paraiso-edicion-bilingue-9788491055235\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Divina Comedia<\/a><\/em> (1320), sit\u00faa el limbo en el primer c\u00edrculo del Infierno. (\u00abLimbo\u00bb proviene del lat\u00edn <em>limbus,<\/em> que significa \u00abborde\u00bb, por tanto, el limbo se encuentra justo en la frontera del infierno, como una urbanizaci\u00f3n elegante demasiado pr\u00f3xima a una zona urbana deprimida en la que no es conveniente poner el pie, repleta de coches en llamas y cuyos habitantes se matan entre ellos).\u00a0<\/p><p>Espacioso, misericordioso y austero, el limbo acog\u00eda a quienes nunca ir\u00edan al cielo, pero tampoco sufrir\u00edan los tormentos del infierno.\u00a0<\/p><p>En el limbo viv\u00edan paganos virtuosos, adem\u00e1s de algunos eruditos isl\u00e1micos. Sus vecinos eran personas no bautizadas, sobre todo beb\u00e9s y ni\u00f1os, quienes supuestamente disfrutaban de cuidados perpetuos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los jud\u00edos virtuosos dispon\u00edan de su propia secci\u00f3n del castillo y los terrenos, aunque cuando Dante se puso a escribir su poema algunos ya hab\u00edan ascendido al cielo. La mudanza la facilit\u00f3 el descenso de Cristo a los infiernos despu\u00e9s de que lo crucificaran y antes de resucitar, una misi\u00f3n para rescatar a algunos de los suyos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y si Jes\u00fas puede entrar, se supone que otros podr\u00e1n 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la Biblia no se menciona el limbo, pero era demasiado \u00fatil para renunciar a \u00e9l, hasta 2007, cuando se le dio el carpetazo definitivo. Los ni\u00f1os que habitaban el limbo fueron realojados en el cielo por decreto papal, aunque no estoy segura de qu\u00e9 ocurri\u00f3 con el resto de residentes evacuados. La Iglesia cat\u00f3lica siempre ha sido due\u00f1a de muchas propiedades, y supongo que el casero tiene derecho a echarte.\u00a0<\/p><p>El purgatorio, en cambio, sigue siendo un destino atractivo que dispone de todo el espacio que los muertos necesitan, aunque, estrictamente hablando, el purgatorio es un proceso, no un lugar. Es un camino de purificaci\u00f3n que implica sufrimiento para el alma, pero siempre puede mitigarse si aqu\u00ed abajo se dispone de suficientes parientes y amigos \u00fatiles, con dinero de sobra.<\/p><p>Las almas que acaban en el purgatorio por culpa de una serie de percances (tambi\u00e9n conocidos como pecados) pueden acortar su estancia mediante misas (pagadas) o donaciones (cuantiosas) a la Iglesia. Mientras tanto, cabe la posibilidad de que esas almas \u2014imagin\u00e9moslas como objetos perdidos temporalmente a la espera de que alguien los reclame\u2014 visiten a sus amigos o enemigos, o se paseen con aire afligido dando un susto de muerte al perro, como siempre han hecho los fantasmas. Pero no son demonios disfrazados. Son tus difuntos. Uf.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tras la Reforma (la llamada al orden que se produjo en 1517; para m\u00e1s informaci\u00f3n, v\u00e9ase Mart\u00edn Lutero), el relato que explicaba ese tipo de fantasmas dio un giro y acab\u00f3 enred\u00e1ndose con la declaraci\u00f3n protestante que aguaba la fiesta, al proclamar que tras la muerte solo exist\u00eda la gloria o el tormento, y que las almas salvadas nunca abandonar\u00edan el cielo de igual forma que las condenadas tampoco el infierno. En resumidas cuentas: si se te aparece tu esposa fallecida, efectivamente se trata de un demonio disfrazado.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los fantasmas normales y corrientes que visitaban a las personas normales y corrientes sufrieron un segundo rev\u00e9s a finales del siglo XVII y de ah\u00ed en adelante, al menos en Occidente, cuando el pensamiento cient\u00edfico (la Ilustraci\u00f3n) empez\u00f3 a dar prioridad a la raz\u00f3n y el escepticismo sobre la fe y la tradici\u00f3n, y a defender los experimentos con resultados repetibles. As\u00ed pues, la visita nocturna de tu esposa fallecida no contaba como resultado repetible, y por tanto no demostraba la existencia de los fantasmas. La aparici\u00f3n no era un demonio, sino una alucinaci\u00f3n causada por la fiebre, la s\u00edfilis, el envenenamiento por plomo, el pan mohoso, haber bebido demasiado o una mala digesti\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cjdwnww\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En la introducci\u00f3n de 2001 a su obra maestra de 1977, <em>El resplandor,<\/em> [Stephen] King cita una conversaci\u00f3n que mantuvo con Stanley Kubrick antes del rodaje de la pel\u00edcula de t\u00edtulo hom\u00f3nimo: En el caso de Jack Torrance, \u00bfqu\u00e9 desencadena el horror que se avecina? \u00bfSus propios demonios? \u00bfO los espectros que habitan el hotel Overlook? Seg\u00fan King: \u00abSiempre he pensado que hab\u00eda esp\u00edritus malignos en el Overlook que condujeron a Jack al precipicio\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"60zxnof\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-7-anos\/331372-ebook-cuento-de-navidad-9788419522610\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cuento de Navidad<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(1843), de Charles Dickens, Scrooge trata de ahuyentar la aparici\u00f3n de su socio fallecido, Jacob Marley, dici\u00e9ndole: \u00abHay en ti m\u00e1s de fritura que de sepultura\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Sin embargo, a pesar de la teolog\u00eda protestante, del materialismo cient\u00edfico o el hecho incontestable de que no puede demostrarse emp\u00edricamente que alguien haya regresado de entre los muertos, los fantasmas no han sido desalojados de su hogar permanente y ancestral: nuestra imaginaci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Fue una magn\u00edfica casa solariega del terror lo que Horace Walpole levant\u00f3 en el siglo XVIII, cuando financi\u00f3 con fondos colectivos una nueva oleada de euforia espectral.\u00a0<\/p><p>La novela de Walpole <em>El castillo de Otranto<\/em> (1764) fue un \u00e9xito de ventas instant\u00e1neo. Todos los atributos fantasmag\u00f3ricos \u2014esta vez con armaduras incluidas\u2014 regresaron estrepitosamente al mercado.\u00a0<\/p><p>Casas encantadas, castillos medievales, monasterios en ruinas, bosques sombr\u00edos, conventos asfixiantes, lugares donde se hab\u00edan producido derramamientos de sangre, amantes malhadados, oscuras encrucijadas, horcas, tumbas, espadas y yelmos, reliquias espeluznantes (v\u00e9ase el catolicismo), retratos con un pasado detr\u00e1s (cuyos modelos al \u00f3leo y lacados desaparecen misteriosamente del marco para rondar el castillo)... Todo esto y mucho m\u00e1s esperaba a los entusiasmados lectores.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"66ld8n6\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"52597nt\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Caricatura coloreada (basada en una ilustraci\u00f3n de Andr\u00e9 Gill) de Charles Dickens, quien aparece con copias encuadernadas de sus obras bajo cada brazo mientras cruza el Canal de la Mancha hacia Francia. La imagen apareci\u00f3 por primera vez en la portada de la edici\u00f3n del 14 de junio de 1868 de la revista <em>L'Eclipse.<\/em> Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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resurgimiento triunfal del fantasma medieval \u2014el nuevo g\u00f3tico\u2014 lleg\u00f3 acompa\u00f1ado de su propio clima: tormentas, niebla, lluvia. De su propia atm\u00f3sfera angustiosa: f\u00edsicamente h\u00fameda, an\u00edmicamente tensa y ps\u00edquicamente calada de miedo.<\/p><p>Abundaban los fen\u00f3menos: las puertas se cerraban de golpe, la vajilla se hac\u00eda a\u00f1icos, las armaduras se estampaban contra el suelo. Los secretos \u2014secretos de familia y pesadillas enterradas\u2014 sal\u00edan a la luz abandonando s\u00f3tanos y mazmorras. Los fantasmas caminaban de nuevo.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abG\u00f3tico\u00bb hace referencia a la arquitectura g\u00f3tica medieval europea: monasterios, castillos, torres con agujas o almenas... motivos y escenarios constantes en estas historias, que siempre est\u00e1n ambientadas en el pasado. Los fantasmas prefieren los tiempos pret\u00e9ritos en que estaban vivos.\u00a0<\/p><p>La nueva locura por los relatos sobrenaturales comenz\u00f3 en Gran Breta\u00f1a, pero se extendi\u00f3 con rapidez. En Alemania, donde el g\u00e9nero empez\u00f3 a incorporar elementos de los inicios de la era de la m\u00e1quina, se denomin\u00f3 Schauerroman (novela escalofriante).\u00a0<\/p><p>Al escritor alem\u00e1n E. T. A. Hoffmann le fascinaban los aut\u00f3matas, y, de manera inevitable, se vio atra\u00eddo por los que parec\u00edan vivos, aquellos en quienes se difuminaban los l\u00edmites entre la biolog\u00eda y la mec\u00e1nica. Su estremecedor relato <em>El hombre de arena<\/em> (1817) reinterpreta y se inspira en la figura del folclore europeo que arroja arena a los ojos de los ni\u00f1os que no quieren dormir. La historia de Hoffmann, a trav\u00e9s del personaje de Olimpia, una aut\u00f3mata con partes humanas (los ojos), plantea la inc\u00f3moda cuesti\u00f3n de qu\u00e9 y qu\u00e9 no es real. \u00bfPuede algo estar vivo, aunque vaya contra natura? Una idea espeluznante a la que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/nombres-propios\/mary-shelley-nacimiento-de-frankenstein\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mary Shelley<\/a><\/span> dio un giro maestro en su novela <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/36628-libro-frankenstein-o-el-moderno-prometeo-9788491050896\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Frankenstein<\/em><\/a><\/span> (1818).\u00a0<\/p><p>Los lectores quer\u00edan m\u00e1s. En poco tiempo, el relato g\u00f3tico de fantasmas alcanz\u00f3 el cach\u00e9 de lectura obligatoria a ambas orillas del Atl\u00e1ntico.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o9vsiov\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Todo el mundo adora la historia de fantasmas de Dickens en cualquier formato, incluida, o quiz\u00e1, sobre todo, la versi\u00f3n de los Tele\u00f1ecos. El relato sabe jugar muy bien con el placer que nos produce pasar un poco de miedo, y al mismo tiempo apela a nuestro deseo de creer que nuestros seres queridos siguen velando por nosotros.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d3xzuyh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En 1820, Washington Irving public\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/grandes-clasicos\/160475-libro-la-leyenda-del-jinete-sin-cabeza-9789876276405\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>La leyenda de Sleepy Hollow<\/em><\/a><\/span>, ambientada en la d\u00e9cada de 1790 en Sleepy Hollow, una colonia neerlandesa muy conocida por sus apariciones sobrenaturales. En el relato encontramos temas caracter\u00edsticos del g\u00f3tico estadounidense, en especial la fuerza oculta que ejerce la propia tierra, cuya sangrienta colonizaci\u00f3n regresa en forma de fen\u00f3menos paranormales.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ambientar un relato de misterio en una \u00e9poca o en un lugar remotos es uno de los recursos preferidos de la novela g\u00f3tica. Nathaniel Hawthorne estaba obsesionado con los primeros colonos puritanos. Su tatarabuelo, John Hathorne, hab\u00eda sido uno de los magistrados que participaron en los infames juicios de Salem, en los que m\u00e1s de doscientas personas fueron acusadas de brujer\u00eda y veinte de ellas sentenciadas a muerte, por lo que Hawthorne intent\u00f3 escapar de su propio pasado cambi\u00e1ndose el apellido.\u00a0<\/p><p>Incorpor\u00f3 a sus historias las fracturas ps\u00edquicas y los remordimientos propios del esp\u00edritu pionero acosado por esp\u00edritus muy distintos. La cuesti\u00f3n es: \u00bfel acoso procede de fantasmas internos o externos?\u00a0<\/p><p>En el imaginario de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1001-edgar-allan-poe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Edgar Allan Poe<\/a><\/span>, tanto la maldad interna como la externa afectan de manera determinante lo sobrenatural. Los humanos no son seres inocentes asediados por fuerzas temibles sobre las que no poseen ning\u00fan control; la psique humana es la puerta que queda abierta.\u00a0<\/p><p>Estos dilemas inquietantes, y sus aterradoras conclusiones, volver\u00e1n a resurgir, mucho m\u00e1s tarde, en la obra de Shirley Jackson y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/stephen-king-por-rodrigo-fresan-holly\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Stephen King<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>En la introducci\u00f3n de 2001 a su obra maestra de 1977, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/34217-libro-el-resplandor-9788466345675\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>El resplandor<\/em><\/a><\/span>, King cita una conversaci\u00f3n que mantuvo con Stanley Kubrick antes del rodaje de la pel\u00edcula de t\u00edtulo hom\u00f3nimo: En el caso de Jack Torrance, \u00bfqu\u00e9 desencadena el horror que se avecina? \u00bfSus propios demonios? \u00bfO los espectros que habitan el hotel Overlook? Seg\u00fan King: \u00abSiempre he pensado que hab\u00eda esp\u00edritus malignos en el Overlook que condujeron a Jack al precipicio\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Esta complicidad entre asediantes y asediados es la premisa de la novela corta de Henry James <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36621-libro-otra-vuelta-de-tuerca-9788491050827\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Otra vuelta de tuerca<\/em><\/a><\/span>. James public\u00f3 su relato en 1898, pero la trama transcurre a\u00f1os atr\u00e1s, en 1840.\u00a0<\/p><p>James sigue el hilo que enlaza la imaginaci\u00f3n humana atormentada con lo que ella misma puede desatar. Lo terrible de los fantasmas de Peter Quint y la se\u00f1orita Jessel es que no sabemos si son reales o si la nueva institutriz es una completa ilusa que se deja cautivar \u2014o m\u00e1s bien seducir\u2014 por el peque\u00f1o Miles.\u00a0<\/p><p>Bly Manor se encuentra en Essex, no en Estados Unidos, pero la historia de James emplea la fuerza del \u00ablugar como personaje\u00bb para revestir la casa y sus alrededores de desasosiego: Bly, con sus ventanas alargadas, oscuras y vigilantes, su yeso h\u00famedo, sus habitaciones vac\u00edas a las que parece molestarles la vida. El lago, fr\u00edo, inm\u00f3vil, cubierto de bruma incluso en verano. La casa en s\u00ed altera la serenidad de quienes la habitan.\u00a0<\/p><p>Escrito sesenta a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/pe\/tematicas\/331084-ebook-cuentos-extraordinarios-edicion-conmemorativa-9788491056874\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La ca\u00edda de la Casa Usher<\/a><\/em><\/span> de Poe, donde la propia casa acaba hundi\u00e9ndose en un lago igual de fr\u00edo, h\u00famedo e inquietante, Bly se alza como una manipuladora rechazada y morbosa que se desmorona. \u00bfLa manipulaci\u00f3n es una manifestaci\u00f3n sobrenatural directa? \u00bfO Bly se alimenta de los lugares encantados que habitan las mentes de sus moradores?\u00a0<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/tematicas\/41208-ebook-la-maldicion-de-hill-house-9786073129114\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La maldici\u00f3n de Hill House<\/a><\/em><\/span> (1959), de Shirley Jackson, hace un uso aterrador del tropo del lugar como personaje. Y la serie de Netflix inspirada en la novela no se aparta de la senda del lugar maldito que sigue ejerciendo su influencia sobre personajes posteriores en tiempos 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pensaba en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/331388-ebook-dias-de-fantasmas-9788426426314\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">mis propios relatos de fantasmas<\/a><\/em><\/span>, sab\u00eda que quer\u00eda escribir alguno en el que el lugar interpretara un papel esencial, aunque tambi\u00e9n me interesa c\u00f3mo una persona puede despertar la naturaleza perversa de un espacio, como ocurre con Jack Torrance en <em>El resplandor.<\/em>\u00a0<\/p><p>Escog\u00ed LUGARES y PERSONAS como dos de mis categor\u00edas y escrib\u00ed tres historias para cada una de ellas. A fin de jugar un poco con la forma, me decid\u00ed por un par de relatos entrelazados: \u00abUn abrigo de piel\u00bb y \u00abBotas\u00bb, que est\u00e1n escritos para ser le\u00eddos en ese orden.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pienso bastante en los muertos \u2014quiz\u00e1 como consecuencia indirecta de mi educaci\u00f3n religiosa\u2014, de manera que en la categor\u00eda de APARICIONES quise darles la oportunidad de expresarse. Otro par de historias entrelazadas nos ofrecen el proceso de luto de un miembro de la pareja seguido del relato del fantasma de su amado.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y a medida que la IA redefine nuestras vidas cada vez m\u00e1s, me pregunto fascinada de qu\u00e9 manera la tecnolog\u00eda inform\u00e1tica redefinir\u00e1 nuestra relaci\u00f3n con la muerte, un tema que exploro en las historias que componen el bloque de DISPOSITIVOS.\u00a0<\/p><p>Entre cada bloque de relatos aparecen algunas intervenciones personales: mis propias experiencias con lo sobrenatural. No puedo explicarlas. Pero tampoco puedo desecharlas sin m\u00e1s.\u00a0<\/p><p>Me gustan las historias de fantasmas, ya se trate de los relatos de M. R. James, quien torc\u00eda lo amable y cotidiano, incluso lo banal, para convertirlo en algo excepcionalmente aterrador, o de Susan Hill y su magn\u00edfica <em>La mujer de negro<\/em>, una obra maestra en el aspecto formal.\u00a0<\/p><p>Una de mis historias de miedo preferidas es <em>La aparici\u00f3n de la se\u00f1ora Veal<\/em> (1706), de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/958-daniel-defoe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Daniel Defoe<\/a><\/span> (el de <em>Robinson Crusoe).<\/em> En realidad, se trata de la primera historia de fantasmas moderna en tanto que la trama se desarrolla en un entorno dom\u00e9stico y acogedor que no augura fen\u00f3menos paranormales. Se aleja bastante de los excesos del fantasma g\u00f3tico que vino a rondarnos cincuenta a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s. La se\u00f1ora Veal no procede del Pasado (siempre con may\u00fascula) ni aparece envuelta en su mortaja. Tiene el aspecto de una mujer de su \u00e9poca con un bonito vestido de seda.\u00a0<\/p><p>El vestido es una parte importante de la historia, y al mismo tiempo plantea la controvertida cuesti\u00f3n de por qu\u00e9 los fantasmas llevan ropa.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los cuerpos humanos son los \u00fanicos que la necesitan. Sin embargo, \u00bfpara qu\u00e9 quiere aparecerse un fantasma si no van a reconocerlo? Las apariciones necesitan que se las vea. Verlas es contextualizarlas en el tiempo, en su propio tiempo. Por tanto, la ropa es \u00fatil. Las prendas que vemos no son corp\u00f3reas (un juego de palabras espantoso, perd\u00f3n), y es probable que solo estemos \u00abviendo\u00bb un paquete de energ\u00eda que viene con ropa incluida. Los fantasmas fueron humanos en alg\u00fan momento y reaparecen tras haber dejado atr\u00e1s su humanidad.<\/p><p>Exactamente lo que hace Dickens en la que quiz\u00e1 sea la historia de fantasmas m\u00e1s famosa de todos los tiempos: <em>Cuento de Navidad.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Dickens se mantuvo fiel al tropo g\u00f3tico de ambientar la historia en el pasado, en este caso en la d\u00e9cada de 1820. El relato arranca en Nochebuena, un buen momento para contar historias de fantasmas. La primera aparici\u00f3n es la del socio de Scrooge, Jacob Marley, fallecido siete a\u00f1os antes justo esa noche. Marley viste como siempre, incluso los botones de la parte posterior del abrigo son visibles sin necesidad de que el espectro se d\u00e9 la vuelta, ya que es transparente.<\/p><p>Todo el mundo adora la historia de fantasmas de Dickens en cualquier formato, incluida, o quiz\u00e1, sobre todo, la versi\u00f3n de los Tele\u00f1ecos. El relato sabe jugar muy bien con el placer que nos produce pasar un poco de miedo, y al mismo tiempo apela a nuestro deseo de creer que nuestros seres queridos siguen velando por nosotros.\u00a0<\/p><p>El gran coraz\u00f3n y la benevolencia de Dickens dieron la vuelta a las historias de fantasmas: convirti\u00f3 una situaci\u00f3n dominada por el miedo y el espanto en una intervenci\u00f3n con una finalidad beneficiosa. El objetivo declarado del fantasma de Marley es salvar a Scrooge de su destino, y aqu\u00ed Dickens juega con la idea del purgatorio \u2014como un proceso de purificaci\u00f3n\u2014 sin necesidad de aburrirnos con la teolog\u00eda cat\u00f3lica. En el imaginario protestante los muertos no mejoran, o vas arriba o vas abajo. Muy poco alentador. Sin embargo, Dickens lo enfoc\u00f3 desde una perspectiva distinta. Marley ha cambiado para mejor y ahora quiere ayudar a su amigo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Esta generosidad de esp\u00edritu est\u00e1 m\u00e1s cerca de las creencias previas a la Reforma, cuando se consideraba que los muertos pod\u00edan intervenir en favor de los vivos, y de hecho lo hac\u00edan; algo preferible, con toda probabilidad, a los ruidos met\u00e1licos siniestros, la sensaci\u00f3n glacial de acecho y las miradas mal\u00e9volas del terror espectral que hemos acabado asociando a los muertos.\u00a0<\/p><p>El proceso de rehabilitar a los muertos desagradecidos ya estaba vigente cuando Dickens escribi\u00f3 <em>Cuento de Navidad.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kij1n9x\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, multitud de dolientes necesitaban creer que no hab\u00edan perdido a sus seres queridos, lo cual foment\u00f3 el auge de las sesiones de espiritismo. El creador de Sherlock Holmes, sir Arthur Conan Doyle, fervoroso espiritista y miembro de la Sociedad para la Investigaci\u00f3n Ps\u00edquica, celebraba charlas por todo el pa\u00eds en las que hablaba sobre los \u00abmuertos susurrantes\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wzhdwd5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La segunda mitad del siglo XIX y las primeras d\u00e9cadas del XX fueron testigos de un desbordante inter\u00e9s por los fantasmas, tal vez para contrarrestar psicol\u00f3gicamente el peso del materialismo industrial.\u00a0<\/p><p>El espiritismo empez\u00f3 a cuajar como seudorreligi\u00f3n donde lo hab\u00eda dejado Emanuel Swedenborg, quien cre\u00eda que los esp\u00edritus deseaban hablar con nosotros y que deb\u00edamos prestarles atenci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>En Estados Unidos, en 1848, las famosas y m\u00e1s tarde infames hermanas Fox aseguraban que su casita de campo en el norte del estado de Nueva York estaba encantada. No tardaron en ofrecerse como m\u00e9diums honestas y empezar a organizar sesiones de espiritismo por todo el pa\u00eds. A pesar de que fueron desenmascaradas y tachadas de estafadoras, la afici\u00f3n de los estadounidenses por comunicarse con los esp\u00edritus no decay\u00f3. A finales de la d\u00e9cada de 1870, lo paranormal era la nueva normalidad.\u00a0<\/p><p>Thomas Edison, el hombre que invent\u00f3 la bombilla, quiso construir una m\u00e1quina que registrara la actividad paranormal. No funcion\u00f3.\u00a0<\/p><p>En 1882, el f\u00edsico brit\u00e1nico William F. Barrett fund\u00f3, entre otros, la Sociedad para la Investigaci\u00f3n Ps\u00edquica, con la esperanza, como Edison, de demostrar, o m\u00e1s probablemente de refutar, los fen\u00f3menos en los que se diera una intervenci\u00f3n sobrenatural. Algunas \u00e1reas de inter\u00e9s de dicha sociedad eran la comunicaci\u00f3n con los esp\u00edritus, la hipnosis, la transmisi\u00f3n del pensamiento, las apariciones o las casas encantadas. El fil\u00f3sofo y psic\u00f3logo estadounidense William James fue uno de sus presidentes. La sociedad sigue en activo y cuenta con gran predicamento.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, multitud de dolientes necesitaban creer que no hab\u00edan perdido a sus seres queridos, lo cual foment\u00f3 el auge de las sesiones de espiritismo. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4598-sir-arthur-conan-doyle\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El creador de Sherlock Holmes, sir Arthur Conan Doyle<\/a><\/span>, fervoroso espiritista y miembro de la Sociedad para la Investigaci\u00f3n Ps\u00edquica, celebraba charlas por todo el pa\u00eds en las que hablaba sobre los \u00abmuertos susurrantes\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Curioso, dado que Conan Doyle era amigo del mago y escapista Harry Houdini, quien se dedicaba a desenmascarar a los m\u00e9diums fraudulentos como actividad suplementaria. Aun as\u00ed, Conan Doyle continu\u00f3 convencido de que, a pesar de las estafas, era posible comunicarse con los 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obra literaria m\u00e1s antigua que se conserva es el <em>Poema de Gilgamesh,<\/em> un texto mesopot\u00e1mico de alrededor de 2000 a.C.\u00a0<\/p><p>Trata sobre la vida despu\u00e9s de la muerte.\u00a0<\/p><p>Gilgamesh es el rey de Uruk. 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No necesitar\u00e1 un cuerpo. Ser\u00e1 como si los dioses se aparecieran a los humanos, como han hecho siempre. Es bastante probable que esos entes incorp\u00f3reos vivan y trabajen junto a entes biol\u00f3gicos. Entes que, en algunos casos, nunca habr\u00e1n sido humanos. Otros ser\u00e1n poshumanos. La muerte, tal como la conocemos, ser\u00e1 algo del pasado.\u00a0<\/p><p>De momento, la muerte es la experiencia vivida por todos nosotros.\u00a0<\/p><p>El atractivo de los fantasmas en el imaginario popular contin\u00faa siendo lo que siempre ha sido: una respuesta parcial al misterio de la muerte.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como dijo Samuel Johnson all\u00e1 por el siglo XVIII: \u00abEst\u00e1 en contra de todo razonamiento, pero cuenta con todo el respaldo de la fe\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"040\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"drxjxp4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/navidad-siniestra-de-jeanette-winterson\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abNavidad siniestra\u00bb, de Jeanette Winterson<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/oppenheimer-y-su-banda-de-hijos-de-puta-el-dia-en-que-la-ciencia-devino-muerte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Oppenheimer y su banda de \u00abhijos de puta\u00bb: el d\u00eda en que la ciencia devino muerte<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/quentin-tarantino-rodrigo-fresan-meditaciones-de-cine\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mon\u00f3logo de Tarantino<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/stephen-king-por-rodrigo-fresan-holly\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Stephen King por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: el Rey y yo<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1v0h2vn\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Roma, julio de 2023. Jeanette Winterson en el festival Letterature, en un acto celebrado en el Parque Arqueológico del Coliseo. Crédito: Getty Images.

Roma, julio de 2023. Jeanette Winterson en el festival Letterature, en un acto celebrado en el Parque Arqueológico del Coliseo. Crédito: Getty Images.

Respeta a los fantasmas y los dioses, pero mantente alejado de ellos. 

CONFUCIO

¿Crees en los fantasmas? 

El crujido en la escalera, el frío que invade la habitación, un olor extraño, una luz trémula en la ventana. La casa antigua, el ala tapiada, niebla que avanza, almenas en ruinas, oscuridad impenetrable, mudo abandono, la tumba vacía con su mortaja en descomposición, el lecho húmedo y demasiado blando al tacto. La presencia repentina de una presencia. 

Al ser humano le fascina su ser espectral. 

Y es una fascinación desligada de la creencia en una deidad. A lo largo de la historia, uno de los aspectos curiosos relativos a los fantasmas es la cantidad considerable de personas que creen en su existencia a pesar de no hacerlo en la de ningún dios. 

Antes de la Edad Moderna, en los tiempos en que la mayoría de la gente creía en alguna deidad, las entidades sobrenaturales formaban parte lógica de la vida. Una vida que se desarrollaba en un mundo visible e invisible al mismo tiempo. 

Con la secularización del mundo, la creencia en lo sobrenatural debería haber ido dejando a un lado las ofrendas a duendes y hadas. 

Hemos llegado a la Luna. Vivimos al lado de sistemas operativos de inteligencia artificial (IA) —y cada vez más dentro de ellos—, ya se trate de tu asistente personal de Google o de tu casa domótica. Aun así, las fiestas relacionadas con los fantasmas tienen gran aceptación en todo el mundo. 

En Estados Unidos, la celebración del «truco o trato» se apodera de calles y barrios enteros, una festividad durante la cual las familias decoran sus hogares con calabazas sonrientes y esqueletos iluminados, con colgaduras negras sobre las puertas y telarañas blancas que festonean las vallas. Los niños salen a divertirse vestidos con sábanas a las que se les han practicado agujeros para los ojos, o con disfraces extravagantes comprados en internet, pequeñas pandillas de espíritus malignos y demonios, esqueletos y espectros ancestrales. 

Para los británicos, Halloween es una tradición antiquísima. Se remonta a la era precristiana, cuando se trataba de una festividad céltica conocida como Samhain, consagrada al fuego, que se celebraba a principios de noviembre, antes del comienzo del verdadero invierno.

La Iglesia cristiana se apropió de esta festividad y la transformó en el día de Todos los Santos (1 de noviembre) y la noche de Ánimas (31 de octubre). Los fantasmas, como siempre, son más interesantes que los santos. 

El elemento ancestral del fuego sigue presente en los farolillos y en las fantasmagóricas calabazas vaciadas. En una noche así, los muertos podrían regresar. 

En México, y por toda América del Sur y Central, el día de los Muertos es una fiesta llena de expresividad que se celebra durante el 1 y el 2 de noviembre para recordar y honrar a los espíritus de los difuntos. 

Las familias reservan un sitio en la mesa a los parientes que han fallecido recientemente. En los desfiles, que recorren las calles de pueblos y ciudades por igual, conviven el rito de la procesión funeraria y la animación de los carnavales. 

Los elaborados disfraces de esqueletos y las calaveras, los trajes de enterrador y los sudarios, la comida de color negro y los portadores de ataúdes, tienen la doble función de dar la bienvenida y ahuyentar a los espíritus. Las ceremonias formales señalan y protegen el breve tiempo durante el que se les permite regresar. Si la puerta se abre, debe cerrarse de nuevo. 

En China se honra a los muertos con distintos homenajes. En abril se celebra el Qingming (día de la Limpieza de Tumbas), ocasión en que las familias escriben cartas a sus antepasados en las que les relatan cuanto ha ocurrido durante los últimos doce meses. Más adelante, hacia mediados del séptimo mes lunar, se celebra el festival de los Fantasmas, una conmemoración más larga y fastuosa, de ahí que dicho mes se conozca como el mes de los fantasmas. 

Estas tradiciones son tan antiguas que ya aparecen recogidas en las crónicas escritas en el año 840 por un peregrino japonés. 

Los fantasmas chinos guĭ se dividen y subdividen en categorías muy gráficas como los embaucadores y los pesadillescos. Los fantasmas hambrientos son pequeños tormentos que se componen a su vez de nueve subtipos espantosos, entre ellos los de aliento de fuego y los de pelo apestoso, quienes justifican la clase a la que pertenecen con un comportamiento antisocial de mil demonios. 

Los fantasmas cordiales son contadísimos en China; sin embargo, todos ellos comparten con el resto de fantasmas del mundo, desde la Antigüedad hasta el presente, la necesidad de la intervención humana. Los fantasmas regresan por algo. 

Su aparición puede responder al deseo de dar una sepultura digna al cadáver, de manera que el fallecido logre descansar en paz. O a la necesidad de comunicar un mensaje urgente. O a la búsqueda de venganza, lo que el fantasma del padre de Hamlet ansía mientras deambula por las almenas azotadas por el viento a la espera de enfrentarse a su hijo. 

Los fantasmas germánicos, islandeses y escandinavos del folclore nórdico son espíritus bélicos dispuestos a luchar tanto al lado de los mortales como contra ellos a fin de defender un tesoro o reclamar las tierras que consideran suyas. En las antiguas religiones teutónicas y panteísticas, los fantasmas «viven» en todo tipo de lugares, incluidos los túmulos donde están enterrados.

Estos espíritus están muy apegados a los sitios por los que solían deambular y se aparecen en villas y palacios, a veces incluso se los ve cazando en los bosques. A Odín, el dios supremo nórdico, también se lo conocía como Draugadróttinn, Señor de los Espectros, porque podía invocar ejércitos de muertos. Un don muy útil que también aprovechó Aragorn, rey de Gondor, en El señor de los anillos. Es una parte consustancial a las películas y los videojuegos de zombis.

El pasado nunca muere.

Los humanos sí. Pero ¿y luego qué?

La religión puede considerarse la primera empresa emergente subversiva de la humanidad, donde lo que se subvierte es la muerte. 

La religión promete que la muerte no es el final de la vida. Habrá dicha eterna para unos y justicia para otros. Y volveremos a encontrarnos. 

El reencuentro podría suceder antes de lo esperado; y no debido a la muerte súbita de quienes quedan atrás, sino porque quienes han partido regresan de visita. Sin embargo, ¿de dónde vienen esos espíritus? ¿De la morada de los justos o del infierno reservado a los malvados? La división maniquea entre cielo e infierno no deja espacio suficiente a lo que atormenta a la imaginación humana más que nada en este mundo: la duda. 

¿De verdad eres mi esposa fallecida o un demonio disfrazado de mi esposa? 

A la Iglesia católica nunca le han faltado ideas. Sí, tenemos un cielo, un infierno y a sus habitantes, pero ¿y si extendemos el territorio? 

Esta ingeniosa expansión se llevó a cabo mediante los conceptos cercanos, aunque no idénticos, de purgatorio y limbo.

Dante, en la Divina Comedia (1320), sitúa el limbo en el primer círculo del Infierno. («Limbo» proviene del latín limbus, que significa «borde», por tanto, el limbo se encuentra justo en la frontera del infierno, como una urbanización elegante demasiado próxima a una zona urbana deprimida en la que no es conveniente poner el pie, repleta de coches en llamas y cuyos habitantes se matan entre ellos). 

Espacioso, misericordioso y austero, el limbo acogía a quienes nunca irían al cielo, pero tampoco sufrirían los tormentos del infierno. 

En el limbo vivían paganos virtuosos, además de algunos eruditos islámicos. Sus vecinos eran personas no bautizadas, sobre todo bebés y niños, quienes supuestamente disfrutaban de cuidados perpetuos. 

Los judíos virtuosos disponían de su propia sección del castillo y los terrenos, aunque cuando Dante se puso a escribir su poema algunos ya habían ascendido al cielo. La mudanza la facilitó el descenso de Cristo a los infiernos después de que lo crucificaran y antes de resucitar, una misión para rescatar a algunos de los suyos. 

Y si Jesús puede entrar, se supone que otros podrán salir... 

En la Biblia no se menciona el limbo, pero era demasiado útil para renunciar a él, hasta 2007, cuando se le dio el carpetazo definitivo. Los niños que habitaban el limbo fueron realojados en el cielo por decreto papal, aunque no estoy segura de qué ocurrió con el resto de residentes evacuados. La Iglesia católica siempre ha sido dueña de muchas propiedades, y supongo que el casero tiene derecho a echarte. 

El purgatorio, en cambio, sigue siendo un destino atractivo que dispone de todo el espacio que los muertos necesitan, aunque, estrictamente hablando, el purgatorio es un proceso, no un lugar. Es un camino de purificación que implica sufrimiento para el alma, pero siempre puede mitigarse si aquí abajo se dispone de suficientes parientes y amigos útiles, con dinero de sobra.

Las almas que acaban en el purgatorio por culpa de una serie de percances (también conocidos como pecados) pueden acortar su estancia mediante misas (pagadas) o donaciones (cuantiosas) a la Iglesia. Mientras tanto, cabe la posibilidad de que esas almas —imaginémoslas como objetos perdidos temporalmente a la espera de que alguien los reclame— visiten a sus amigos o enemigos, o se paseen con aire afligido dando un susto de muerte al perro, como siempre han hecho los fantasmas. Pero no son demonios disfrazados. Son tus difuntos. Uf. 

Tras la Reforma (la llamada al orden que se produjo en 1517; para más información, véase Martín Lutero), el relato que explicaba ese tipo de fantasmas dio un giro y acabó enredándose con la declaración protestante que aguaba la fiesta, al proclamar que tras la muerte solo existía la gloria o el tormento, y que las almas salvadas nunca abandonarían el cielo de igual forma que las condenadas tampoco el infierno. En resumidas cuentas: si se te aparece tu esposa fallecida, efectivamente se trata de un demonio disfrazado. 

Los fantasmas normales y corrientes que visitaban a las personas normales y corrientes sufrieron un segundo revés a finales del siglo XVII y de ahí en adelante, al menos en Occidente, cuando el pensamiento científico (la Ilustración) empezó a dar prioridad a la razón y el escepticismo sobre la fe y la tradición, y a defender los experimentos con resultados repetibles. Así pues, la visita nocturna de tu esposa fallecida no contaba como resultado repetible, y por tanto no demostraba la existencia de los fantasmas. La aparición no era un demonio, sino una alucinación causada por la fiebre, la sífilis, el envenenamiento por plomo, el pan mohoso, haber bebido demasiado o una mala digestión.

En la introducción de 2001 a su obra maestra de 1977, El resplandor, [Stephen] King cita una conversación que mantuvo con Stanley Kubrick antes del rodaje de la película de título homónimo: En el caso de Jack Torrance, ¿qué desencadena el horror que se avecina? ¿Sus propios demonios? ¿O los espectros que habitan el hotel Overlook? Según King: «Siempre he pensado que había espíritus malignos en el Overlook que condujeron a Jack al precipicio».

En Cuento de Navidad (1843), de Charles Dickens, Scrooge trata de ahuyentar la aparición de su socio fallecido, Jacob Marley, diciéndole: «Hay en ti más de fritura que de sepultura». 

Sin embargo, a pesar de la teología protestante, del materialismo científico o el hecho incontestable de que no puede demostrarse empíricamente que alguien haya regresado de entre los muertos, los fantasmas no han sido desalojados de su hogar permanente y ancestral: nuestra imaginación. 

Fue una magnífica casa solariega del terror lo que Horace Walpole levantó en el siglo XVIII, cuando financió con fondos colectivos una nueva oleada de euforia espectral. 

La novela de Walpole El castillo de Otranto (1764) fue un éxito de ventas instantáneo. Todos los atributos fantasmagóricos —esta vez con armaduras incluidas— regresaron estrepitosamente al mercado. 

Casas encantadas, castillos medievales, monasterios en ruinas, bosques sombríos, conventos asfixiantes, lugares donde se habían producido derramamientos de sangre, amantes malhadados, oscuras encrucijadas, horcas, tumbas, espadas y yelmos, reliquias espeluznantes (véase el catolicismo), retratos con un pasado detrás (cuyos modelos al óleo y lacados desaparecen misteriosamente del marco para rondar el castillo)... Todo esto y mucho más esperaba a los entusiasmados lectores.

Caricatura coloreada (basada en una ilustración de André Gill) de Charles Dickens, quien aparece con copias encuadernadas de sus obras bajo cada brazo mientras cruza el Canal de la Mancha hacia Francia. La imagen apareció por primera vez en la portada de la edición del 14 de junio de 1868 de la revista L'Eclipse. Crédito: Getty Images.

Caricatura coloreada (basada en una ilustración de André Gill) de Charles Dickens, quien aparece con copias encuadernadas de sus obras bajo cada brazo mientras cruza el Canal de la Mancha hacia Francia. La imagen apareció por primera vez en la portada de la edición del 14 de junio de 1868 de la revista L'Eclipse. Crédito: Getty Images.

El resurgimiento triunfal del fantasma medieval —el nuevo gótico— llegó acompañado de su propio clima: tormentas, niebla, lluvia. De su propia atmósfera angustiosa: físicamente húmeda, anímicamente tensa y psíquicamente calada de miedo.

Abundaban los fenómenos: las puertas se cerraban de golpe, la vajilla se hacía añicos, las armaduras se estampaban contra el suelo. Los secretos —secretos de familia y pesadillas enterradas— salían a la luz abandonando sótanos y mazmorras. Los fantasmas caminaban de nuevo. 

«Gótico» hace referencia a la arquitectura gótica medieval europea: monasterios, castillos, torres con agujas o almenas... motivos y escenarios constantes en estas historias, que siempre están ambientadas en el pasado. Los fantasmas prefieren los tiempos pretéritos en que estaban vivos. 

La nueva locura por los relatos sobrenaturales comenzó en Gran Bretaña, pero se extendió con rapidez. En Alemania, donde el género empezó a incorporar elementos de los inicios de la era de la máquina, se denominó Schauerroman (novela escalofriante). 

Al escritor alemán E. T. A. Hoffmann le fascinaban los autómatas, y, de manera inevitable, se vio atraído por los que parecían vivos, aquellos en quienes se difuminaban los límites entre la biología y la mecánica. Su estremecedor relato El hombre de arena (1817) reinterpreta y se inspira en la figura del folclore europeo que arroja arena a los ojos de los niños que no quieren dormir. La historia de Hoffmann, a través del personaje de Olimpia, una autómata con partes humanas (los ojos), plantea la incómoda cuestión de qué y qué no es real. ¿Puede algo estar vivo, aunque vaya contra natura? Una idea espeluznante a la que Mary Shelley dio un giro maestro en su novela Frankenstein (1818). 

Los lectores querían más. En poco tiempo, el relato gótico de fantasmas alcanzó el caché de lectura obligatoria a ambas orillas del Atlántico.

Todo el mundo adora la historia de fantasmas de Dickens en cualquier formato, incluida, o quizá, sobre todo, la versión de los Teleñecos. El relato sabe jugar muy bien con el placer que nos produce pasar un poco de miedo, y al mismo tiempo apela a nuestro deseo de creer que nuestros seres queridos siguen velando por nosotros.

En 1820, Washington Irving publicó La leyenda de Sleepy Hollow, ambientada en la década de 1790 en Sleepy Hollow, una colonia neerlandesa muy conocida por sus apariciones sobrenaturales. En el relato encontramos temas característicos del gótico estadounidense, en especial la fuerza oculta que ejerce la propia tierra, cuya sangrienta colonización regresa en forma de fenómenos paranormales. 

Ambientar un relato de misterio en una época o en un lugar remotos es uno de los recursos preferidos de la novela gótica. Nathaniel Hawthorne estaba obsesionado con los primeros colonos puritanos. Su tatarabuelo, John Hathorne, había sido uno de los magistrados que participaron en los infames juicios de Salem, en los que más de doscientas personas fueron acusadas de brujería y veinte de ellas sentenciadas a muerte, por lo que Hawthorne intentó escapar de su propio pasado cambiándose el apellido. 

Incorporó a sus historias las fracturas psíquicas y los remordimientos propios del espíritu pionero acosado por espíritus muy distintos. La cuestión es: ¿el acoso procede de fantasmas internos o externos? 

En el imaginario de Edgar Allan Poe, tanto la maldad interna como la externa afectan de manera determinante lo sobrenatural. Los humanos no son seres inocentes asediados por fuerzas temibles sobre las que no poseen ningún control; la psique humana es la puerta que queda abierta. 

Estos dilemas inquietantes, y sus aterradoras conclusiones, volverán a resurgir, mucho más tarde, en la obra de Shirley Jackson y Stephen King

En la introducción de 2001 a su obra maestra de 1977, El resplandor, King cita una conversación que mantuvo con Stanley Kubrick antes del rodaje de la película de título homónimo: En el caso de Jack Torrance, ¿qué desencadena el horror que se avecina? ¿Sus propios demonios? ¿O los espectros que habitan el hotel Overlook? Según King: «Siempre he pensado que había espíritus malignos en el Overlook que condujeron a Jack al precipicio». 

Esta complicidad entre asediantes y asediados es la premisa de la novela corta de Henry James Otra vuelta de tuerca. James publicó su relato en 1898, pero la trama transcurre años atrás, en 1840. 

James sigue el hilo que enlaza la imaginación humana atormentada con lo que ella misma puede desatar. Lo terrible de los fantasmas de Peter Quint y la señorita Jessel es que no sabemos si son reales o si la nueva institutriz es una completa ilusa que se deja cautivar —o más bien seducir— por el pequeño Miles. 

Bly Manor se encuentra en Essex, no en Estados Unidos, pero la historia de James emplea la fuerza del «lugar como personaje» para revestir la casa y sus alrededores de desasosiego: Bly, con sus ventanas alargadas, oscuras y vigilantes, su yeso húmedo, sus habitaciones vacías a las que parece molestarles la vida. El lago, frío, inmóvil, cubierto de bruma incluso en verano. La casa en sí altera la serenidad de quienes la habitan. 

Escrito sesenta años después que La caída de la Casa Usher de Poe, donde la propia casa acaba hundiéndose en un lago igual de frío, húmedo e inquietante, Bly se alza como una manipuladora rechazada y morbosa que se desmorona. ¿La manipulación es una manifestación sobrenatural directa? ¿O Bly se alimenta de los lugares encantados que habitan las mentes de sus moradores? 

La maldición de Hill House (1959), de Shirley Jackson, hace un uso aterrador del tropo del lugar como personaje. Y la serie de Netflix inspirada en la novela no se aparta de la senda del lugar maldito que sigue ejerciendo su influencia sobre personajes posteriores en tiempos futuros.

Fotograma de El Resplandor (1980), adaptación de Stanley Kubrick del libro de Stephen King. En la imagen, Wendy Torrance, interpretada por Shelley Duvall. Crédito: Getty Images.

Fotograma de El Resplandor (1980), adaptación de Stanley Kubrick del libro de Stephen King. En la imagen, Wendy Torrance, interpretada por Shelley Duvall. Crédito: Getty Images.

Cuando pensaba en mis propios relatos de fantasmas, sabía que quería escribir alguno en el que el lugar interpretara un papel esencial, aunque también me interesa cómo una persona puede despertar la naturaleza perversa de un espacio, como ocurre con Jack Torrance en El resplandor. 

Escogí LUGARES y PERSONAS como dos de mis categorías y escribí tres historias para cada una de ellas. A fin de jugar un poco con la forma, me decidí por un par de relatos entrelazados: «Un abrigo de piel» y «Botas», que están escritos para ser leídos en ese orden. 

Pienso bastante en los muertos —quizá como consecuencia indirecta de mi educación religiosa—, de manera que en la categoría de APARICIONES quise darles la oportunidad de expresarse. Otro par de historias entrelazadas nos ofrecen el proceso de luto de un miembro de la pareja seguido del relato del fantasma de su amado. 

Y a medida que la IA redefine nuestras vidas cada vez más, me pregunto fascinada de qué manera la tecnología informática redefinirá nuestra relación con la muerte, un tema que exploro en las historias que componen el bloque de DISPOSITIVOS. 

Entre cada bloque de relatos aparecen algunas intervenciones personales: mis propias experiencias con lo sobrenatural. No puedo explicarlas. Pero tampoco puedo desecharlas sin más. 

Me gustan las historias de fantasmas, ya se trate de los relatos de M. R. James, quien torcía lo amable y cotidiano, incluso lo banal, para convertirlo en algo excepcionalmente aterrador, o de Susan Hill y su magnífica La mujer de negro, una obra maestra en el aspecto formal. 

Una de mis historias de miedo preferidas es La aparición de la señora Veal (1706), de Daniel Defoe (el de Robinson Crusoe). En realidad, se trata de la primera historia de fantasmas moderna en tanto que la trama se desarrolla en un entorno doméstico y acogedor que no augura fenómenos paranormales. Se aleja bastante de los excesos del fantasma gótico que vino a rondarnos cincuenta años después. La señora Veal no procede del Pasado (siempre con mayúscula) ni aparece envuelta en su mortaja. Tiene el aspecto de una mujer de su época con un bonito vestido de seda. 

El vestido es una parte importante de la historia, y al mismo tiempo plantea la controvertida cuestión de por qué los fantasmas llevan ropa. 

Los cuerpos humanos son los únicos que la necesitan. Sin embargo, ¿para qué quiere aparecerse un fantasma si no van a reconocerlo? Las apariciones necesitan que se las vea. Verlas es contextualizarlas en el tiempo, en su propio tiempo. Por tanto, la ropa es útil. Las prendas que vemos no son corpóreas (un juego de palabras espantoso, perdón), y es probable que solo estemos «viendo» un paquete de energía que viene con ropa incluida. Los fantasmas fueron humanos en algún momento y reaparecen tras haber dejado atrás su humanidad.

Exactamente lo que hace Dickens en la que quizá sea la historia de fantasmas más famosa de todos los tiempos: Cuento de Navidad. 

Dickens se mantuvo fiel al tropo gótico de ambientar la historia en el pasado, en este caso en la década de 1820. El relato arranca en Nochebuena, un buen momento para contar historias de fantasmas. La primera aparición es la del socio de Scrooge, Jacob Marley, fallecido siete años antes justo esa noche. Marley viste como siempre, incluso los botones de la parte posterior del abrigo son visibles sin necesidad de que el espectro se dé la vuelta, ya que es transparente.

Todo el mundo adora la historia de fantasmas de Dickens en cualquier formato, incluida, o quizá, sobre todo, la versión de los Teleñecos. El relato sabe jugar muy bien con el placer que nos produce pasar un poco de miedo, y al mismo tiempo apela a nuestro deseo de creer que nuestros seres queridos siguen velando por nosotros. 

El gran corazón y la benevolencia de Dickens dieron la vuelta a las historias de fantasmas: convirtió una situación dominada por el miedo y el espanto en una intervención con una finalidad beneficiosa. El objetivo declarado del fantasma de Marley es salvar a Scrooge de su destino, y aquí Dickens juega con la idea del purgatorio —como un proceso de purificación— sin necesidad de aburrirnos con la teología católica. En el imaginario protestante los muertos no mejoran, o vas arriba o vas abajo. Muy poco alentador. Sin embargo, Dickens lo enfocó desde una perspectiva distinta. Marley ha cambiado para mejor y ahora quiere ayudar a su amigo. 

Esta generosidad de espíritu está más cerca de las creencias previas a la Reforma, cuando se consideraba que los muertos podían intervenir en favor de los vivos, y de hecho lo hacían; algo preferible, con toda probabilidad, a los ruidos metálicos siniestros, la sensación glacial de acecho y las miradas malévolas del terror espectral que hemos acabado asociando a los muertos. 

El proceso de rehabilitar a los muertos desagradecidos ya estaba vigente cuando Dickens escribió Cuento de Navidad.

Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, multitud de dolientes necesitaban creer que no habían perdido a sus seres queridos, lo cual fomentó el auge de las sesiones de espiritismo. El creador de Sherlock Holmes, sir Arthur Conan Doyle, fervoroso espiritista y miembro de la Sociedad para la Investigación Psíquica, celebraba charlas por todo el país en las que hablaba sobre los «muertos susurrantes».

La segunda mitad del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del XX fueron testigos de un desbordante interés por los fantasmas, tal vez para contrarrestar psicológicamente el peso del materialismo industrial. 

El espiritismo empezó a cuajar como seudorreligión donde lo había dejado Emanuel Swedenborg, quien creía que los espíritus deseaban hablar con nosotros y que debíamos prestarles atención. 

En Estados Unidos, en 1848, las famosas y más tarde infames hermanas Fox aseguraban que su casita de campo en el norte del estado de Nueva York estaba encantada. No tardaron en ofrecerse como médiums honestas y empezar a organizar sesiones de espiritismo por todo el país. A pesar de que fueron desenmascaradas y tachadas de estafadoras, la afición de los estadounidenses por comunicarse con los espíritus no decayó. A finales de la década de 1870, lo paranormal era la nueva normalidad. 

Thomas Edison, el hombre que inventó la bombilla, quiso construir una máquina que registrara la actividad paranormal. No funcionó. 

En 1882, el físico británico William F. Barrett fundó, entre otros, la Sociedad para la Investigación Psíquica, con la esperanza, como Edison, de demostrar, o más probablemente de refutar, los fenómenos en los que se diera una intervención sobrenatural. Algunas áreas de interés de dicha sociedad eran la comunicación con los espíritus, la hipnosis, la transmisión del pensamiento, las apariciones o las casas encantadas. El filósofo y psicólogo estadounidense William James fue uno de sus presidentes. La sociedad sigue en activo y cuenta con gran predicamento. 

Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, multitud de dolientes necesitaban creer que no habían perdido a sus seres queridos, lo cual fomentó el auge de las sesiones de espiritismo. El creador de Sherlock Holmes, sir Arthur Conan Doyle, fervoroso espiritista y miembro de la Sociedad para la Investigación Psíquica, celebraba charlas por todo el país en las que hablaba sobre los «muertos susurrantes». 

Curioso, dado que Conan Doyle era amigo del mago y escapista Harry Houdini, quien se dedicaba a desenmascarar a los médiums fraudulentos como actividad suplementaria. Aun así, Conan Doyle continuó convencido de que, a pesar de las estafas, era posible comunicarse con los espíritus.

Edgar Allan Poe en una ilustración de 1964. Crédito: Getty Images.

Edgar Allan Poe en una ilustración de 1964. Crédito: Getty Images.

La obra literaria más antigua que se conserva es el Poema de Gilgamesh, un texto mesopotámico de alrededor de 2000 a.C. 

Trata sobre la vida después de la muerte. 

Gilgamesh es el rey de Uruk. Enkidu es un salvaje que se convierte en su mejor amigo. 

Tras una serie de aventuras, Enkidu halla la muerte. El fallecimiento de su compañero deja desconsolado a Gilgamesh, quien lo vela durante tanto tiempo que un gusano acaba asomando por la nariz del cadáver. 

A partir de ese momento, el rey de Uruk emprende un viaje por el más allá y el inframundo en busca de su amigo, y en su periplo debe atravesar un túnel totalmente a oscuras por el que ha de correr durante veinticuatro horas a fin de ganar al sol, antes de que este se ponga. 

Y me vienen a la memoria unos versos del poema «A su esquiva amada», de Andrew Marvell, y su visión seductora de la muerte: «Aunque no podamos detener nuestro sol, al menos lo obligaremos a correr». Marvell no podía saber de la existencia de Gilgamesh, dado que las tablillas se descubrieron en Nínive a principios de la década de 1850 y Marvell escribió su poema antes de 1681, pero... ¿y si cuando se aproxima nuestra puesta de sol solo nos queda acelerar el paso para dejar atrás a la muerte? La nueva empresa emergente que pretende subvertir la muerte no es la religión. Lo que quizá permita a los humanos dejarla atrás es la potencia informática. 

Lo que promete este fantasma tardío en la máquina es que una máquina será capaz de blindar tu fantasma. Los humanos podrán cargar su mente y descargarla a continuación, a voluntad, en un cuerpo a medida, humano o animal (recordemos los mitos en que se adoptaba la forma de un águila o un zorro), o continuar pasando el rato como un ente incorpóreo. Tan fresca. 

Por primera vez en la historia de la humanidad, la ciencia y la religión, esas antiguas enemigas, se hacen la misma pregunta: ¿la conciencia está supeditada a la materialidad? 

La religión siempre ha dicho: «¡No!». 

La ciencia siempre ha dicho: «¡Sí!». 

Antes de que Mary Shelley partiera rumbo al lago Lemán, donde concibió su Frankenstein, asistió a una charla impartida por el doctor William Lawrence, el médico de su marido, Percy Shelley. Lawrence defendía que el alma no existe, que los humanos no tenemos un «valor sobreañadido». 

Y esa sería la versión reducida de la ciencia versus el alma.

¿Y ahora?

Henry James a ojos del pintor John Singer Sargent (año 1913). Crédito: Getty Images.

Henry James a ojos del pintor John Singer Sargent (año 1913). Crédito: Getty Images.

Me pregunto si no habremos estado contando la historia al revés. Si sabíamos que éramos algo más que sangre y huesos y que un día venceríamos a la muerte, aunque no yendo al cielo ni reencarnándonos, sino cargándonos en un sustrato que no está hecho de carne. 

El significado de estar «vivo» irá más allá de lo meramente biológico. El significado de estar «muerto» corresponderá a un estado temporal. 

¿Y el de «fantasma»? 

Quizá sea el de alguien que decide no volver a descargarse en un «yo» físico. Nos comunicaremos con ese tipo de entes a través de una interfaz cerebro-máquina, un chip implantado en el cerebro. Es la versión moderna de la telepatía. Una aparición poshumana. 

¿Y si la IA se vuelve sintiente? ¿Y si la inteligencia artificial se convierte en una inteligencia alternativa? Entonces nos acechará algo nuevo... o no tan nuevo. No necesitará un cuerpo. Será como si los dioses se aparecieran a los humanos, como han hecho siempre. Es bastante probable que esos entes incorpóreos vivan y trabajen junto a entes biológicos. Entes que, en algunos casos, nunca habrán sido humanos. Otros serán poshumanos. La muerte, tal como la conocemos, será algo del pasado. 

De momento, la muerte es la experiencia vivida por todos nosotros. 

El atractivo de los fantasmas en el imaginario popular continúa siendo lo que siempre ha sido: una respuesta parcial al misterio de la muerte. 

Como dijo Samuel Johnson allá por el siglo XVIII: «Está en contra de todo razonamiento, pero cuenta con todo el respaldo de la fe».