Literatura

Sylvia Plath por Mariana Enríquez: la mujer que lo ha sido todo para todos

Antes de la Sylvia Plath de «La campana de cristal», una Sylvia treintañera sumida en un profundo sufrimiento que le llevó a quitarse la vida hace ahora seis décadas (el 11 de febrero de 1963), existió la Sylvia Plath de «Mary Ventura y el noveno reino», una Sylvia veinteañera llena de expectativas y ambiciones. Si bien la angustia y la depresión fueron constantes en su vida, en su temprana adultez la autora vivió un periodo apacible lleno de posibilidades y latencia. Unos años de transformación en los que Sylvia Plath pudo descubrirse como escritora y como mujer. Reflejo de este tiempo es su relato «Mary Ventura y el noveno reino», un texto hasta hace poco desconocido que nos ofrece un atisbo de esa joven Sylvia que aún buscaba su voz. En este epílogo a la obra editada por Random House (e ilustrada por Mònica Bonet), la argentina Mariana Enríquez retrata el universo que oculta este relato, un universo excepcional, turbulento y complejo a la altura de la gran Sylvia Plath.

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En este texto, la autora Mariana Enr\u00edquez ilustra el complejo y excepcional universo que oculta este relato.","meta_keywords":"Penguin Libros, Revista Lengua, Sylvia Plath, Mary Ventura y el noveno reino, Mariana Enr\u00edquez","short_content":"<p>Antes de la Sylvia Plath de \u00abLa campana de cristal\u00bb, una Sylvia treinta\u00f1era sumida en un profundo sufrimiento que le llev\u00f3 a quitarse la vida hace\u00a0ahora seis d\u00e9cadas (el 11 de febrero de 1963), existi\u00f3 la Sylvia Plath de \u00abMary Ventura y el noveno reino\u00bb, una Sylvia veintea\u00f1era llena de expectativas y ambiciones. Si bien la angustia y la depresi\u00f3n fueron constantes en su vida, en su temprana adultez la autora vivi\u00f3 un periodo apacible lleno de posibilidades y latencia. Unos a\u00f1os de transformaci\u00f3n en los que Sylvia Plath pudo descubrirse como escritora y como mujer. Reflejo de este tiempo es su relato \u00abMary Ventura y el noveno reino\u00bb, un texto hasta hace poco desconocido que nos ofrece un atisbo de esa joven Sylvia que a\u00fan buscaba su voz. En este ep\u00edlogo a la obra editada por Random House (e ilustrada por M\u00f2nica Bonet), la argentina Mariana Enr\u00edquez retrata el universo que oculta este relato, un universo excepcional, turbulento y complejo a la altura de la gran Sylvia 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1952, cuando ten\u00eda veinte a\u00f1os,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/924-sylvia-plath\\\"><span>Sylvia Plath<\/span><\/a><\/span>\u00a0estudiaba en el\u00a0Smith College, una universidad privada exclusiva para mujeres de Massachusetts. Ingres\u00f3 en septiembre de 1950: poco antes, hab\u00eda escrito en su diario: \u00abCreo que me gustar\u00eda llamarme \\\"la chica que quer\u00eda ser Dios\\\"\u00bb. Estaba llena de expectativas y de ambici\u00f3n, pero tambi\u00e9n de inseguridades: hab\u00eda ganado una beca de 1.300 d\u00f3lares, y quer\u00eda demostrar que se la merec\u00eda. Para esa \u00e9poca ya escrib\u00eda y hab\u00eda sido publicada, casi exclusivamente, en las revistas\u00a0<em>Mademoiselle<\/em>\u00a0y\u00a0<em>Seventeen<\/em>: su vida se repart\u00eda entre cuidar de ni\u00f1os durante el verano, romances algo problem\u00e1ticos y las preocupaciones acad\u00e9micas. Por debajo de esa vida apacible, sin embargo, lat\u00eda una angustia difusa y una depresi\u00f3n que no era solo intensidad adolescente, sino se\u00f1ales del sufrimiento ps\u00edquico que la acompa\u00f1ar\u00eda hasta el fin de su vida. Pero este periodo, el que va entre su ingreso a en educaci\u00f3n superior y su primer intento de suicidio \u2013y luego, la edici\u00f3n de la novela\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37177-libro-la-campana-de-cristal-9788439736349\\\"><span><em>La campana de cristal<\/em><\/span><\/a><\/span>, que registra su derrumbe psicol\u00f3gico\u2013, es un momento de posibilidad y latencia, en el que Sylvia Plath descubr\u00eda y exploraba qu\u00e9 tipo de escritora y qu\u00e9 clase de mujer llegar\u00eda a ser.<\/p><p>Ganaba un poco de dinero, no mucho, gracias a los relatos que vend\u00eda a revistas. En 1952, por ejemplo, le vendi\u00f3 a<em>\u00a0Seventeen<\/em>\u00a0dos cuentos y cinco poemas por 225 d\u00f3lares. Y tambi\u00e9n gan\u00f3 el premio del concurso de relatos de<em>\u00a0Mademoiselle<\/em>, dotado con 500 d\u00f3lares, una peque\u00f1a fortuna para alguien tan joven. El cuento premiado fue\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.larazon.es\/cultura\/20211206\/pqgklcqj7nevffj5cntcrnag6e.html\\\"><em>Domingo en la casa de los Minton<\/em><\/a><\/span>\u00a0y le dio un impulso tremendo. Su bi\u00f3grafa\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Lindsay_Wagner\\\">Lindsay Wagner-Martin<\/a><\/span>\u00a0afirma que en aquel verano, tras la publicaci\u00f3n de\u00a0<em>Domingo...<\/em>, \u00abSylvia Plath se hizo 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es extra\u00f1o, entonces, que casi inmediatamente despu\u00e9s le enviase a la revista\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/37178-libro-mary-ventura-y-el-noveno-reino-9788439736356\\\">\u00abMary Ventura y el noveno reino\u00bb<\/a><\/span>, este relato que por primera vez se publica en espa\u00f1ol y que reci\u00e9n se conoci\u00f3 en ingl\u00e9s en enero de 2019, poco despu\u00e9s de que lo hallara entre los archivos de Sylvia la cr\u00edtica y acad\u00e9mica Judith Glazer-Raymo.\u00a0<em>Mademoiselle<\/em>\u00a0lo rechaz\u00f3. Sylvia juguete\u00f3 con revisarlo, le cambi\u00f3 el final, pero lo cierto es que estuvo por d\u00e9cadas entre sus papeles y pocos sab\u00edan de su existencia. El cuento claramente le gustaba, lo envi\u00f3 para ser publicado a una revista que la hab\u00eda premiado; pero el rechazo no le doli\u00f3 demasiado o al menos no lo registra como importante ni en sus diarios ni en las cartas a su madre, Aurelia (en estos a\u00f1os la correspondencia entre ambas era constante). As\u00ed que \u00abMary Ventura y el noveno reino\u00bb<i>\u00a0<\/i>es un hallazgo que viene a sumar una pieza m\u00e1s al rompecabezas de esta mujer que lo ha sido todo para todos. Biograf\u00edas, pel\u00edculas, innumerables estudios cr\u00edticos y hasta una \u00f3pera sobre su vida y su obra se complementan con ediciones de sus cartas, sus diarios y todos sus relatos, su tesis y sus libros infantiles. Al mismo tiempo, su figura va mutando: la escritora desgarrada entre la domesticidad idealizada de la \u00e9poca que le toc\u00f3 vivir y su propia personalidad oscura, algo salvaje; la pionera feminista, la enferma mental, la mujer destruida por un hombre tormentoso y cruel, la madre suicida, la v\u00edctima, la hero\u00edna, la abandonada. En su fant\u00e1stico libro de 1993,<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\">\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.lavanguardia.com\/libros\/libro\/la-mujer-en-silencio-9788416919222\\\"><em>La mujer en silencio<\/em><\/a><\/span>, la periodista y cr\u00edtica literaria\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Janet_Malcolm\\\">Janet Malcolm<\/a><\/span>\u00a0la usaba como ejemplo sobre la imposibilidad de escribir una biograf\u00eda. Y agregaba: \u00abEl modo en que la ni\u00f1a bien alimentada y rubia en Estados Unidos se convirti\u00f3 en la mujer delgada y blanca en Europa que escribi\u00f3 poemas como \u00abLady Lazarus\u00bb (\u00abMorir \/ es un arte, como todo. Yo lo hago excepcionalmente bien\u00bb) sigue siendo un enigma de la historia literaria, un enigma que est\u00e1 en el n\u00facleo de la urgencia nerviosa que impulsa la empresa biogr\u00e1fica de Plath y de la fascinaci\u00f3n que la leyenda de Plath ejerce sobre nuestra 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ya es imposible leer cualquier texto de Plath dejando de lado su mito. Sin embargo, hay que pensar que este cuento se escribi\u00f3 antes de que ella fuese redactora invitada de<em>\u00a0Mademoiselle<\/em>, experiencia que recrea en\u00a0<em>La campana de cristal<\/em>\u00a0y, por supuesto, antes de conocer a\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ted_Hughes\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Ted Hughes<\/span>\u00a0<\/a>en Inglaterra, su Heathcliff, su sue\u00f1o y su pesadilla. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-aixa-de-la-cruz-una-terapia-de-choque\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Esta es otra Sylvia: una alumna brillante, una joven triste y desbordada<\/a><\/span>, una escritora en busca de su voz. Escribe Malcolm: \u00abUna persona que muere a los treinta a\u00f1os, en pleno desconcierto de una separaci\u00f3n, permanece fija para siempre en ese desconcierto\u00bb. Esto era muy cierto en 1993, cuando public\u00f3 su libro. 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La trama es tenue, sencilla e inquietante: una joven, Mary (el nombre es el de una amiga de secundaria de Sylvia, a quien admiraba por su car\u00e1cter \u00abvital, una modelo de artista\u00bb), es obligada por sus padres a tomar un tren. \u00abYa sabes c\u00f3mo son los trenes. No esperan\u00bb, dice el padre, cuya implacable insistencia es sospechosa. Una vez ubicada con su maleta, Mary tiene sensaciones contradictorias respecto al viaje. No quiere hacerlo, no est\u00e1 claro por qu\u00e9, pero pronto se deja seducir por los lujos del vag\u00f3n comedor, los mullidos divanes rojos, los pasajeros que comen \u00abmanzanas y ciruelas y uvas de invernadero de los cuencos de fruta repartidos por las lustrosas mesas de madera\u00bb, por la l\u00e1nguida m\u00fasica de sal\u00f3n. Fuera, sin embargo, lo que ve por la ventana no es tan agradable: inh\u00f3spitos campos oto\u00f1ales, \u00abun disco plano y naranja, que era el sol\u00bb, un espantap\u00e1jaros con un abrigo negruzco, a cuyos pies picotean el ma\u00edz una bandada de cuervos. El color rojo prevalece y es un signo obvio de la amenaza: el abrigo de Mary, el color de los labios de su madre y el de una pasajera que es obligada a bajar, los asientos, la cereza en el trago, el propio ticket. La inquietud de Mary se alivia cuando aparece una compa\u00f1era de viaje y de asiento que borda un vestido con hilo verde. Es amable y quiere ayudarla; pero tambi\u00e9n, de a poco, le informa que el destino del tren, ese \u00abnoveno reino\u00bb, es \u00abel reino de la negaci\u00f3n, de la voluntad congelada\u00bb. Y Mary, que empieza a notar la frialdad fuera del tren y la cercan\u00eda de lo pavoroso, toma una decisi\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"olz8k30\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Apenas que en el texto se intuye una desesperaci\u00f3n sorda, la de no poder escapar de ese viaje hacia el que Mary va con reluctancia, pero tambi\u00e9n con resignaci\u00f3n. La muerte acecha en el relato, como lo hace en toda la obra de Plath: la muerte es uno de los temas de su obra.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pdbnv8d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hay muchas formas de pensar este cuento de rasgos fant\u00e1sticos, juvenil y algo ingenuo, pero que ya contiene las bombas peque\u00f1itas que estallar\u00edan a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s. El viaje puede ser, en una lectura tenebrosa, la vida. Y ese reino helado, el fin. Una alegor\u00eda del suicidio: bajarse del tren es renunciar a la vida. Pero tambi\u00e9n puede pensarse como un relato de supervivencia. El noveno reino, al que todos van casi sin resistirse, puede ser, al contrario, el deseo de morir, el final hacia el que va la depresi\u00f3n cuando se descompensa. Y otra mujer, la compa\u00f1era de viaje, que ya ha hecho este viaje antes, quien le advierte a Mary sobre el riesgo y le ofrece una opci\u00f3n: esta no es la historia de una hero\u00edna y su salvaci\u00f3n solitaria, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26486-ebook-mary-ventura-y-el-noveno-reino-9788439736493\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">sino una historia de solidaridad<\/a><\/span>. No es conveniente decir mucho m\u00e1s. Apenas que en el texto se intuye una desesperaci\u00f3n sorda, la de no poder escapar de ese viaje hacia el que Mary va con reluctancia, pero tambi\u00e9n con resignaci\u00f3n. La muerte acecha en el relato, como lo hace en toda la obra de Plath: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-aixa-de-la-cruz-una-terapia-de-choque\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la muerte es uno de los temas de su 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posible que Sylvia haya escrito este cuento cuando, en Smith, dej\u00f3 la residencia de Haven, muy c\u00f3moda, por la de Lawrence, en la que las estudiantes trabajaban para pagar parte del hospedaje. Hubo otros problemas, tambi\u00e9n, en esos meses: Sylvia estaba insatisfecha en ciertos cursos, algunas de sus compa\u00f1eras no reingresaron despu\u00e9s del verano (se casaron, empezaron a trabajar), otras debieron abortar (le llamaban \u00abvisitar al Dr. No\u00bb). Su novio, Dick \u2013la relaci\u00f3n iba y ven\u00eda\u2013 le anunci\u00f3 que ten\u00eda tuberculosis y que ella deb\u00eda someterse a un chequeo para descartar un contagio. La vida se enrarec\u00eda: a pesar de que Sylvia segu\u00eda siendo una alumna excelente y participaba, por ejemplo, de la Smith Review, la revista de la universidad, ya no se sent\u00eda tan segura de s\u00ed misma. En noviembre de 1952 escrib\u00eda en su diario: \u00abTengo miedo. No soy s\u00f3lida sino hueca. Siento tras los ojos una torpe caverna, paralizada, un pozo infernal, una bufonesca nada. Nunca he pensado. Nunca he escrito, nunca he sufrido. Deseo matarme, eludir la responsabilidad, regresar vilmente al \u00fatero. No s\u00e9 qui\u00e9n soy, ni ad\u00f3nde voy\u00bb. Mary tampoco sabe ad\u00f3nde va. Su ticket dice que se dirige al noveno reino, pero ella no sabe qu\u00e9 es eso, d\u00f3nde queda, qu\u00e9 debe hacer all\u00ed, por qu\u00e9 sus padres la subieron al tren, por qu\u00e9 tantos pasajeros hacen ese mismo viaje sin quejarse o sin darse cuenta. Por supuesto, un cuento no debe leerse solo en clave de autobiograf\u00eda, tampoco este. Sucede que la sensaci\u00f3n de encontrarse perdida, tan t\u00edpica de la juventud, y con frecuencia mezclada con la omnipotencia, impregna \u00abMary Ventura y el noveno reino\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s, es imposible ignorar que Sylvia intent\u00f3 suicidarse meses despu\u00e9s de escribir este cuento, en agosto de 1953: forz\u00f3 un armario donde hab\u00eda somn\u00edferos, se llev\u00f3 un frasco lleno y se escondi\u00f3 en un espacio hueco que quedaba debajo del dormitorio de la primera planta de su casa. Dej\u00f3 una nota para su madre en el comedor, que dec\u00eda: \u00abVoy a dar un paseo largo. Volver\u00e9 ma\u00f1ana\u00bb. Estuvo inconsciente dos d\u00edas en ese escondite como de animal: su madre denunci\u00f3 la desaparici\u00f3n y la foto de Sylvia apareci\u00f3 en los diarios con el titular: \u00abBella joven de Smith desaparece en Wellesley\u00bb. La encontraron porque la oyeron gemir, y le salvaron la vida.\u00a0<\/p><p>Otra lectura posible de \u00abMary Ventura...\u00bb es la de estar atrapada en una pesadilla. El sufrimiento ps\u00edquico de la enfermedad mental se parece mucho a los terrores nocturnos. La soledad de ver c\u00f3mo los dem\u00e1s funcionan, al menos un poco; c\u00f3mo son felices, al menos a ratos; el que sufre no puede escapar de s\u00ed mismo, encerrado en su casa de angustia, en su propio vag\u00f3n que va hacia la cat\u00e1strofe.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"scjemaj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/8865-mariana-enriquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">MARIANA ENR\u00cdQUEZ<\/a><\/span><br 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-aixa-de-la-cruz-una-terapia-de-choque\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sylvia Plath por Aixa de la Cruz: una terapia de choque<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/anne-sexton-en-tres-poemas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abVive o muere pero no envenenes cada cosa\u2026\u00bb: Anne Sexton en tres poemas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/katherine-mansfield-ida-baker-cristina-domenech\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Katherine Mansfield e Ida Baker: un amor sin principio ni final<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La muerte de Virginia Woolf por Leonard Woolf: la contemplaci\u00f3n imperturbable<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Alejandra-Pizarnik-Cristina-Pina-Patricia-Venti-Luna-Miguel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEl castellano no es lo mismo despu\u00e9s de la poes\u00eda de 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10 minutos
Fotografía de Sylvia Plath en la playa. Crédito: Cortesía de la biblioteca Lilly (Universidad de Indiana).

Fotografía de Sylvia Plath en la playa. Crédito: Cortesía de la biblioteca Lilly (Universidad de Indiana).

En 1952, cuando tenía veinte años, Sylvia Plath estudiaba en el Smith College, una universidad privada exclusiva para mujeres de Massachusetts. Ingresó en septiembre de 1950: poco antes, había escrito en su diario: «Creo que me gustaría llamarme "la chica que quería ser Dios"». Estaba llena de expectativas y de ambición, pero también de inseguridades: había ganado una beca de 1.300 dólares, y quería demostrar que se la merecía. Para esa época ya escribía y había sido publicada, casi exclusivamente, en las revistas Mademoiselle y Seventeen: su vida se repartía entre cuidar de niños durante el verano, romances algo problemáticos y las preocupaciones académicas. Por debajo de esa vida apacible, sin embargo, latía una angustia difusa y una depresión que no era solo intensidad adolescente, sino señales del sufrimiento psíquico que la acompañaría hasta el fin de su vida. Pero este periodo, el que va entre su ingreso a en educación superior y su primer intento de suicidio –y luego, la edición de la novela La campana de cristal, que registra su derrumbe psicológico–, es un momento de posibilidad y latencia, en el que Sylvia Plath descubría y exploraba qué tipo de escritora y qué clase de mujer llegaría a ser.

Ganaba un poco de dinero, no mucho, gracias a los relatos que vendía a revistas. En 1952, por ejemplo, le vendió a Seventeen dos cuentos y cinco poemas por 225 dólares. Y también ganó el premio del concurso de relatos de Mademoiselle, dotado con 500 dólares, una pequeña fortuna para alguien tan joven. El cuento premiado fue Domingo en la casa de los Minton y le dio un impulso tremendo. Su biógrafa Lindsay Wagner-Martin afirma que en aquel verano, tras la publicación de Domingo..., «Sylvia Plath se hizo escritora».

No es extraño, entonces, que casi inmediatamente después le enviase a la revista «Mary Ventura y el noveno reino», este relato que por primera vez se publica en español y que recién se conoció en inglés en enero de 2019, poco después de que lo hallara entre los archivos de Sylvia la crítica y académica Judith Glazer-Raymo. Mademoiselle lo rechazó. Sylvia jugueteó con revisarlo, le cambió el final, pero lo cierto es que estuvo por décadas entre sus papeles y pocos sabían de su existencia. El cuento claramente le gustaba, lo envió para ser publicado a una revista que la había premiado; pero el rechazo no le dolió demasiado o al menos no lo registra como importante ni en sus diarios ni en las cartas a su madre, Aurelia (en estos años la correspondencia entre ambas era constante). Así que «Mary Ventura y el noveno reino» es un hallazgo que viene a sumar una pieza más al rompecabezas de esta mujer que lo ha sido todo para todos. Biografías, películas, innumerables estudios críticos y hasta una ópera sobre su vida y su obra se complementan con ediciones de sus cartas, sus diarios y todos sus relatos, su tesis y sus libros infantiles. Al mismo tiempo, su figura va mutando: la escritora desgarrada entre la domesticidad idealizada de la época que le tocó vivir y su propia personalidad oscura, algo salvaje; la pionera feminista, la enferma mental, la mujer destruida por un hombre tormentoso y cruel, la madre suicida, la víctima, la heroína, la abandonada. En su fantástico libro de 1993, La mujer en silencio, la periodista y crítica literaria Janet Malcolm la usaba como ejemplo sobre la imposibilidad de escribir una biografía. Y agregaba: «El modo en que la niña bien alimentada y rubia en Estados Unidos se convirtió en la mujer delgada y blanca en Europa que escribió poemas como «Lady Lazarus» («Morir / es un arte, como todo. Yo lo hago excepcionalmente bien») sigue siendo un enigma de la historia literaria, un enigma que está en el núcleo de la urgencia nerviosa que impulsa la empresa biográfica de Plath y de la fascinación que la leyenda de Plath ejerce sobre nuestra imaginación».

Así, ya es imposible leer cualquier texto de Plath dejando de lado su mito. Sin embargo, hay que pensar que este cuento se escribió antes de que ella fuese redactora invitada de Mademoiselle, experiencia que recrea en La campana de cristal y, por supuesto, antes de conocer a Ted Hughes en Inglaterra, su Heathcliff, su sueño y su pesadilla. Esta es otra Sylvia: una alumna brillante, una joven triste y desbordada, una escritora en busca de su voz. Escribe Malcolm: «Una persona que muere a los treinta años, en pleno desconcierto de una separación, permanece fija para siempre en ese desconcierto». Esto era muy cierto en 1993, cuando publicó su libro. Ahora ya tenemos más elementos para leer a Sylvia Plath lejos de ese helado invierno de 1963, cuando se suicidó en su casa de Fitzroy Road mientras sus hijos dormían.

Su figura va mutando: la escritora desgarrada entre la domesticidad idealizada de la época que le tocó vivir y su propia personalidad oscura, algo salvaje; la pionera feminista, la enferma mental, la mujer destruida por un hombre tormentoso y cruel, la madre suicida, la víctima, la heroína, la abandonada.

«Mary Ventura y el noveno reino» es, lo decía la propia Sylvia, un cuento «vagamente simbólico». La trama es tenue, sencilla e inquietante: una joven, Mary (el nombre es el de una amiga de secundaria de Sylvia, a quien admiraba por su carácter «vital, una modelo de artista»), es obligada por sus padres a tomar un tren. «Ya sabes cómo son los trenes. No esperan», dice el padre, cuya implacable insistencia es sospechosa. Una vez ubicada con su maleta, Mary tiene sensaciones contradictorias respecto al viaje. No quiere hacerlo, no está claro por qué, pero pronto se deja seducir por los lujos del vagón comedor, los mullidos divanes rojos, los pasajeros que comen «manzanas y ciruelas y uvas de invernadero de los cuencos de fruta repartidos por las lustrosas mesas de madera», por la lánguida música de salón. Fuera, sin embargo, lo que ve por la ventana no es tan agradable: inhóspitos campos otoñales, «un disco plano y naranja, que era el sol», un espantapájaros con un abrigo negruzco, a cuyos pies picotean el maíz una bandada de cuervos. El color rojo prevalece y es un signo obvio de la amenaza: el abrigo de Mary, el color de los labios de su madre y el de una pasajera que es obligada a bajar, los asientos, la cereza en el trago, el propio ticket. La inquietud de Mary se alivia cuando aparece una compañera de viaje y de asiento que borda un vestido con hilo verde. Es amable y quiere ayudarla; pero también, de a poco, le informa que el destino del tren, ese «noveno reino», es «el reino de la negación, de la voluntad congelada». Y Mary, que empieza a notar la frialdad fuera del tren y la cercanía de lo pavoroso, toma una decisión. 

Apenas que en el texto se intuye una desesperación sorda, la de no poder escapar de ese viaje hacia el que Mary va con reluctancia, pero también con resignación. La muerte acecha en el relato, como lo hace en toda la obra de Plath: la muerte es uno de los temas de su obra.

Hay muchas formas de pensar este cuento de rasgos fantásticos, juvenil y algo ingenuo, pero que ya contiene las bombas pequeñitas que estallarían años después. El viaje puede ser, en una lectura tenebrosa, la vida. Y ese reino helado, el fin. Una alegoría del suicidio: bajarse del tren es renunciar a la vida. Pero también puede pensarse como un relato de supervivencia. El noveno reino, al que todos van casi sin resistirse, puede ser, al contrario, el deseo de morir, el final hacia el que va la depresión cuando se descompensa. Y otra mujer, la compañera de viaje, que ya ha hecho este viaje antes, quien le advierte a Mary sobre el riesgo y le ofrece una opción: esta no es la historia de una heroína y su salvación solitaria, sino una historia de solidaridad. No es conveniente decir mucho más. Apenas que en el texto se intuye una desesperación sorda, la de no poder escapar de ese viaje hacia el que Mary va con reluctancia, pero también con resignación. La muerte acecha en el relato, como lo hace en toda la obra de Plath: la muerte es uno de los temas de su obra

Sylvia Plath por Rollie McKenna.

Es posible que Sylvia haya escrito este cuento cuando, en Smith, dejó la residencia de Haven, muy cómoda, por la de Lawrence, en la que las estudiantes trabajaban para pagar parte del hospedaje. Hubo otros problemas, también, en esos meses: Sylvia estaba insatisfecha en ciertos cursos, algunas de sus compañeras no reingresaron después del verano (se casaron, empezaron a trabajar), otras debieron abortar (le llamaban «visitar al Dr. No»). Su novio, Dick –la relación iba y venía– le anunció que tenía tuberculosis y que ella debía someterse a un chequeo para descartar un contagio. La vida se enrarecía: a pesar de que Sylvia seguía siendo una alumna excelente y participaba, por ejemplo, de la Smith Review, la revista de la universidad, ya no se sentía tan segura de sí misma. En noviembre de 1952 escribía en su diario: «Tengo miedo. No soy sólida sino hueca. Siento tras los ojos una torpe caverna, paralizada, un pozo infernal, una bufonesca nada. Nunca he pensado. Nunca he escrito, nunca he sufrido. Deseo matarme, eludir la responsabilidad, regresar vilmente al útero. No sé quién soy, ni adónde voy». Mary tampoco sabe adónde va. Su ticket dice que se dirige al noveno reino, pero ella no sabe qué es eso, dónde queda, qué debe hacer allí, por qué sus padres la subieron al tren, por qué tantos pasajeros hacen ese mismo viaje sin quejarse o sin darse cuenta. Por supuesto, un cuento no debe leerse solo en clave de autobiografía, tampoco este. Sucede que la sensación de encontrarse perdida, tan típica de la juventud, y con frecuencia mezclada con la omnipotencia, impregna «Mary Ventura y el noveno reino». 

Además, es imposible ignorar que Sylvia intentó suicidarse meses después de escribir este cuento, en agosto de 1953: forzó un armario donde había somníferos, se llevó un frasco lleno y se escondió en un espacio hueco que quedaba debajo del dormitorio de la primera planta de su casa. Dejó una nota para su madre en el comedor, que decía: «Voy a dar un paseo largo. Volveré mañana». Estuvo inconsciente dos días en ese escondite como de animal: su madre denunció la desaparición y la foto de Sylvia apareció en los diarios con el titular: «Bella joven de Smith desaparece en Wellesley». La encontraron porque la oyeron gemir, y le salvaron la vida. 

Otra lectura posible de «Mary Ventura...» es la de estar atrapada en una pesadilla. El sufrimiento psíquico de la enfermedad mental se parece mucho a los terrores nocturnos. La soledad de ver cómo los demás funcionan, al menos un poco; cómo son felices, al menos a ratos; el que sufre no puede escapar de sí mismo, encerrado en su casa de angustia, en su propio vagón que va hacia la catástrofe. 

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