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El último socialismo: ¿valió la pena?

Los acontecimientos en Cuba durante las últimas semanas volvieron a iluminar una pregunta que flota sobre la isla hace ya tiempo: ¿qué será del futuro de esa revolución? Eso mismo se preguntaba Patricio Fernández en las últimas páginas de su libro «Cuba. Viaje al fin de la revolución». Durante años, el periodista y escritor chileno viajó a la isla para sumergirse en la vida cotidiana de esa sociedad, en un tiempo de transformaciones casi permanentes: el antes y el después de la muerte de Fidel, la restitución de las relaciones con EE. UU., el proceso de paz entre Colombia y las FARC con La Habana como mediador, las visitas de los Rolling Stones y del papa Francisco, en cada momento entrevistando a los más altos rangos y a los ciudadanos comunes. Y una pregunta lo esperaba al final del camino: ¿valió la pena la revolución? En este fragmento del libro, él mismo se acerca a una respuesta de tremenda actualidad.

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UU., el proceso de paz entre Colombia y las FARC con La Habana como mediador, las visitas de los Rolling Stones y del papa Francisco, en cada momento entrevistando a los m\u00e1s altos rangos y a los ciudadanos comunes. Y una pregunta lo esperaba al final del camino: \u00bfvali\u00f3 la pena la revoluci\u00f3n? En este fragmento del libro, \u00e9l mismo se acerca a una respuesta de tremenda actualidad.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"8tis7l5\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Un hombre ondea una bandera durante una manifestaci\u00f3n contra el gobierno del presidente Miguel D\u00edaz-Canel. Aquel d\u00eda, miles de cubanos participaron en protestas sin apenas precedentes contra el gobierno comunista, marchando bajo los lemas \u00abAbajo con la dictadura\u00bb y \u00abQueremos libertad\u00bb. 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4660-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">PATRICIO FERN\u00c1NDEZ<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4241-jose-carlos-yrigoyen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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imposible anticipar cu\u00e1nto tiempo m\u00e1s sobrevivir\u00e1 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el r\u00e9gimen comunista en Cuba<\/a><\/span>.<\/strong> Muchos aseguran que con la muerte de Ra\u00fal comenzar\u00e1 a desmoronarse. Al menos en apariencia, el gobierno parece compacto y sin fisuras, aunque no hay modo de verificarlo.<\/p><p>Todos saben lo que deben decir, pero son muy pocos quienes creen en lo que dicen. \u00abEl que se mueve en la foto pierde\u00bb, advierten. <strong>Algunos, poqu\u00edsimos, siguen creyendo en la Revoluci\u00f3n,<\/strong> pero me costar\u00eda contar entre ellos a los dirigentes que la ensalzan con frases gastadas por el tiempo y el desencanto. Esas que anta\u00f1o pintaron en muros y afiches carreteros lucen deslavadas por la lluvia. Ya nadie las retoca para que aparenten seguir vivas.\u00a0<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/11835-cuba-9788499929927\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Si yo hubiera nacido en Cuba<\/a><\/span>\u00a0por los mismos a\u00f1os en que nac\u00ed en Chile, en 1969, sin duda habr\u00eda emigrado. 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que, como ellos, hubiera desertado aproximadamente una d\u00e9cada despu\u00e9s, tras la invasi\u00f3n a Checoslovaquia o, a m\u00e1s tardar, para el encarcelamiento de Heberto Padilla. Pero qui\u00e9n sabe. Quiz\u00e1s ser\u00eda un cubano que, casi a sus setenta a\u00f1os, deambula cabizbajo por las calles de La Habana. Uno que particip\u00f3 en la zafra de los diez millones y quiso resistir la tentaci\u00f3n de la huida, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">mantener el sue\u00f1o en pie a pesar de la grisura que trajo la sovietizaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>. Los j\u00f3venes cubanos de los a\u00f1os setenta fueron un batall\u00f3n de choque contra las dictaduras militares que, sostenidas por los Estados Unidos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">masacraron toda ilusi\u00f3n de justicia en Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span>. No hab\u00eda espacio para ver las ineptitudes y arbitrariedades del socialismo mientras un enemigo sanguinario arreciaba alrededor y Cuba sal\u00eda a combatirlo, al mismo tiempo que acog\u00eda a sus v\u00edctimas.<strong> A los j\u00f3venes cubanos de entonces, superada la Guerra Fr\u00eda, ning\u00fan recuerdo les sirve para endulzar la frustraci\u00f3n de haber entregado sus mejores a\u00f1os a una promesa incumplida.<\/strong> La causa por la que renunciaron a todo proyecto personal nunca les concedi\u00f3 un rol protag\u00f3nico ni reconoci\u00f3 su sacrificio. A ellos, hoy les dan de comer esos hijos que partieron contrariando su voluntad.<\/p><p>Quien diga, sin embargo, que a los cubanos los desvela la riqueza que les falta no sabe de lo que habla. Si desaparecen las papas o la cerveza, se quejan, pero no viven para el dinero. No es esa todav\u00eda la vara con que se miden entre ellos. Y si la falta de ambici\u00f3n por momentos se traduce en una fatiga del deseo,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-ben-rhodes-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">para quienes llegamos desde el capitalismo puede representar un remanso en medio de la competencia incesante<\/a><\/span> por ganar trofeos. Hay unos que tienen m\u00e1s que otros y ya se avizora que esas diferencias ir\u00e1n en aumento, pero a\u00fan no es nada parecido a lo que vemos en nuestras ciudades fragmentadas. <strong>No se trata, por cierto, de una comunidad santa: han desarrollado la viveza y el c\u00e1lculo para sobrevivir a la carencia.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"06\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kdeb74c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A los j\u00f3venes cubanos de entonces, superada la Guerra Fr\u00eda, ning\u00fan recuerdo les sirve para endulzar la frustraci\u00f3n de haber entregado sus mejores a\u00f1os a una promesa incumplida. A ellos, hoy les dan de comer esos hijos que partieron contrariando su voluntad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"oxi1efs\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 le depara el futuro a esta Revoluci\u00f3n sin fe? Nadie lo sabe. Tal vez todo suceda a las mil maravillas y encuentren el modo de generar riquezas sin sacrificar los v\u00ednculos comunitarios, <strong>manteniendo las seguridades sociales, la informalidad, el relajo y la llaneza de trato.<\/strong> Podr\u00eda ser que las nuevas generaciones que tomen el poder administren la inmensa propiedad estatal con sabidur\u00eda y honestidad, que los militares a cargo del aparato productivo consigan por fin que sus industrias rindan frutos y estos se distribuyan equitativamente entre ciudadanos cada vez m\u00e1s participativos. Puede ser que Cuba devenga una democracia ejemplar, donde los derechos civiles, las libertades individuales y la justicia social convivan en armon\u00eda. Pero tambi\u00e9n puede ser que muertos los jerarcas de anta\u00f1o \u2014totalitarios e intolerantes, mas no codiciosos\u2014 y muerta tambi\u00e9n la creencia en el socialismo,<strong> los generales del MINFAR, herederos de Ra\u00fal, se saquen de golpe la careta y rematen el pa\u00eds al mejor postor en un proceso de privatizaci\u00f3n<\/strong> que los tenga a ellos como principales beneficiarios. 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Durante las marchas en contra del gobierno de Miguel D\u00edaz-Canel, decenas de manifestantes destrozaron y volcaron algunos coches de la polic\u00eda cubana. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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es el \u00faltimo lugar del mundo en que sobrevive el socialismo <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">(<\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Corea del Norte es una locura que va m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de cualquier ideolog\u00eda<\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">)<\/a>, ese sue\u00f1o de perfecci\u00f3n que deb\u00eda llevar a todos los hombres a vivir como hermanos, a respetarse mutuamente, a sacar lo mejor de s\u00ed. <strong>Rochy me dijo un d\u00eda: \u00abEl guion era bueno, lo malo fue la puesta en escena\u00bb.<\/strong> Fueron much\u00edsimos quienes estuvieron dispuestos a morir y matar para conseguir esa sociedad justa, donde cada quien sintiera como propios el dolor y la felicidad de los dem\u00e1s. Pero todo indica que el hombre no es como los socialistas quisieron que fuera. Es infinitamente m\u00e1s complejo y contradictorio. Yo ni siquiera me atrever\u00eda a decir c\u00f3mo es. Hemos visto que la convicci\u00f3n excesiva nos lleva a la violencia, y el total descreimiento, al extrav\u00edo. A\u00f1os atr\u00e1s le\u00ed una frase escrita sobre las rocas de un muelle en el puerto portugu\u00e9s de Ericeira: \u00abEl marino que navega sin destino no conoce los vientos favorables\u00bb.<strong> Hoy parece que hubi\u00e9ramos acordado surcar los mares sin saber ad\u00f3nde vamos,<\/strong> content\u00e1ndonos tan solo con mejorar las condiciones del barco y procurar que no naufrague. Alguien sostuvo hace poco que as\u00ed terminaba esta historia.<\/p><p>La noche antes de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/11835-cuba-9788499929927\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">sentarme a escribir este \u00faltimo p\u00e1rrafo<\/a><\/span>, me encontr\u00e9 con un poeta comunista, un tipo honesto y bondadoso. Quiso saber sobre este libro que terminaba y le dije que mi mayor inter\u00e9s era que, al leerlo, mis amigos cubanos reconocieran que me hab\u00eda movido la verdad. Quiso saber m\u00e1s, y en lo que dur\u00f3 la conversaci\u00f3n parece que transmit\u00ed la historia de un fracaso. \u00abBueno, pero \u00bfvali\u00f3 la pena?\u00bb, me pregunt\u00f3. Entonces levant\u00e9 los hombros. <strong>Mi respuesta debi\u00f3 ser: \u00abNo, pero hab\u00eda que intentarlo\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfPuede volver el fascismo?<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El Plan C\u00f3ndor, un fantasma que recorre el mundo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuba: entre la Patria y la 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10 minutos

La Habana, Cuba. 11 de julio de 2021. Un hombre ondea una bandera durante una manifestación contra el gobierno del presidente Miguel Díaz-Canel. Aquel día, miles de cubanos participaron en protestas sin apenas precedentes contra el gobierno comunista, marchando bajo los lemas «Abajo con la dictadura» y «Queremos libertad». Crédito: Getty Images.

Es imposible anticipar cuánto tiempo más sobrevivirá el régimen comunista en Cuba. Muchos aseguran que con la muerte de Raúl comenzará a desmoronarse. Al menos en apariencia, el gobierno parece compacto y sin fisuras, aunque no hay modo de verificarlo.

Todos saben lo que deben decir, pero son muy pocos quienes creen en lo que dicen. «El que se mueve en la foto pierde», advierten. Algunos, poquísimos, siguen creyendo en la Revolución, pero me costaría contar entre ellos a los dirigentes que la ensalzan con frases gastadas por el tiempo y el desencanto. Esas que antaño pintaron en muros y afiches carreteros lucen deslavadas por la lluvia. Ya nadie las retoca para que aparenten seguir vivas. 

Si yo hubiera nacido en Cuba por los mismos años en que nací en Chile, en 1969, sin duda habría emigrado. Suponiendo la posibilidad absurda de que hubiera sido el mismo que soy, alguien que aspira a contar lo que ve y más predispuesto a desacralizar sermones que a repetirlos, habría partido, posiblemente, a comienzos de los años noventa, en la misma época que visité la isla por primera vez. Quizás me hubiera subido a una balsa simplemente para escapar del hambre que reinaba entonces. Si fuera el mismo, pero treinta años mayor, me habría gustado luchar en la Sierra y, luego de tomar el control de Santa Clara, participar de la revista Lunes de Revolución con Carlos Franqui y con Cabrera Infante.

Imagino que, como ellos, hubiera desertado aproximadamente una década después, tras la invasión a Checoslovaquia o, a más tardar, para el encarcelamiento de Heberto Padilla. Pero quién sabe. Quizás sería un cubano que, casi a sus setenta años, deambula cabizbajo por las calles de La Habana. Uno que participó en la zafra de los diez millones y quiso resistir la tentación de la huida, mantener el sueño en pie a pesar de la grisura que trajo la sovietización. Los jóvenes cubanos de los años setenta fueron un batallón de choque contra las dictaduras militares que, sostenidas por los Estados Unidos, masacraron toda ilusión de justicia en América Latina. No había espacio para ver las ineptitudes y arbitrariedades del socialismo mientras un enemigo sanguinario arreciaba alrededor y Cuba salía a combatirlo, al mismo tiempo que acogía a sus víctimas. A los jóvenes cubanos de entonces, superada la Guerra Fría, ningún recuerdo les sirve para endulzar la frustración de haber entregado sus mejores años a una promesa incumplida. La causa por la que renunciaron a todo proyecto personal nunca les concedió un rol protagónico ni reconoció su sacrificio. A ellos, hoy les dan de comer esos hijos que partieron contrariando su voluntad.

Quien diga, sin embargo, que a los cubanos los desvela la riqueza que les falta no sabe de lo que habla. Si desaparecen las papas o la cerveza, se quejan, pero no viven para el dinero. No es esa todavía la vara con que se miden entre ellos. Y si la falta de ambición por momentos se traduce en una fatiga del deseo, para quienes llegamos desde el capitalismo puede representar un remanso en medio de la competencia incesante por ganar trofeos. Hay unos que tienen más que otros y ya se avizora que esas diferencias irán en aumento, pero aún no es nada parecido a lo que vemos en nuestras ciudades fragmentadas. No se trata, por cierto, de una comunidad santa: han desarrollado la viveza y el cálculo para sobrevivir a la carencia. 

A los jóvenes cubanos de entonces, superada la Guerra Fría, ningún recuerdo les sirve para endulzar la frustración de haber entregado sus mejores años a una promesa incumplida. A ellos, hoy les dan de comer esos hijos que partieron contrariando su voluntad.

¿Qué le depara el futuro a esta Revolución sin fe? Nadie lo sabe. Tal vez todo suceda a las mil maravillas y encuentren el modo de generar riquezas sin sacrificar los vínculos comunitarios, manteniendo las seguridades sociales, la informalidad, el relajo y la llaneza de trato. Podría ser que las nuevas generaciones que tomen el poder administren la inmensa propiedad estatal con sabiduría y honestidad, que los militares a cargo del aparato productivo consigan por fin que sus industrias rindan frutos y estos se distribuyan equitativamente entre ciudadanos cada vez más participativos. Puede ser que Cuba devenga una democracia ejemplar, donde los derechos civiles, las libertades individuales y la justicia social convivan en armonía. Pero también puede ser que muertos los jerarcas de antaño —totalitarios e intolerantes, mas no codiciosos— y muerta también la creencia en el socialismo, los generales del MINFAR, herederos de Raúl, se saquen de golpe la careta y rematen el país al mejor postor en un proceso de privatización que los tenga a ellos como principales beneficiarios. Mal que mal, en Cuba no existen instituciones sólidas, ni contralorías ni tribunales confiables, y la inmensa mayoría de los bienes que allí existen le pertenecen al Estado.

La Habana, Cuba. 11 de julio de 2021. Durante las marchas en contra del gobierno de Miguel Díaz-Canel, decenas de manifestantes destrozaron y volcaron algunos coches de la policía cubana. Crédito: Getty Images.

Cuba es el último lugar del mundo en que sobrevive el socialismo (Corea del Norte es una locura que va más allá de cualquier ideología), ese sueño de perfección que debía llevar a todos los hombres a vivir como hermanos, a respetarse mutuamente, a sacar lo mejor de sí. Rochy me dijo un día: «El guion era bueno, lo malo fue la puesta en escena». Fueron muchísimos quienes estuvieron dispuestos a morir y matar para conseguir esa sociedad justa, donde cada quien sintiera como propios el dolor y la felicidad de los demás. Pero todo indica que el hombre no es como los socialistas quisieron que fuera. Es infinitamente más complejo y contradictorio. Yo ni siquiera me atrevería a decir cómo es. Hemos visto que la convicción excesiva nos lleva a la violencia, y el total descreimiento, al extravío. Años atrás leí una frase escrita sobre las rocas de un muelle en el puerto portugués de Ericeira: «El marino que navega sin destino no conoce los vientos favorables». Hoy parece que hubiéramos acordado surcar los mares sin saber adónde vamos, contentándonos tan solo con mejorar las condiciones del barco y procurar que no naufrague. Alguien sostuvo hace poco que así terminaba esta historia.

La noche antes de sentarme a escribir este último párrafo, me encontré con un poeta comunista, un tipo honesto y bondadoso. Quiso saber sobre este libro que terminaba y le dije que mi mayor interés era que, al leerlo, mis amigos cubanos reconocieran que me había movido la verdad. Quiso saber más, y en lo que duró la conversación parece que transmití la historia de un fracaso. «Bueno, pero ¿valió la pena?», me preguntó. Entonces levanté los hombros. Mi respuesta debió ser: «No, pero había que intentarlo».




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