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Barack Obama por Ben Rhodes: el legado de un presidente en palabras de un testigo excepcional

En sus nuevas memorias, «Una tierra prometida», Barack Obama permite al lector habitar sus meditaciones sobre la paradoja de ser el presidente de Estados Unidos: tienes más poder que —quizá— cualquier otra persona en la Tierra y, al mismo tiempo, esa autoridad está limitada por fuerzas ajenas a tu control. En este texto, Ben Rhodes, escritor y exconsejero de Seguridad Nacional de la Administración Obama, reflexiona sobre su relación con el exmandatario tanto a nivel político como personal.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/19131-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">En sus nuevas memorias, <em>Una tierra prometida<\/em><\/a><\/span>, <strong>Barack Obama<\/strong> permite al lector habitar sus meditaciones sobre la paradoja de ser el presidente de Estados Unidos: tienes m\u00e1s poder que quiz\u00e1 cualquier otra persona en la Tierra, y, sin embargo, ese poder est\u00e1 limitado por fuerzas ajenas a tu control. En una escena especialmente evocadora, explica sus reflexiones sobre el discurso que pronunci\u00f3 ante varias comunidades musulmanas de todo el mundo: \u00ab\u00bfEs \u00fatil hacer un retrato de c\u00f3mo deber\u00eda ser el mundo si los esfuerzos por alcanzarlo no est\u00e1n destinados a cumplirse?\u00bb.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9197-ben-rhodes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Como escritor de discursos<\/a><\/span>\u00a0que trabaj\u00f3 con \u00e9l, me he enfrentado a esa misma pregunta desde mi posici\u00f3n, ciertamente m\u00e1s humilde. Estados Unidos \u2014gobernado por <strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-barack-obama-isabel-allende\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Barack Obama<\/a><\/span><\/strong>\u2014 dio varios pasos importantes para llevar a cabo esa proyecci\u00f3n de la que, por ejemplo, habl\u00f3 en El Cairo. El n\u00famero de soldados estadounidenses en Irak y Afganist\u00e1n <strong>se redujo desde alrededor de 150.000 en el momento de ese discurso a aproximadamente 15.000<\/strong> al final de la presidencia de Obama. Se prohibi\u00f3 a los servicios de seguridad estadounidenses el empleo de la tortura y la lucha antiterrorista de Estados Unidos se integr\u00f3 en un marco legal. Se alcanz\u00f3 un acuerdo nuclear con la Rep\u00fablica Isl\u00e1mica de Ir\u00e1n, evitando as\u00ed lo que podr\u00eda haber supuesto un Ir\u00e1n con armas nucleares u otra guerra m\u00e1s en Oriente Medio. Obama retir\u00f3 el apoyo de Estados Unidos al aut\u00f3crata egipcio Hosni Mubarak tras la Primavera \u00c1rabe.<\/p><p>Sin embargo, no es dif\u00edcil ver los innumerables aspectos en que nuestros esfuerzos para materializar la visi\u00f3n del discurso de El Cairo se han quedado cortos. Egipto est\u00e1 gobernado ahora por otro aut\u00f3crata que lleg\u00f3 al poder en 2013 con un golpe de Estado. La esperanza de la Primavera \u00c1rabe muri\u00f3 en los turbulentos conflictos de la regi\u00f3n:<strong> desde la campa\u00f1a asesina de Bashar Asad contra su propia poblaci\u00f3n hasta una guerra encabezada por los saud\u00edes que ha devastado el Yemen.<\/strong> Los israel\u00edes y los palestinos est\u00e1n hoy m\u00e1s lejos de una paz justa y segura anclada en una soluci\u00f3n de dos Estados. El sucesor de Obama, Donald Trump, se ha retirado del acuerdo nuclear con Ir\u00e1n. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">24 de octubre de 2020. El expresidente Barack Obama habla en apoyo del candidato presidencial dem\u00f3crata Joe Biden durante un acto en North Miami, Florida. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2vc8tfx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Por tanto, al hacer un balance del estado del mundo, no es dif\u00edcil considerar la pregunta de Obama con un cansado cinismo y llegar a la conclusi\u00f3n de que esfuerzos como el discurso de El Cairo son ingenuos, o que la pol\u00edtica es una empresa irremediablemente corrompida e irreparable. Pero, en realidad, ese es el peor tipo de derrotismo, porque <strong>nos condena a aceptar las realidades m\u00e1s duras del mundo como si fueran inevitables.<\/strong> El cinismo conduce a la apat\u00eda, y la apat\u00eda es lo que hace imposible el cambio.<\/p><p>Leer las memorias de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4570-barack-obama\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Obama<\/a><\/span> es recordar que la intersecci\u00f3n de los movimientos sociales y el poder pol\u00edtico es lo que hace posible el cambio. El propio Obama hered\u00f3 el legado del mayor movimiento por la justicia social en Estados Unidos del siglo XX, que construy\u00f3 una coalici\u00f3n de j\u00f3venes y minor\u00edas \u00e9tnicas para abrirse paso hasta el poder pol\u00edtico en 2008. Tambi\u00e9n hered\u00f3 <strong>la doble cat\u00e1strofe de la guerra de Irak y la crisis financiera,<\/strong> que represent\u00f3 el fracaso de los excesos de Estados Unidos en su persecuci\u00f3n de la hegemon\u00eda mundial y\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/60-economia-politica-y-actualidad\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su capitalismo desenfrenado.<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"75zo7ae\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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historia recogida en <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/19131-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Una tierra prometida<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0es un testimonio de por qu\u00e9 es importante el liderazgo pol\u00edtico. Las medidas de Obama ayudaron a rescatar la econom\u00eda mundial de una depresi\u00f3n y nos situaron en la senda del casi pleno empleo. La ley de reforma sanitaria (Obamacare) se extendi\u00f3 a veinte millones de estadounidenses m\u00e1s. Las inversiones en energ\u00eda limpia y las regulaciones medioambientales empezaron a rehacer la econom\u00eda. Se derog\u00f3 la prohibici\u00f3n de que los homosexuales sirvieran en el ej\u00e9rcito de Estados Unidos y, finalmente,<strong> el derecho al matrimonio homosexual se convirti\u00f3 en ley suprema de la naci\u00f3n.<\/strong> Se extendieron las medidas de protecci\u00f3n a los inmigrantes llevados a Estados Unidos cuando eran ni\u00f1os. Una visi\u00f3n del liderazgo estadounidense impregnada de humildad y honestidad no solo sent\u00f3 las bases del acuerdo nuclear con Ir\u00e1n, sino tambi\u00e9n de iniciativas como la apertura a Cuba y el Acuerdo de Par\u00eds.<\/p><p>Y si la presidencia de Obama no les convence de la importancia del liderazgo pol\u00edtico, <strong>sin duda deber\u00eda hacerlo la de <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/economia-politica-y-actualidad\/4316-el-show-de-trump\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Donald Trump<\/a><\/span>.<\/strong> Durante cuatro a\u00f1os, Trump ha atacado sin cesar el legado de Obama, el orden internacional liberal que Estados Unidos ayud\u00f3 a construir y la propia democracia. Los tr\u00e1gicos resultados de ese proyecto se pueden ver en <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/lector-en-serie\/philip-Roth-La-conjura-contra-America-hbo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la respuesta incre\u00edblemente inepta de Estados Unidos ante la COVID-19<\/a><\/span>, con cifras que rozan ya los\u00a0550.000\u00a0muertos.<\/p><p>Desde un punto de vista personal, la presidencia de Donald Trump tambi\u00e9n me ha hecho preguntarme qu\u00e9 constituye, exactamente, el legado de un presidente. En la cobertura del d\u00eda a d\u00eda de la pol\u00edtica,<strong> los legados se suelen medir como un simple cuadro de mando:<\/strong> leyes aprobadas, regulaciones cambiadas e iniciativas de pol\u00edtica exterior concluidas, como yo mismo he hecho antes. Pero al ver c\u00f3mo la Administraci\u00f3n que nos sucedi\u00f3 ha atacado gran parte de aquello en lo que trabaj\u00e9, me he dado cuenta de que el impacto de los presidentes es mucho m\u00e1s intangible, e incluso sus repercusiones son mayores, en Estados Unidos y el mundo.<\/p><p>Cuando era peque\u00f1o,<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">\u00a0<\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/13156-jacqueline-kennedy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">mi h\u00e9roe pol\u00edtico era John F. Kennedy<\/span>.<\/a> No estoy seguro de saber nombrar cinco leyes aprobadas por la Administraci\u00f3n Kennedy. En el plano internacional, s\u00ed podr\u00eda se\u00f1alar la h\u00e1bil gesti\u00f3n de la crisis de los misiles de Cuba y la fundaci\u00f3n del Cuerpo de Paz. Pero eso, por s\u00ed solo, <strong>apenas explica el efecto de Kennedy sobre el 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">El expresidente felicita al nuevo presidente, Joe Biden, el d\u00eda de su juramento, el 20 de enero de 2021, en el Capitolio de los Estados Unidos (Washington D.C.). Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pvqh3xu\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A trav\u00e9s de sus discursos y su car\u00e1cter, pareci\u00f3 llevar a Estados Unidos y al mundo en una nueva y ambiciosa direcci\u00f3n que apuntaba a todo: desde el alunizaje hasta el fin de la Guerra Fr\u00eda. <strong>Un n\u00famero incalculable de estadounidenses se sintieron motivados para incorporarse a alguna forma de servicio p\u00fablico por medio del ejemplo de Kennedy.<\/strong> Lo s\u00e9 porque yo fui uno de ellos. Y antes de escribir discursos presidenciales como el de El Cairo, siempre rele\u00eda los de Kennedy de principios de los a\u00f1os sesenta, e intentaba crear otro eslab\u00f3n en la cadena de la pol\u00edtica y el liderazgo progresistas de Estados Unidos.<\/p><p>En los cuatro a\u00f1os transcurridos desde la salida de Obama de la presidencia, he experimentado una sorprendente paradoja. Por un lado, padec\u00ed <strong>la experiencia de ver c\u00f3mo Trump ha intentado desmantelar los logros tangibles de Obama.<\/strong> Por otro, y de manera m\u00e1s intangible, dondequiera que fuese me encontraba con gente que vinculaba el inicio de su activismo o liderazgo con alguna chispa de inspiraci\u00f3n o motivaci\u00f3n de Obama. Esto incluye la clase dem\u00f3crata que retom\u00f3 la C\u00e1mara de Representantes en 2018 y que puso fin al ataque legislativo de Trump contra el legado de Obama. Tambi\u00e9n incluye a todos los progresistas, desde Justin Trudeau a los europeos y los j\u00f3venes que se unen a las protestas contra el autoritarismo en \u00c1frica o en Asia. Incluso aquellos progresistas que critican las iniciativas de Obama pueden apuntar m\u00e1s alto gracias a los cimientos que \u00e9l puso, sea el movimiento en defensa de la vida de los negros (<strong>Black Lives Matter<\/strong>) o el af\u00e1n por unas pol\u00edticas econ\u00f3micas m\u00e1s redistributivas.<\/p><p>Un legado es algo vivo. Y el legado de Obama se ve diferente a principios de 2021 respecto a hace un par de a\u00f1os. Joe Biden, el vicepresidente de Obama, acaba de ser elegido presidente de Estados Unidos.<strong> Su Administraci\u00f3n ya se est\u00e1 llenando de veteranos de los a\u00f1os de Obama.<\/strong> A pesar de ser un pol\u00edtico m\u00e1s conservador que Obama, Biden fue elegido con un programa m\u00e1s progresista que el que present\u00f3 Obama en 2008 en cuestiones como la guerra y la paz, la atenci\u00f3n m\u00e9dica, el cambio clim\u00e1tico y el empe\u00f1o en la justicia racial. La propia vicepresidenta de Biden es una mujer negra, lo que refuerza los cambios demogr\u00e1ficos en el poder estadounidense que Obama anunci\u00f3. El p\u00e9ndulo est\u00e1 listo para volver a oscilar en la direcci\u00f3n del ideal de Estados Unidos que Obama persigui\u00f3.<\/p><p><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/19131-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Una tierra prometida<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0hace su \u00fatil aparici\u00f3n en este momento de cambio. Nos recuerda que, de vez en cuando, hay presidencias que plasman la culminaci\u00f3n de un movimiento y los talentos de un l\u00edder pol\u00edtico de forma que llevan al pa\u00eds en una nueva direcci\u00f3n, con una reacci\u00f3n en cadena en todo el mundo. Tal vez sea inevitable que una presidencia como esa provoque la reacci\u00f3n de quienes \u2014como Trump\u2014 est\u00e1n empe\u00f1ados en resistirse al cambio, <strong>en particular cuando se tiene en cuenta el historial de racismo e imperialismo de Estados Unidos.<\/strong> Pero esos intentos reaccionarios estar\u00e1n condenados al fracaso\u00a0a largo plazo si las suficientes personas que se inspiraron en Obama y lo que \u00e9l represent\u00f3 se niegan a sucumbir al cinismo o la apat\u00eda. <strong>Si hacemos nuestro trabajo, el mundo cambiar\u00e1.<\/strong><\/p><p>De modo que s\u00ed: es esencial que los l\u00edderes pol\u00edticos hagan un retrato del mundo como deber\u00eda ser, aunque sepan que sus esfuerzos para alcanzarlo se quedar\u00e1n cortos. De hecho, tal vez eso sea lo m\u00e1s importante que pueden hacer. <strong>Y el hecho de que siempre habr\u00e1 resistencia al cambio solo hace ese prop\u00f3sito m\u00e1s importante.<\/strong> Porque, a lo largo de la historia, las presidencias como la de Barack Obama no consisten tanto en d\u00f3nde est\u00e1n las cosas al final de un mandato, o incluso unos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s. Tienen que ver con ad\u00f3nde nos dirigimos en la visi\u00f3n a largo plazo de la historia. 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7 minutos

D. R.

Escucha este artículo en el podcast de LENGUA:

En sus nuevas memorias, Una tierra prometida, Barack Obama permite al lector habitar sus meditaciones sobre la paradoja de ser el presidente de Estados Unidos: tienes más poder que quizá cualquier otra persona en la Tierra, y, sin embargo, ese poder está limitado por fuerzas ajenas a tu control. En una escena especialmente evocadora, explica sus reflexiones sobre el discurso que pronunció ante varias comunidades musulmanas de todo el mundo: «¿Es útil hacer un retrato de cómo debería ser el mundo si los esfuerzos por alcanzarlo no están destinados a cumplirse?».

Como escritor de discursos que trabajó con él, me he enfrentado a esa misma pregunta desde mi posición, ciertamente más humilde. Estados Unidos —gobernado por Barack Obama— dio varios pasos importantes para llevar a cabo esa proyección de la que, por ejemplo, habló en El Cairo. El número de soldados estadounidenses en Irak y Afganistán se redujo desde alrededor de 150.000 en el momento de ese discurso a aproximadamente 15.000 al final de la presidencia de Obama. Se prohibió a los servicios de seguridad estadounidenses el empleo de la tortura y la lucha antiterrorista de Estados Unidos se integró en un marco legal. Se alcanzó un acuerdo nuclear con la República Islámica de Irán, evitando así lo que podría haber supuesto un Irán con armas nucleares u otra guerra más en Oriente Medio. Obama retiró el apoyo de Estados Unidos al autócrata egipcio Hosni Mubarak tras la Primavera Árabe.

Sin embargo, no es difícil ver los innumerables aspectos en que nuestros esfuerzos para materializar la visión del discurso de El Cairo se han quedado cortos. Egipto está gobernado ahora por otro autócrata que llegó al poder en 2013 con un golpe de Estado. La esperanza de la Primavera Árabe murió en los turbulentos conflictos de la región: desde la campaña asesina de Bashar Asad contra su propia población hasta una guerra encabezada por los saudíes que ha devastado el Yemen. Los israelíes y los palestinos están hoy más lejos de una paz justa y segura anclada en una solución de dos Estados. El sucesor de Obama, Donald Trump, se ha retirado del acuerdo nuclear con Irán. En términos más generales, las fuerzas del tribalismo, el nacionalismo y el autoritarismo —a las que Obama se opuso— han irrumpido en todo el mundo como la propagación de un virus.

24 de octubre de 2020. El expresidente Barack Obama habla en apoyo del candidato presidencial demócrata Joe Biden durante un acto en North Miami, Florida. Crédito: Getty Images.

Por tanto, al hacer un balance del estado del mundo, no es difícil considerar la pregunta de Obama con un cansado cinismo y llegar a la conclusión de que esfuerzos como el discurso de El Cairo son ingenuos, o que la política es una empresa irremediablemente corrompida e irreparable. Pero, en realidad, ese es el peor tipo de derrotismo, porque nos condena a aceptar las realidades más duras del mundo como si fueran inevitables. El cinismo conduce a la apatía, y la apatía es lo que hace imposible el cambio.

Leer las memorias de Obama es recordar que la intersección de los movimientos sociales y el poder político es lo que hace posible el cambio. El propio Obama heredó el legado del mayor movimiento por la justicia social en Estados Unidos del siglo XX, que construyó una coalición de jóvenes y minorías étnicas para abrirse paso hasta el poder político en 2008. También heredó la doble catástrofe de la guerra de Irak y la crisis financiera, que representó el fracaso de los excesos de Estados Unidos en su persecución de la hegemonía mundial y su capitalismo desenfrenado.

La historia recogida en Una tierra prometida es un testimonio de por qué es importante el liderazgo político. Las medidas de Obama ayudaron a rescatar la economía mundial de una depresión y nos situaron en la senda del casi pleno empleo. La ley de reforma sanitaria (Obamacare) se extendió a veinte millones de estadounidenses más. Las inversiones en energía limpia y las regulaciones medioambientales empezaron a rehacer la economía. Se derogó la prohibición de que los homosexuales sirvieran en el ejército de Estados Unidos y, finalmente, el derecho al matrimonio homosexual se convirtió en ley suprema de la nación. Se extendieron las medidas de protección a los inmigrantes llevados a Estados Unidos cuando eran niños. Una visión del liderazgo estadounidense impregnada de humildad y honestidad no solo sentó las bases del acuerdo nuclear con Irán, sino también de iniciativas como la apertura a Cuba y el Acuerdo de París.

Y si la presidencia de Obama no les convence de la importancia del liderazgo político, sin duda debería hacerlo la de Donald Trump. Durante cuatro años, Trump ha atacado sin cesar el legado de Obama, el orden internacional liberal que Estados Unidos ayudó a construir y la propia democracia. Los trágicos resultados de ese proyecto se pueden ver en la respuesta increíblemente inepta de Estados Unidos ante la COVID-19, con cifras que rozan ya los 550.000 muertos.

Desde un punto de vista personal, la presidencia de Donald Trump también me ha hecho preguntarme qué constituye, exactamente, el legado de un presidente. En la cobertura del día a día de la política, los legados se suelen medir como un simple cuadro de mando: leyes aprobadas, regulaciones cambiadas e iniciativas de política exterior concluidas, como yo mismo he hecho antes. Pero al ver cómo la Administración que nos sucedió ha atacado gran parte de aquello en lo que trabajé, me he dado cuenta de que el impacto de los presidentes es mucho más intangible, e incluso sus repercusiones son mayores, en Estados Unidos y el mundo.

Cuando era pequeño, mi héroe político era John F. Kennedy. No estoy seguro de saber nombrar cinco leyes aprobadas por la Administración Kennedy. En el plano internacional, sí podría señalar la hábil gestión de la crisis de los misiles de Cuba y la fundación del Cuerpo de Paz. Pero eso, por sí solo, apenas explica el efecto de Kennedy sobre el mundo.

El expresidente felicita al nuevo presidente, Joe Biden, el día de su juramento, el 20 de enero de 2021, en el Capitolio de los Estados Unidos (Washington D.C.). Crédito: Getty Images.

A través de sus discursos y su carácter, pareció llevar a Estados Unidos y al mundo en una nueva y ambiciosa dirección que apuntaba a todo: desde el alunizaje hasta el fin de la Guerra Fría. Un número incalculable de estadounidenses se sintieron motivados para incorporarse a alguna forma de servicio público por medio del ejemplo de Kennedy. Lo sé porque yo fui uno de ellos. Y antes de escribir discursos presidenciales como el de El Cairo, siempre releía los de Kennedy de principios de los años sesenta, e intentaba crear otro eslabón en la cadena de la política y el liderazgo progresistas de Estados Unidos.

En los cuatro años transcurridos desde la salida de Obama de la presidencia, he experimentado una sorprendente paradoja. Por un lado, padecí la experiencia de ver cómo Trump ha intentado desmantelar los logros tangibles de Obama. Por otro, y de manera más intangible, dondequiera que fuese me encontraba con gente que vinculaba el inicio de su activismo o liderazgo con alguna chispa de inspiración o motivación de Obama. Esto incluye la clase demócrata que retomó la Cámara de Representantes en 2018 y que puso fin al ataque legislativo de Trump contra el legado de Obama. También incluye a todos los progresistas, desde Justin Trudeau a los europeos y los jóvenes que se unen a las protestas contra el autoritarismo en África o en Asia. Incluso aquellos progresistas que critican las iniciativas de Obama pueden apuntar más alto gracias a los cimientos que él puso, sea el movimiento en defensa de la vida de los negros (Black Lives Matter) o el afán por unas políticas económicas más redistributivas.

Un legado es algo vivo. Y el legado de Obama se ve diferente a principios de 2021 respecto a hace un par de años. Joe Biden, el vicepresidente de Obama, acaba de ser elegido presidente de Estados Unidos. Su Administración ya se está llenando de veteranos de los años de Obama. A pesar de ser un político más conservador que Obama, Biden fue elegido con un programa más progresista que el que presentó Obama en 2008 en cuestiones como la guerra y la paz, la atención médica, el cambio climático y el empeño en la justicia racial. La propia vicepresidenta de Biden es una mujer negra, lo que refuerza los cambios demográficos en el poder estadounidense que Obama anunció. El péndulo está listo para volver a oscilar en la dirección del ideal de Estados Unidos que Obama persiguió.

Una tierra prometida hace su útil aparición en este momento de cambio. Nos recuerda que, de vez en cuando, hay presidencias que plasman la culminación de un movimiento y los talentos de un líder político de forma que llevan al país en una nueva dirección, con una reacción en cadena en todo el mundo. Tal vez sea inevitable que una presidencia como esa provoque la reacción de quienes —como Trump— están empeñados en resistirse al cambio, en particular cuando se tiene en cuenta el historial de racismo e imperialismo de Estados Unidos. Pero esos intentos reaccionarios estarán condenados al fracaso a largo plazo si las suficientes personas que se inspiraron en Obama y lo que él representó se niegan a sucumbir al cinismo o la apatía. Si hacemos nuestro trabajo, el mundo cambiará.

De modo que sí: es esencial que los líderes políticos hagan un retrato del mundo como debería ser, aunque sepan que sus esfuerzos para alcanzarlo se quedarán cortos. De hecho, tal vez eso sea lo más importante que pueden hacer. Y el hecho de que siempre habrá resistencia al cambio solo hace ese propósito más importante. Porque, a lo largo de la historia, las presidencias como la de Barack Obama no consisten tanto en dónde están las cosas al final de un mandato, o incluso unos años después. Tienen que ver con adónde nos dirigimos en la visión a largo plazo de la historia. Cuando pienso en todas las personas a las que Obama llegó como presidente, y en todas las cosas que harán —los movimientos que iniciarán, las posiciones que ocuparán, la huella que dejarán— sigo tan esperanzado como en 2008.

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