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Cuba: entre la Patria y la Muerte

Mezcla de ensayo cultural, autobiografía, cuaderno de viaje y manifiesto artístico del exilio, «El mapa de sal» es el breve y riquísimo testimonio de Iván de la Nuez, un autor que atravesó la revolución, el desencanto posterior, el exilio, la caída del Muro y el brutal ingreso a la globalización. Publicado en el año 2000 y ahora con una nueva edición digital, este fragmento, en el que se cruzan Shakespeare, el himno cubano, la publicidad y Kafka, es apenas una muestra de la vigencia de lo que este libro tiene para decir en el siglo XXI sobre las realidades que ya no existen y las nuevas que de pronto debemos habitar.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Soroa, Cuba. A\u00f1o 2006. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<br \/><br 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">IV\u00c1N DE LA NUEZ<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/146792-john-dinges\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br \/><\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4508-walter-isaacson\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br \/><\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4241-jose-carlos-yrigoyen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br \/><\/a><\/span><\/strong><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fxysqfn\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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estas inmediaciones se ha jugado una parte importante de mi historia. La de una gran dispersi\u00f3n espacial acompa\u00f1ada por una peque\u00f1a renuncia nacional. <strong>No es que no tenga memoria de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/246535-el-mapa-de-sal\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los a\u00f1os que pas\u00e9 en La Habana<\/a><\/span>, pero no encuentro motivos para albergar una nostalgia fundamental por ellos.<\/strong> Entre otras cosas porque mi memoria \u2014vital, er\u00f3tica, intelectual\u2014 est\u00e1 hoy extendida y extraviada en un pasadizo sin nombre de Managua, en un encuentro aleccionador a orillas del Mississippi, en ciertos itinerarios nocturnos de Miami Beach, en un barco durante una extra\u00f1a madrugada de Acapulco, en casi todos los bares de Barcelona y en entra\u00f1ables aunque un tanto decadentes antros de Madrid.<\/p><p>Conozco con cierta profundidad la intensidad cubana. Tambi\u00e9n viv\u00ed en La Habana d\u00edas muy fuertes, con sus correspondientes jornadas nocturnas. Y todav\u00eda hoy me divierte mi antigua afici\u00f3n a coleccionar titulares absurdos, abandonados junto a mis libros, mi m\u00fasica, mi perro o mis padres. Tambi\u00e9n yo supe de noticias deportivas con titulares filos\u00f3ficos: <strong>\u00abS\u00f3crates dice que no tiene problemas en venir a Cuba\u00bb.<\/strong> Anuncios de alimentaci\u00f3n que s\u00ed parec\u00edan del orden deportivo: \u00abPollo Piloto vence viernes\u00bb. Reportes de guerra \u2014en este caso de la creaci\u00f3n de trincheras en toda La Habana\u2014 que nos remit\u00edan a la faceta <em>gourmet<\/em> del M\u00e1ximo L\u00edder: \u00abComandante, no tenga ninguna duda: convertiremos La Habana en un inmenso queso gruyer\u00bb. As\u00ed como un anuncio de carpinter\u00eda que nos colocaba ante un futuro temible: <strong>\u00abSe venden corrales para ni\u00f1os cuadrados\u00bb.<\/strong> Todo ello me coloc\u00f3 en un tr\u00e1nsito ca\u00f3tico mediante el cual fui dejando de ser un hijo de la Utop\u00eda para convertirme en algo as\u00ed como un hermano de la Atl\u00e1ntida.<\/p><p>Yo dibujo\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/246535-el-mapa-de-sal\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">este mapa de sal<\/a><\/span> para desatar igualmente la posibilidad de la extra\u00f1eza, la multiplicidad, la diferencia y las salidas alternativas; tanto frente a los fundamentalismos del comunismo vencido como en contra de la globalizaci\u00f3n plet\u00f3rica de la victoria. <strong>Por eso es imprescindible que este mapa de sal sea ap\u00e1trida.<\/strong> Aunque cargue por ello con todas las descalificaciones con que los dogmatismos han te\u00f1ido este concepto. No nos llamemos a enga\u00f1o, por debajo de la imagen t\u00f3pica y tur\u00edstica de una cultura ataviada con los disfraces del carnaval, suele ocultarse una impenitente disposici\u00f3n a los extremos y, por qu\u00e9 no decirlo, a la necrofilia misma.<\/p><p>En el primer caso, est\u00e1n los polos de una cultura que se precia de tener un M\u00e1ximo L\u00edder (los otros son m\u00ednimos), un L\u00edder del Mundo Libre (el resto forma parte del mundo cautivo), as\u00ed como una vasta nobleza, plagada de monarcas como la Reina de la Salsa o, ya desfilando por la calle Ocho de Miami, el Rey de la Pizza, el Rey del Ponche y el Rey de la Frita. En cuanto a la necrofilia, siempre una definici\u00f3n similar en toda la historia de la Naci\u00f3n:<strong> o el Proyecto o la Muerte.<\/strong> No se trata ya, aunque no podemos obviarlas, de las met\u00e1foras extremas de la insularidad: la Utop\u00eda o la Atl\u00e1ntida, la libertad o la cautividad, el florecimiento o el hundimiento. Se trata de esl\u00f3ganes de una innegable continuidad:<strong> \u00abIndependencia o Muerte\u00bb, \u00abPatria o Muerte\u00bb, \u00abSocialismo o Muerte\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p>El Himno Nacional de Cuba concluye con un rotundo<strong> \u00abMorir por la Patria es vivir\u00bb.<\/strong> Esto ha tenido las respuestas de dos poetas. Uno en Cuba. Otro en el exilio. El primero, Ram\u00f3n Fern\u00e1ndez-Larrea, escribi\u00f3 en los a\u00f1os ochenta: <strong>\u00abMorir por la Patria no es vivir \/ es morir por la Patria\u00bb.<\/strong> Gustavo P\u00e9rez Firmat, por su parte, acot\u00f3 lo siguiente desde Carolina del Norte: <strong>\u00abBayameses, tengo noticias para ustedes \/ Vivir sin la Patria es tambi\u00e9n vivir\u00bb.<\/strong> Si esto pareciera her\u00e9tico, deber\u00eda recordar que estos poemas se inscriben en una tradici\u00f3n de sospecha ante el Himno Nacional por la que ya transit\u00f3 Nicol\u00e1s Guill\u00e9n \u2014nada menos que el Poeta Nacional\u2014, en la duda que una vez nos leg\u00f3: \u00abAl combate corred Bayameses \/ \u00bfY por qu\u00e9 no corramos? \/ Me he preguntado esto algunas veces\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anegar el mundo (y a negar el mundo) ha sido mi lema favorito para entrar en la era global. Esta anegaci\u00f3n es, al mismo tiempo, una anegaci\u00f3n de tinta.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"06\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"puisva9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLiteratura y di\u00e1spora son aspectos pr\u00e1cticamente contrarios: las dificultades de un exilio a menudo no dejan posibilidad de escribir. Es decir, hay que dejar de ser el Homero que uno fue para convertirse en el Ulises que puede llegar a ser. Cambiar la escritura por la navegaci\u00f3n, sordera ficticia ante los cantos de sirena, y la siempre patente (y pat\u00e9tica) posibilidad de regresar a un lugar que no existe\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ymx51pp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Escritura y di\u00e1spora son dos estatutos obligados a vivir una enemistad indisociable: la di\u00e1spora te abre la posibilidad de habitar un mundo que antes fue solo le\u00eddo. Y al rev\u00e9s: el mundo anteriormente vivido ya es solo escritura, noticias del diario, webs en la red, cartas \u2014en una palabra: texto.<\/p><p>Hay tambi\u00e9n otra posibilidad, literatura y di\u00e1spora son aspectos pr\u00e1cticamente contrarios: las dificultades de un exilio a menudo no dejan posibilidad de escribir, y pronto se nos presenta la cruda realidad, muy distinta al viaje de regreso y a lo que atisb\u00f3 Maurice Blanchot\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36619-odisea-9788491050803\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">al leer la Odisea<\/span>.<\/a> Es decir, hay que dejar de ser el Homero que uno fue para convertirse en el Ulises que puede llegar a ser. Cambiar la escritura por la navegaci\u00f3n, sordera ficticia ante los cantos de sirena, y<strong> la siempre patente (y pat\u00e9tica) posibilidad de regresar a un lugar que no existe.<\/strong><\/p><p>Yo navego en esas dislocaciones en las que quiz\u00e1 ya solo nos sea posible una po\u00e9tica de la experiencia. Una m\u00ednima moral por la que replantearse nuestra relaci\u00f3n con el mundo, la sociedad, la historia y la naturaleza desde los retos que impone<strong> un presente que nos ha colocado en la intemperie, acaso la m\u00e1s extra\u00f1a y libre de las patrias.<\/strong><\/p><p>Harold Bloom ha insistido en que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36634-comedias-obra-completa-shakespeare-1-9788491051343\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Shakespeare<\/a><\/span> es el inventor de lo humano. Y quiz\u00e1 tenga raz\u00f3n, dado que la escala de la condici\u00f3n de sus personajes es, todav\u00eda, tan humana como sus m\u00f3viles:<strong> la ambici\u00f3n, la envidia, los celos, la traici\u00f3n, el honor.<\/strong><\/p><p>Mi situaci\u00f3n es, sin embargo, kafkiana, con todos los \u00edtems de una condici\u00f3n que bien podr\u00edamos llamar <em>posthumana:<\/em><strong> desplazamiento, extranjer\u00eda, desarraigo, soledad, exclusi\u00f3n, multiplicidad, renuncia, silencio.<\/strong> En Shakespeare los personajes sab\u00edan sus culpas, estaban atormentados por sus pasiones, guardaban una relaci\u00f3n directa con su destino, por terrible que este fuera. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/682-franz-kafka\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Kafka<\/a><\/span>, en cambio, nos presenta unos individuos que desconocen sus culpas, cuyos destinos no pueden gobernar, con unas contradicciones que est\u00e1n siempre causadas por fuerzas que los desbordan. Da lo mismo que provengan de un ente misterioso que controla las vidas, de ciudades en las que desaparece la escala humana o de oficinas donde se aniquila toda posibilidad vital.<\/p><p>De ah\u00ed que la extranjer\u00eda de Kafka no se deba a un mero asunto de pasaporte \u2014el jud\u00edo de Praga que escrib\u00eda en alem\u00e1n, poseedor de un idioma sin pa\u00eds y de un pa\u00eds sin idioma\u2014. Kafka, m\u00e1s que un idioma, es un acento, una disonancia en medio de la normalidad de la cultura moderna que nos desarma, con su escritura, todo aquello en lo que las redes imaginarias de la burocracia nos han comprometido: <strong>las estrecheces de las patrias y las formas comarcales de entender la cultura, la enajenaci\u00f3n de la modernidad, los deberes fiscales, los himnos diversos.<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p>Frente a semejante diagn\u00f3stico, Kafka experimenta un ant\u00eddoto. Como en las <em>matrioskas<\/em> rusas, en las que siempre queda una pieza por abrir, en Kafka hay siempre una fuga por emprender.<strong> Todo lo que no sea esa fuga significa sucumbir a los problemas del mundo industrial;<\/strong> en medio de una sociedad que nos bestializa o nos maquiniza, que nos hace vivir una \u00abhumanidad\u00bb que no es la nuestra y compartir aquello que no nos pertenece.<\/p><p><strong>\u00abTodo hombre lleva dentro una habitaci\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/strong> Desde esa habitaci\u00f3n Kafka supo imaginarnos personajes extra\u00f1os: un individuo que guarda cinco escopetas para sus convecinos, un muchacho que hereda un gato y por eso ha llegado a alcalde de Londres,<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36614-don-quijote-de-la-mancha-9788491050759\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36614-don-quijote-de-la-mancha-9788491050759\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un Sancho Panza libre, un Quijote suicida<\/a><\/span>, unas sirenas silentes, un conde llamado Westwest, unas aldeas que no toleran hu\u00e9spedes.<\/p><p>Si ser proustiano es todav\u00eda sublime, ser kafkiano, sin embargo, es algo que, junto a ser dantesco o maquiav\u00e9lico, todav\u00eda provoca alg\u00fan estremecimiento. Sin embargo, ser kafkiano es, tal vez, una de las pocas posibilidades de abrir algunas ventanas a nuestro presente. <strong>De negar el mundo (y anegar el mundo) para sobrevivir despu\u00e9s de la inundaci\u00f3n.<\/strong> Y para aprender a nombrar las cosas, como un cart\u00f3grafo de la intemperie, del mismo modo que hubo que nombrarlas despu\u00e9s del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/monologo-de-isabel-viendo-llover-en-macondo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">aguacero descomunal en Macondo<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfPuede volver el fascismo?<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-ben-rhodes-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Barack Obama por Ben Rhodes: el legado de un presidente en palabras de un testigo excepcional<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El Plan C\u00f3ndor, un fantasma que recorre el 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12 minutos

Soroa, Cuba. Año 2006. Crédito: Getty Images.

En estas inmediaciones se ha jugado una parte importante de mi historia. La de una gran dispersión espacial acompañada por una pequeña renuncia nacional. No es que no tenga memoria de los años que pasé en La Habana, pero no encuentro motivos para albergar una nostalgia fundamental por ellos. Entre otras cosas porque mi memoria —vital, erótica, intelectual— está hoy extendida y extraviada en un pasadizo sin nombre de Managua, en un encuentro aleccionador a orillas del Mississippi, en ciertos itinerarios nocturnos de Miami Beach, en un barco durante una extraña madrugada de Acapulco, en casi todos los bares de Barcelona y en entrañables aunque un tanto decadentes antros de Madrid.

Conozco con cierta profundidad la intensidad cubana. También viví en La Habana días muy fuertes, con sus correspondientes jornadas nocturnas. Y todavía hoy me divierte mi antigua afición a coleccionar titulares absurdos, abandonados junto a mis libros, mi música, mi perro o mis padres. También yo supe de noticias deportivas con titulares filosóficos: «Sócrates dice que no tiene problemas en venir a Cuba». Anuncios de alimentación que sí parecían del orden deportivo: «Pollo Piloto vence viernes». Reportes de guerra —en este caso de la creación de trincheras en toda La Habana— que nos remitían a la faceta gourmet del Máximo Líder: «Comandante, no tenga ninguna duda: convertiremos La Habana en un inmenso queso gruyer». Así como un anuncio de carpintería que nos colocaba ante un futuro temible: «Se venden corrales para niños cuadrados». Todo ello me colocó en un tránsito caótico mediante el cual fui dejando de ser un hijo de la Utopía para convertirme en algo así como un hermano de la Atlántida.

Yo dibujo este mapa de sal para desatar igualmente la posibilidad de la extrañeza, la multiplicidad, la diferencia y las salidas alternativas; tanto frente a los fundamentalismos del comunismo vencido como en contra de la globalización pletórica de la victoria. Por eso es imprescindible que este mapa de sal sea apátrida. Aunque cargue por ello con todas las descalificaciones con que los dogmatismos han teñido este concepto. No nos llamemos a engaño, por debajo de la imagen tópica y turística de una cultura ataviada con los disfraces del carnaval, suele ocultarse una impenitente disposición a los extremos y, por qué no decirlo, a la necrofilia misma.

En el primer caso, están los polos de una cultura que se precia de tener un Máximo Líder (los otros son mínimos), un Líder del Mundo Libre (el resto forma parte del mundo cautivo), así como una vasta nobleza, plagada de monarcas como la Reina de la Salsa o, ya desfilando por la calle Ocho de Miami, el Rey de la Pizza, el Rey del Ponche y el Rey de la Frita. En cuanto a la necrofilia, siempre una definición similar en toda la historia de la Nación: o el Proyecto o la Muerte. No se trata ya, aunque no podemos obviarlas, de las metáforas extremas de la insularidad: la Utopía o la Atlántida, la libertad o la cautividad, el florecimiento o el hundimiento. Se trata de eslóganes de una innegable continuidad: «Independencia o Muerte», «Patria o Muerte», «Socialismo o Muerte».

El Himno Nacional de Cuba concluye con un rotundo «Morir por la Patria es vivir». Esto ha tenido las respuestas de dos poetas. Uno en Cuba. Otro en el exilio. El primero, Ramón Fernández-Larrea, escribió en los años ochenta: «Morir por la Patria no es vivir / es morir por la Patria». Gustavo Pérez Firmat, por su parte, acotó lo siguiente desde Carolina del Norte: «Bayameses, tengo noticias para ustedes / Vivir sin la Patria es también vivir». Si esto pareciera herético, debería recordar que estos poemas se inscriben en una tradición de sospecha ante el Himno Nacional por la que ya transitó Nicolás Guillén —nada menos que el Poeta Nacional—, en la duda que una vez nos legó: «Al combate corred Bayameses / ¿Y por qué no corramos? / Me he preguntado esto algunas veces». 

Anegar el mundo (y a negar el mundo) ha sido mi lema favorito para entrar en la era global. Esta anegación es, al mismo tiempo, una anegación de tinta.

«Literatura y diáspora son aspectos prácticamente contrarios: las dificultades de un exilio a menudo no dejan posibilidad de escribir. Es decir, hay que dejar de ser el Homero que uno fue para convertirse en el Ulises que puede llegar a ser. Cambiar la escritura por la navegación, sordera ficticia ante los cantos de sirena, y la siempre patente (y patética) posibilidad de regresar a un lugar que no existe».

Escritura y diáspora son dos estatutos obligados a vivir una enemistad indisociable: la diáspora te abre la posibilidad de habitar un mundo que antes fue solo leído. Y al revés: el mundo anteriormente vivido ya es solo escritura, noticias del diario, webs en la red, cartas —en una palabra: texto.

Hay también otra posibilidad, literatura y diáspora son aspectos prácticamente contrarios: las dificultades de un exilio a menudo no dejan posibilidad de escribir, y pronto se nos presenta la cruda realidad, muy distinta al viaje de regreso y a lo que atisbó Maurice Blanchot al leer la Odisea. Es decir, hay que dejar de ser el Homero que uno fue para convertirse en el Ulises que puede llegar a ser. Cambiar la escritura por la navegación, sordera ficticia ante los cantos de sirena, y la siempre patente (y patética) posibilidad de regresar a un lugar que no existe.

Yo navego en esas dislocaciones en las que quizá ya solo nos sea posible una poética de la experiencia. Una mínima moral por la que replantearse nuestra relación con el mundo, la sociedad, la historia y la naturaleza desde los retos que impone un presente que nos ha colocado en la intemperie, acaso la más extraña y libre de las patrias.

Harold Bloom ha insistido en que Shakespeare es el inventor de lo humano. Y quizá tenga razón, dado que la escala de la condición de sus personajes es, todavía, tan humana como sus móviles: la ambición, la envidia, los celos, la traición, el honor.

Mi situación es, sin embargo, kafkiana, con todos los ítems de una condición que bien podríamos llamar posthumana: desplazamiento, extranjería, desarraigo, soledad, exclusión, multiplicidad, renuncia, silencio. En Shakespeare los personajes sabían sus culpas, estaban atormentados por sus pasiones, guardaban una relación directa con su destino, por terrible que este fuera. Kafka, en cambio, nos presenta unos individuos que desconocen sus culpas, cuyos destinos no pueden gobernar, con unas contradicciones que están siempre causadas por fuerzas que los desbordan. Da lo mismo que provengan de un ente misterioso que controla las vidas, de ciudades en las que desaparece la escala humana o de oficinas donde se aniquila toda posibilidad vital.

De ahí que la extranjería de Kafka no se deba a un mero asunto de pasaporte —el judío de Praga que escribía en alemán, poseedor de un idioma sin país y de un país sin idioma—. Kafka, más que un idioma, es un acento, una disonancia en medio de la normalidad de la cultura moderna que nos desarma, con su escritura, todo aquello en lo que las redes imaginarias de la burocracia nos han comprometido: las estrecheces de las patrias y las formas comarcales de entender la cultura, la enajenación de la modernidad, los deberes fiscales, los himnos diversos. 

Frente a semejante diagnóstico, Kafka experimenta un antídoto. Como en las matrioskas rusas, en las que siempre queda una pieza por abrir, en Kafka hay siempre una fuga por emprender. Todo lo que no sea esa fuga significa sucumbir a los problemas del mundo industrial; en medio de una sociedad que nos bestializa o nos maquiniza, que nos hace vivir una «humanidad» que no es la nuestra y compartir aquello que no nos pertenece.

«Todo hombre lleva dentro una habitación». Desde esa habitación Kafka supo imaginarnos personajes extraños: un individuo que guarda cinco escopetas para sus convecinos, un muchacho que hereda un gato y por eso ha llegado a alcalde de Londres, un Sancho Panza libre, un Quijote suicida, unas sirenas silentes, un conde llamado Westwest, unas aldeas que no toleran huéspedes.

Si ser proustiano es todavía sublime, ser kafkiano, sin embargo, es algo que, junto a ser dantesco o maquiavélico, todavía provoca algún estremecimiento. Sin embargo, ser kafkiano es, tal vez, una de las pocas posibilidades de abrir algunas ventanas a nuestro presente. De negar el mundo (y anegar el mundo) para sobrevivir después de la inundación. Y para aprender a nombrar las cosas, como un cartógrafo de la intemperie, del mismo modo que hubo que nombrarlas después del aguacero descomunal en Macondo.




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