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Una carta para la Franja de Gaza: de viaje por la memoria de un reportero de guerra

La situación entre Palestina e Israel sigue siendo extremadamente delicada, con intensos y devastadores enfrentamientos desde el 7 octubre de 2023, especialmente entre Israel y Hamas en Gaza, resultando en miles de muertes y desplazamientos masivos. Hoy, junio de 2024, ocho meses después de que estallará este nuevo episodio de violencia en la región (el último de una lucha muy duradera y sangrienta y que ha marcado la historia de Oriente Medio), la crisis humanitaria en la Franja de Gaza es severa, con una gran escasez de agua, alimentos y medicinas, y la comunidad internacional, incluida la ONU, ha pedido un alto el fuego con carácter inmediato. Sin embargo, el final de esta guerra se antoja muy lejano. De hecho, la historia nos hace pensar en que es posible que nunca se alcance una paz duradera en la zona. Si echamos la vista atrás, veremos que estamos en un callejón sin salida: en el siguiente extracto, un texto que forma parte del libro autobiográfico «Lecciones de una vida en guerra» (Plaza & Janés), viajamos con el reportero de guerra y documentalista Hernán Zin a la Palestina del año 2006, adonde acudió para entender y arrojar luz sobre las zonas más oscuras de una guerra que parece no tener fin.

{"id":2113,"id_simpleblog_post":"2113","id_simpleblog_category":"66","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Hern\u00e1n Zin","author_url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1129-hernan-zin","likes":"0","views":"2525","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:6:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;i:4;b:0;i:5;b:0;i:6;b:0;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"341533,341629","id_category_tematica":"64,116095,58,57,960580,973043,116107,116110,140,63","id_category_autor":"1129","id_category_editorial":"11349,971489","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Una carta para la Franja de Gaza: de viaje por la memoria de un reportero de guerra","meta_title":"Una carta para la Franja de Gaza: de viaje por la memoria de un reportero de guerra","meta_description":"En el siguiente extracto de \u00abLecciones de una vida en guerra\u00bb, el reportero de guerra y documentalista Hern\u00e1n Zin viaja a la Palestina del a\u00f1o 2006, adonde acudi\u00f3 para arrojar luz sobre las zonas m\u00e1s oscuras de una guerra que parece no tener fin.","meta_keywords":"En el siguiente extracto de \u00abLecciones de una vida en guerra\u00bb, el reportero de guerra y documentalista Hern\u00e1n Zin viaja a la Palestina del a\u00f1o 2006, adonde acudi\u00f3 para arrojar luz sobre las zonas m\u00e1s oscuras de una guerra que parece no tener fin.","short_content":"<p class=\"MsoNormal\">La situaci\u00f3n entre Palestina e Israel sigue siendo extremadamente delicada, con intensos y devastadores enfrentamientos desde el 7 octubre de 2023, especialmente entre Israel y Hamas en Gaza, resultando en miles de muertes y desplazamientos masivos. Hoy, junio de 2024, ocho meses despu\u00e9s de que estallar\u00e1 este nuevo episodio de violencia en la regi\u00f3n (el \u00faltimo de una lucha muy duradera y sangrienta y que ha marcado la historia de Oriente Medio), la crisis humanitaria en la Franja de Gaza es severa, con una gran escasez de agua, alimentos y medicinas, y la comunidad internacional, incluida la ONU, ha pedido un alto el fuego con car\u00e1cter inmediato<span style=\"font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;\">\u200b<\/span>. Sin embargo, el final de esta guerra se antoja muy lejano. De hecho, la historia nos hace pensar en que es posible que nunca se alcance una paz duradera en la zona. Si echamos la vista atr<span style=\"mso-ascii-font-family: Aptos; mso-hansi-font-family: Aptos; mso-bidi-font-family: Aptos;\">\u00e1<\/span>s, veremos que estamos en un callej<span style=\"mso-ascii-font-family: Aptos; mso-hansi-font-family: Aptos; mso-bidi-font-family: Aptos;\">\u00f3<\/span>n sin salida: en el siguiente extracto, un texto que forma parte del libro autobiogr<span style=\"mso-ascii-font-family: Aptos; mso-hansi-font-family: Aptos; mso-bidi-font-family: Aptos;\">\u00e1<\/span>fico <span style=\"mso-ascii-font-family: Aptos; mso-hansi-font-family: Aptos; mso-bidi-font-family: Aptos;\">\u00ab<\/span>Lecciones de una vida en guerra<span style=\"mso-ascii-font-family: Aptos; mso-hansi-font-family: Aptos; mso-bidi-font-family: Aptos;\">\u00bb<\/span> (Plaza &amp; Jan<span style=\"mso-ascii-font-family: Aptos; mso-hansi-font-family: Aptos; mso-bidi-font-family: Aptos;\">\u00e9<\/span>s), viajamos con el reportero de guerra y documentalista Hern\u00e1n Zin a la Palestina del a\u00f1o 2006, adonde acudi\u00f3 para entender y arrojar luz sobre las zonas m\u00e1s oscuras de una guerra que parece no tener fin.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"uyuj779\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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2006\u00a0\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Con la cabeza envuelta en el t\u00edpico pa\u00f1uelo palestino, llamado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Kufiya\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">kufiya<\/a><\/span>, el joven que estaba a mi lado lanzaba piedras con una fuerza y una precisi\u00f3n que de haber nacido en EE.\u2009UU. podr\u00eda haber tenido por delante una brillante carrera en la liga de b\u00e9isbol.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Los militares israel\u00edes que se encontraban en lo alto de la colina respond\u00edan a las piedras que tiraba este muchacho y tantos otros que me rodeaban, con bombas de humo y alguna que otra bala de goma.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La marcha hab\u00eda comenzado de forma pac\u00edfica. Ni\u00f1os, abuelos, mujeres. Todos protestando por ese nuevo trozo del muro que el Gobierno de Israel estaba erigiendo y que los iba a separar de amigos, familias y vecinos con los que hab\u00edan compartido destino durante cientos de a\u00f1os.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>El t\u00edpico tira y afloja entre palestinos e israel\u00edes en aquella \u00e9poca, desde que <a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ariel_Shar%C3%B3n\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Ariel Sharon<\/span><\/a> tuvo la brillante idea de mandar construir el muro que convertir\u00eda la vida de los locales en una ratonera de calles cortadas y puestos de control. Trayectos que antes duraban diez minutos ahora eran viajes de horas. Ese muro de la verg\u00fcenza en el que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/muralesmolinicos.com\/quien-es-banksy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Banksy<\/a><\/span> dej\u00f3 algunos de sus grafitis m\u00e1s conocidos.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Los ni\u00f1os bajo un trozo de playa que se abre entre el hormig\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La ni\u00f1a que vuela con globos hacia la libertad.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A medida que la marcha se acercaba a la colina donde estaban construyendo la nueva secci\u00f3n del muro, los j\u00f3venes se fueron envalentonando. Hac\u00eda rato que ven\u00edan recogiendo piedras. Cuando tuvieron a los soldados israel\u00edes a poca distancia, empezaron a lanzarlas. Ni\u00f1os, ancianos y mujeres corrieron a protegerse. Solo nos quedamos en el medio mi amigo y fot\u00f3grafo Mushir, espa\u00f1ol hijo de palestinos, y\u202fyo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Una de las bombas con gases nos pas\u00f3 tan cerca de la cabeza que ambos nos lanzamos instintivamente al suelo. Si nos hubiese dado de lleno, habr\u00edamos terminado en el hospital.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Deber\u00edas llevar casco \u2014me dijo con enfado.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Lo s\u00e9, pero es que tengo la cabeza demasiado grande.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Nos volvimos a poner de pie. Seguimos sacando fotos en medio de aquel ir y venir de proyectiles.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Me suena el tel\u00e9fono. Es mi conductor.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Israel acaba de lanzar un ataque sobre la Franja de Gaza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Joder. \u00bfEst\u00e1s donde aparcamos?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Aqu\u00ed sigo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Vale, esp\u00e9rame que ya voy.<\/p><p>Le cont\u00e9 la situaci\u00f3n a Mushir. Me dijo que, por favor, en Gaza s\u00ed usara el casco, que aquello no era una broma. Nos abrazamos y me fui corriendo hacia el coche, que me esperaba a un par de kil\u00f3metros de all\u00ed, donde hab\u00eda comenzado la 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2006\u00a0\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>En la habitaci\u00f3n del hotel en que sol\u00eda alojarme, sobre la peatonal Ben Yehuda, abr\u00ed el ordenador y me puse a escribir una carta. Se supon\u00eda que me la hab\u00eda enviado un conocido peri\u00f3dico espa\u00f1ol. En la misiva, dec\u00edan que trabajaba para ellos y que ten\u00eda que entrar a la Franja de Gaza. Copi\u00e9 y pegu\u00e9 el logo de internet. La mand\u00e9 a imprimir a la recepci\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Baj\u00e9 a buscarla.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>No era un <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/historia-arte.com\/artistas\/rembrandt\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Rembrandt<\/a><\/span>, pero estaba bien.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Seguro que colaba.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Sobre la cama, desplegu\u00e9 las cuatro o cinco credenciales falsas que tengo de prensa. Las descargaba de una web, les pon\u00eda mi foto, las imprim\u00eda y las plastificaba. As\u00ed de sencillo. Seleccion\u00e9 la que pareciera m\u00e1s seria. Una cuesti\u00f3n es una frontera africana, otra es el Gobierno de Israel.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Siempre he tenido que falsificar cartas, credenciales de prensa, permisos. A\u202flos bur\u00f3cratas no les entra en la cabeza que alguien decida ir <em>motu proprio<\/em> a una guerra. Lo que en la jerga period\u00edstica se llama <em>freelance<\/em>. Tampoco es que tenga mucho sentido, pero nada, es un oficio como cualquier otro.\u00a0<\/p><p>En la previa a los viajes a pa\u00edses en conflicto, adem\u00e1s de visitar la casa de cambio de divisa, me daba una vuelta por <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.esmadrid.com\/compras\/el-rastro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El Rastro<\/a><\/span>. All\u00ed cog\u00eda pines, camisetas, del Barcelona y del Madrid. Compraba cromos de Cristiano Ronaldo y Leo Messi. Imito a la perfecci\u00f3n la firma de ambos. Con los dos tengo alguna historia, ap\u00f3crifa, pero con un punto de verdad indispensable para que resulte veros\u00edmil. Resulta m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil mentir cuando posees alguna referencia que es cierta. Mejor te sale la cara de p\u00f3quer en un puesto de control militar o una aduana.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>El f\u00fatbol es el lenguaje universal.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Y como me genera un inter\u00e9s similar al de las danzas tradicionales de Kazajist\u00e1n, nunca he tenido problemas \u00e9ticos en cambiar de escudo seg\u00fan perciba la afinidad de mi interlocutor.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00a0\u2014<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/messi-psg-clubes-estado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Messi, el mejor del mundo<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfMessi? El mejor de todos los tiempos. Adem\u00e1s, es mi amigo, hicimos juntos una pel\u00edcula. Tengo aqu\u00ed una foto autografiada que me regal\u00f3.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Se iluminan los ojos de quien recibe aquella burda falsificaci\u00f3n como si le estuviera dando una estampita de la Virgen de Lourdes.\u00a0<\/p><p>En realidad, no hice una pel\u00edcula con Messi, pero s\u00ed que Jorge, su padre, tuvo la generosidad de cederme el nombre para un documental sobre la explotaci\u00f3n de los ni\u00f1os en el f\u00fatbol: <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film748612.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Quiero ser Messi<\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/a><\/em><\/p><p>Algo que los honra a ambos.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Cristiano Ronaldo, el mejor del mundo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfCristiano? El mejor de todos los tiempos. Somos vecinos. Tengo aqu\u00ed una foto autografiada que me regal\u00f3.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Como Madrid es una ciudad de un tama\u00f1o amigable, alejada del caos de urbes sobrepobladas como Bombay, Lagos o Los \u00c1ngeles, al vivir en el mismo barrio puedo perfectamente afirmar que somos \u00abvecinos\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La verdad de las mentiras, como dir\u00eda <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Mario_Vargas_Llosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Vargas Llosa<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo importante era cruzar esa frontera.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfPor qu\u00e9?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Porque mi objetivo final gravitaba a kil\u00f3metros de altura sobre la l\u00ednea que unos soldados, unos bur\u00f3cratas o unos colonizadores hubiesen decidido trazar en un paralelo, un r\u00edo o una monta\u00f1a. Iba a la guerra para amplificar la voz de las v\u00edctimas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Punto.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Ten\u00eda todo el derecho moral a hacer lo que estuviera en mi poder para sortear esas lindes que eran de otros, no m\u00edas. Respond\u00eda a mi vocaci\u00f3n. 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noche anterior a la partida hacia Gaza casi no pude conciliar el sue\u00f1o. No era por la culpa que sent\u00eda por haber falsificado una carta, sino por las noticias que llegaban desde all\u00ed y por el miedo que me invade antes de acercarme a la violencia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Durante meses, comandos de Ham\u00e1s hab\u00edan estado cavando un t\u00fanel al sur de la Franja. Cuando estuvo terminado, salieron a la superficie en una misi\u00f3n suicida. Mataron a dos soldados israel\u00edes y se llevaron secuestrado a un tercero: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.latercera.com\/mundo\/noticia\/los-vinculos-del-caso-de-gilad-shalit-el-soldado-israeli-que-fue-rehen-de-hamas-por-cinco-anos-con-la-actual-crisis-en-gaza\/63QLMEAVDZA6BNUXQNA62RNEFQ\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Gilad Schalit<\/a><\/span>. Por el lado palestino, murieron cuatro combatientes.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La respuesta del gobierno de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ehud_%C3%93lmert\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ehud Olmert<\/a><\/span>, que a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde terminar\u00eda preso por corrupci\u00f3n, no por cr\u00edmenes de guerra, fue desmesurada. Una vez m\u00e1s, el principio de la \u00abproporcionalidad\u00bb que establece el derecho humanitario era ignorado sin rubor alguno.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Puso en marcha la operaci\u00f3n <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Operaci%C3%B3n_Lluvia_de_Verano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Lluvia de Verano<\/a><\/span>. Miles de soldados, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Merkava\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">tanques Merkav<\/a>a<\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Lockheed_Martin_F-16_Fighting_Falcon\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">aviones F-16<\/a><\/span>, se lanzaron contra la paup\u00e9rrima franja palestina. La mayor ofensiva de la historia en Gaza. Luego vendr\u00edan peores, como la de 2014, en la que tambi\u00e9n estuve, aunque la entrada no fue tan ca\u00f3tica como la que me esperaba ahora.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Despu\u00e9s, la m\u00e1s terrible de todas, 2024.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Siempre con los ni\u00f1os como principales v\u00edctimas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A la ma\u00f1ana siguiente, cog\u00ed mi carta falsa, mi carnet falso de periodista, y\u202fme fui a la oficina de prensa en castellano del Gobierno israel\u00ed. Necesitaba un documento especial para entrar a Gaza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Tras esperar un periodo de tiempo que se me hizo eterno, me recibi\u00f3 la responsable de aquella oficina: Claudia, una israel\u00ed de origen colombiano. Mientras miraba mis papeles, me ech\u00f3 la bronca:\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Los medios espa\u00f1oles no son objetivos, lo que cuentan es siempre en favor de los palestinos. No dejes de comunicarte todos los d\u00edas a este tel\u00e9fono.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Me pas\u00f3 un papel.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Se llama Hern\u00e1n, es el responsable de prensa del mando sur del ej\u00e9rcito. Habla perfectamente espa\u00f1ol.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Original nombre.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo curioso del asunto es que, una vez en Gaza, cada vez que hablaba con Hern\u00e1n, parec\u00eda un mon\u00f3logo de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Miguel_Gila\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Gila<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Hola, Hern\u00e1n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Hola, Hern\u00e1n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Mira, tocayo, acaba de caer un misil cerca de la ciudad de Gaza. Ha impactado de lleno en una abuela y su nieto que iban en un burro. Ambos han muerto. \u00bfAlguna declaraci\u00f3n?\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00a0\u2014No tengo noticias. Dame unos minutos que averiguo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A mi alrededor, los restos de aquella abuela, su nieto y el burro. Llega el marido de la mujer, que no puede dejar de llorar. Sus vecinos intentan consolarlo. Aparece una ambulancia de la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Cruz_Roja\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Media Luna Roja<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Al rato suena mi tel\u00e9fono m\u00f3vil.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Hola, Hern\u00e1n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Hola, Hern\u00e1n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Mira, me dicen por ac\u00e1 que son terroristas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfLa abuela y el nieto?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Terroristas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014<em>Todah.<\/em>\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Que quiere decir \u00abgracias\u00bb en hebreo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014<em>Todah.<\/em>\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Juro que as\u00ed fueron todas nuestras conversaciones durante los tres meses que estuve en Gaza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero le hab\u00eda dado mi palabra a Claudia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>As\u00ed que llamaba, aunque la respuesta era la misma o similar:\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 han bombardeado una escuela de la ONU llena de refugiados?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Porque estaban los terroristas de Ham\u00e1s.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014<em>Todah.\u00a0\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>\u2014<em>Todah.\u00a0\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Por mi parte, encantado de que Claudia me estuviera rega\u00f1ando a causa de la supuesta parcialidad de los medios espa\u00f1oles. Eso hac\u00eda que no prestara demasiada atenci\u00f3n a aquella carta que, a\u202fla luz del d\u00eda, delataba bastante su dudosa procedencia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Hab\u00eda pasado de un Rembrandt a un desdibujado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/historia-arte.com\/artistas\/jean-michel-basquiat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Basquiat<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Para evitar suspicacias, me invent\u00e9 una historia. Tambi\u00e9n vale inventarse historias para tratar de cruzar una frontera.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Estaba de vacaciones en Israel cuando empez\u00f3 la guerra. Me encontraba en la playa con mi mujer y mis hijos. Me hab\u00edan jodido mis quince d\u00edas de descanso.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Eso me hac\u00eda quedar bien con Claudia, pues soy un hombre de familia que pasa sus vacaciones en Israel, ambas flagrantes patra\u00f1as, y\u202fjustificaba el estado de aquel documento.\u00a0<\/p><p>Era culpa de la impresora.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"81th0al\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_image\":\"\",\"image\":{\"url\":\"\/es\/img\/cms\/gaza3.webp\",\"id\":1},\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"center\",\"align_mobile\":\"center\",\"caption\":\"Palestina, a\u00f1o 2024. Manifestaci\u00f3n en la Bas\u00edlica de la Natividad en Bel\u00e9n en conmemoraci\u00f3n de un periodista asesinado por el ej\u00e9rcito israel\u00ed. 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Manifestaci\u00f3n en la Bas\u00edlica de la Natividad en Bel\u00e9n en conmemoraci\u00f3n de un periodista asesinado por el ej\u00e9rcito israel\u00ed. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7g9sgtk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Apenas tuve el permiso en la mano, sal\u00ed a la calle y corr\u00ed hacia la puerta de Damasco con los cuarenta kilos de b\u00e1rtulos que me acompa\u00f1an a todas partes: un bolso lleno de c\u00e1maras, lentes, cargadores, algo de ropa; una mochila con el ordenador y los discos duros; y, colgando del otro brazo, el chaleco antibalas y el casco.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>S\u00ed, Mushir, el casco tambi\u00e9n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Sab\u00eda que en la puerta de Damasco hab\u00eda taxistas palestinos que te llevaban hasta la frontera con Gaza. Y\u202fas\u00ed era. Tras negociar con varios consegu\u00ed uno que me ofreci\u00f3 un precio dentro de mi presupuesto, que era bastante lamentable. Algo habitual en los <em>freelance<\/em>. No sueles llevar seguro. El chaleco antibalas te lo prestan o lo alquilas. Mandas cr\u00f3nicas que los medios te pagan tarde y mal, si es que te pagan. De aquel conflicto, la Cadena Ser a\u00fan me debe una factura. Pero nada, la perseverancia que tengo para colarme en conflictos armados, o\u202fpara conseguir que me abran ciertas puertas, no la tengo para perseguir a los que me deben dinero.\u00a0<\/p><p>La distancia que separa a Jerusal\u00e9n de la Franja palestina es de apenas ochenta kil\u00f3metros. Una hora de viaje en coche. Y\u202fde las fronteras que he cruzado en el mundo, quiz\u00e1 sea la de mayor desigualdad. Mucho m\u00e1s que la que separa a EE.\u2009UU. de M\u00e9xico o a Europa del Magreb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Aislada del resto del planeta por la valla que la rodea, Gaza vive en una suerte de l\u00f3brego medioevo. Carros tirados por burros, monta\u00f1as de basura, edificios decr\u00e9pitos o reducidos a escombros por los misiles. Una especie de Calcuta bajo las bombas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Jerusal\u00e9n, con su lujoso hotel King David, su peatonal Ben Yehuda, su modernidad, sus turistas, te da la sensaci\u00f3n de estar en cualquier ciudad de un pa\u00eds pr\u00f3spero y desarrollado. Bien situado en el siglo\u202fXXI.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ne7z5bv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La distancia que separa a Jerusal\u00e9n de la Franja palestina es de apenas ochenta kil\u00f3metros. Una hora de viaje en coche. Y\u202fde las fronteras que he cruzado en el mundo, quiz\u00e1 sea la de mayor desigualdad.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ta1kdl0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Antes de partir, hab\u00eda desayunado con un amigo argentino,<a href=\\\"https:\/\/ciutatsdretshumans.cat\/es\/defensor\/meir-margalit\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"> <\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/ciutatsdretshumans.cat\/es\/defensor\/meir-margalit\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Meir Margalit<\/a><\/span>, contrario a la ocupaci\u00f3n como tantos otros israel\u00edes con los que hab\u00eda hablado en aquellos d\u00edas. La magn\u00edfica escritora <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Amira_Hass\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Amira Hass<\/a><\/span>, autora de <em>Beberse el mar en Gaza<\/em>, o\u202fel valiente periodista <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Gideon_Levy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Gideon Levy<\/a><\/span>, columnista del peri\u00f3dico <em>Haaretz<\/em>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Meir me hab\u00eda dado un consejo:\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014No cuentes lo que cuentan todos. Hazlo con esa pasi\u00f3n que tienes.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Era una recomendaci\u00f3n inteligente. Ya que carec\u00eda de los recursos de los que gozan los grandes medios, deb\u00eda buscar otro \u00e1ngulo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Estaba solo con mi c\u00e1mara.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>De hecho, logr\u00e9 entrar a Gaza antes que la BBC o la CNN. Como hab\u00eda combates en la frontera, alrededor de Beit Hanun, no nos dejaban pasar. Est\u00e1bamos varados en el paso de Erez. En lo que parece ser una constante en mi existencia, el taxista se hab\u00eda marchado y me hab\u00eda dejado solo all\u00ed con el bolso, los equipos y el chaleco antibalas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando empez\u00f3 a anochecer, los periodistas serios volvieron a sus hoteles de lujo en Ascal\u00f3n o Jerusal\u00e9n. Yo, que no ten\u00eda un duro, me recost\u00e9 contra un muro mientras ca\u00edan las bombas. Con las prisas, ni siquiera hab\u00eda cogido una botella de agua.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Un capit\u00e1n israel\u00ed llamado Marc, de origen estadounidense, se apiad\u00f3 de m\u00ed y me dej\u00f3 cruzar la frontera en una pausa en los combates. 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alguna manera, lo que me sugiri\u00f3 Meir Margalit era tambi\u00e9n lo que hab\u00eda estado haciendo hasta el momento.\u00a0<\/p><p>No me gustaba tener que crear documentos ap\u00f3crifos o hacerme el fan n\u00famero uno de Cristiano Ronaldo, sobre todo por la incertidumbre que me generaba, pero carec\u00eda de los medios que tienen las cadenas de noticias internacionales o los peri\u00f3dicos de prestigio.\u00a0<\/p><p>No contaba con un productor en Jerusal\u00e9n que me gestionara los papeles para poder llegar y ponerme a trabajar sin mayores distracciones.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Tampoco ten\u00eda una red de fuentes fiables dentro de Gaza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Mi \u00fanico aliado era Kayed, que hac\u00eda de traductor, ch\u00f3fer y conseguidor de lo que le pidiera. A\u202fsu lado vivir\u00eda infinidad de odiseas. Momentos de dolor, risas, rabia, llantos, en esa guerra, que fue la primera sobre la Franja, y\u202fen las siguientes de 2008 y 2014.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Tan lamentable era lo nuestro, que Kayed pon\u00eda las letras \u00abTV\u00bb con cinta adhesiva en el cap\u00f3 de su <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Daewoo_Lanos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Daewoo Lanos<\/a><\/span> para evitar que nos cayera un misil Hellfire de un helic\u00f3ptero Apache o de un dron (era el primer conflicto en el que vi el uso masivo de aviones no tripulados).\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Avanz\u00e1bamos a paso de tortuga hacia donde estaban los combates, por miedo a que nos confundieran con un comando del brazo armado de Ham\u00e1s o de la Yihad Isl\u00e1mica. No quer\u00edamos terminar como aquella pobre abuela y su nieto.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Sin embargo, Kayed cog\u00eda el m\u00f3vil y me consegu\u00eda lo que quisiera. Parec\u00eda tener el n\u00famero de tel\u00e9fono de los dos millones de habitantes de la Franja de Gaza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La voluntad sobre los recursos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Est\u00e1bamos en las mismas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Quiz\u00e1 por eso formamos un buen equipo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Durante los meses que pas\u00e9 en la guerra de 2006, hasta logr\u00e9 entrar a los t\u00faneles que conectan al territorio palestino con Egipto. Un acceso que pocos periodistas hab\u00edan conseguido. Reportaje que vender\u00eda a varios medios internacionales y que me ayudar\u00eda a costear aquella larga estancia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Es otra gran lecci\u00f3n que me dej\u00f3 la guerra: convertir tus falencias en virtudes. Tus debilidades en tus fuerzas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8vp2ytd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La noche anterior a la partida hacia Gaza casi no pude conciliar el sue\u00f1o. No era por la culpa que sent\u00eda por haber falsificado una carta, sino por las noticias que llegaban desde all\u00ed y por el miedo que me invade antes de acercarme a la violencia.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dsfy6l9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>De esta premisa surgi\u00f3 la idea de la pel\u00edcula <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmin.es\/pelicula\/nacido-en-gaza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Nacido en Gaza<\/a><\/span><\/em>, que rod\u00e9 en 2014. No ten\u00eda capital para excesivos alardes t\u00e9cnicos, as\u00ed que contando con la ayuda de Kayed, solo con mi c\u00e1mara, mis lentes y mis micr\u00f3fonos, retratar\u00eda historias m\u00ednimas, que creasen puentes de empat\u00eda.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Como parte de la estrategia, hab\u00eda decidido que rodar\u00eda con drones, en el mar y en c\u00e1mara lenta. Quer\u00eda romper el punto de vista. La frontalidad con la que hab\u00eda narrado mis historias hasta el momento. A\u202fla cantante <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Bebe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bebe<\/a><\/span>, que era mi pareja y a la que tanto debo, le fascin\u00f3 la idea. As\u00ed que me llamaba por las noches para asegurarse de que no me apartara del plan establecido.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfSeguro que est\u00e1s grabando como me has prometido?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A ver qui\u00e9n se anima a decirle que no.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s, ella tambi\u00e9n era productora de la pel\u00edcula. Puro coraz\u00f3n, generosidad, con un talento de otra galaxia, hab\u00eda invertido dinero de su propio bolsillo para ayudarme a financiar los viajes y el sueldo de Kayed.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando me tocaba grabar en el mar Mediterr\u00e1neo, los reporteros que estaban alojados en el hotel me miraban con absoluta incredulidad. Bajaba a desayunar en ba\u00f1ador, camiseta de tirantes y chanclas. Una toalla sobre el hombro. Unas gafas de buceo colgando del cuello.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Vacaciones en la guerra.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La carcasa para la c\u00e1mara me la hab\u00eda prestado mi hermano de sangre Sergio Carmona. Como soy un ser humano privado de la m\u00e1s m\u00ednima habilidad cuando se trata de labores manuales, me result\u00f3 imposible evitar que el agua se colara dentro.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>De esta manera me met\u00eda en el mar junto al peque\u00f1o Mohamed, un hijo de pescadores que se hab\u00eda visto obligado a recoger basura para alimentar a su familia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Con miedo a que nos cayera un misil, sin casi llegar a ver lo que estaba rodando, luchando para que el agua que entraba en la carcasa me permitiese hacer foco y para que la corriente no me arrastrara de regreso a Espa\u00f1a, lo grababa mientras \u00e9l nadaba y el sol se perd\u00eda en el horizonte.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>As\u00ed surgi\u00f3 una de las secuencias m\u00e1s conmovedoras que he hecho nunca, en la que Mohamed dice:\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abYo quiero al mar. He nacido en el mar. Me gustar\u00eda poder estar siempre en el mar, nadando y viviendo en \u00e9l. Olvidarme de todos los problemas a mi alrededor y seguir viviendo en el mar\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>No solo en la guerra sino en nuestra cotidianeidad, la pregunta es: \u00bfQu\u00e9 me juega en contra? \u00bfQu\u00e9 falencias tengo? \u00bfQu\u00e9 puedo hacer para que se ponga a mi favor?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>En este sentido, las fronteras f\u00edsicas son un claro obst\u00e1culo cuando vas a una guerra. Pero hay, en este lado de la loter\u00eda de los c\u00f3digos postales, otra serie de barreras conceptuales, jer\u00e1rquicas, normativas, sobre lo que sea que quieras hacer, que en ning\u00fan caso te deben empujar a ver solo tus debilidades.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>No puedes realizar un documental sin ayuda, sin haber estudiado cine, casi sin dinero, en solo tres meses y en un lugar como Gaza.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfQui\u00e9n lo dice?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Los c\u00e1nones establecidos por la industria audiovisual.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Mandadle saludos de mi parte.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Nacido en Gaza<\/em> no solo ganar\u00eda docenas de premios, sino que llegar\u00eda a ser uno de los documentales m\u00e1s vistos a nivel mundial en Netflix.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Una pel\u00edcula que estuvo en los cines a los tres meses de haberse comenzado a grabar, que me llev\u00f3 a compartir nominaci\u00f3n con Wim Wenders y su magn\u00edfica<em> La sal de la tierra,<\/em> en los Premios Platino.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>En las gradas de la ceremonia, el equipo de esa producci\u00f3n que hab\u00eda recaudado m\u00e1s de un mill\u00f3n de euros. A\u202fsu lado, con la impostada sonrisa de los que saben que van a perder por goleada, Bebe y yo, responsables de una pel\u00edcula que ten\u00eda un presupuesto de doce mil euros.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Con un obst\u00e1culo a\u00f1adido: antes de que estallara la guerra en Gaza me hab\u00eda comprometido con Canal Plus para hacer un reportaje sobre la violencia en Honduras. Esto me oblig\u00f3 a pasar, en un mismo plano secuencia, de Tel Aviv a Tegucigalpa.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Por el d\u00eda filmaba los cuerpos descuartizados por la mara Salvatrucha. Por la noche me hinchaba a caf\u00e9 para editar lo que hab\u00eda grabado deprisa, con miedo y corriendo de un lado a otro durante la ofensiva israel\u00ed.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La pasi\u00f3n que, con tanta sabidur\u00eda, Meir Margalit me hab\u00eda alentado a usar para contrarrestar mis carencias.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Algo que llevaba a\u00f1os viendo en mis viajes y que sin duda tambi\u00e9n me hab\u00eda inspirado: la voluntad de todas esas personas que no se dejan vencer, que siguen adelante con lo que tienen a mano, contra viento y marea.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>El conductor del Congo que arregla el motor de su coche con unos alambres. El adolescente que, con una gran sonrisa, intenta vender cometas en una calle de Kabul. El taxista que sigue saliendo a trabajar en San Pedro Sula, aunque la mara Salvatrucha lo haya amenazado de muerte por no pagarle la mordida del mes. La familia de refugiados sudaneses que, con unas ca\u00f1as, un poco de barro y unos pl\u00e1sticos de la ONU, se monta una vivienda en cuesti\u00f3n de horas. La madre que se pone a barrer la entrada apenas est\u00e1 construida. Sus hijos, que hacen girar un viejo neum\u00e1tico al que empujan con un palo, que se regalan el lujo de seguir jugando a pesar de todo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Premios, estrenos, ruedas de prensa, resultan min\u00fasculas haza\u00f1as del ego y la vanidad en comparaci\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Ellos son los \u00fanicos que tienen m\u00e9rito en esta historia.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xx5uxxp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Fronteras, himnos, banderas, religiones, \u00bfqu\u00e9 l\u00f3gica tienen en una l\u00ednea temporal de miles de millones de a\u00f1os? \u00bfEn un universo infinito del que apenas somos un punto casi 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sido un aliciente en este proceso, la necesidad que sent\u00eda de que el mundo escuchase la voz de los ni\u00f1os que hab\u00eda grabado en Gaza antes de que la rueda informativa y\u202fnuestra escasa capacidad de atenci\u00f3n se desviasen a otros temas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Un trabajo que ya hab\u00eda hecho con las mujeres violadas en el Congo, Sud\u00e1n, Bosnia y Uganda, con las v\u00edctimas de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Al-Shabaab_(organizaci%C3%B3n_terrorista)\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Al Shabab<\/a><\/span> en Somalia, como lo har\u00eda al a\u00f1o siguiente con quienes sufrieron los horrores del ISIS en Siria.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Para m\u00ed no hay bandos ni banderas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Solo est\u00e1n los que causan las guerras y los que las sufren.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Ah\u00ed se encontraba otra fortaleza que equilibraba mis carencias: la profunda convicci\u00f3n de que no somos m\u00e1s que unos primates 2.0 agarrados con las u\u00f1as a un planeta que da vueltas por un universo cuyas dimensiones y sentido escapan a nuestra capacidad de compresi\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Las lindes que nos han sido impuestas y que hemos asumido como propias carecen de raz\u00f3n de ser si las observamos desde la perspectiva del tiempo y el espacio.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Fronteras, himnos, banderas, religiones, \u00bfqu\u00e9 l\u00f3gica tienen en una l\u00ednea temporal de miles de millones de a\u00f1os? \u00bfEn un universo infinito del que apenas somos un punto casi invisible?\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Estas creaciones tienen el mayor de mis respetos si te ayudan de alguna manera, pero no cuando sirven para confundirnos, para separarnos y enfrentarnos, en beneficio de unos pocos.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Somos todos uno.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Somos lo mismo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Esos primates desconcertados.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Hasta el d\u00eda en que no asimilemos esto, lo incorporemos y ejercitemos,\u202fseguiremos\u202fabocados a la niebla de la guerra, la injusticia y el 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/arturo-perez-reverte-y-la-guerra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Arturo P\u00e9rez-Reverte y la guerra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/gaza-israel-hamas-guerra-dave-eggers\\\">Vivir en Gaza, una c\u00e1rcel con tres carceleros: Israel, Egipto y Ham\u00e1s<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/salman-rushdie-joseph-anton\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Salman Rushdie y la \u00abfatwa\u00bb que puso precio a su cabeza: el primer d\u00eda del resto de mi vida<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span 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20 minutos
Mural ubicado en Londres que rinde tributo a los periodistas palestinos Mohamed Al Masri, Ali Jadallah, Hind Khoudary y Abdulhakim Abu Riash. Crédito: Getty Images

Mural ubicado en Londres que rinde tributo a los periodistas palestinos Mohamed Al Masri, Ali Jadallah, Hind Khoudary y Abdulhakim Abu Riash. Crédito: Getty Images

Palestina, 2006  

Con la cabeza envuelta en el típico pañuelo palestino, llamado kufiya, el joven que estaba a mi lado lanzaba piedras con una fuerza y una precisión que de haber nacido en EE. UU. podría haber tenido por delante una brillante carrera en la liga de béisbol.  

Los militares israelíes que se encontraban en lo alto de la colina respondían a las piedras que tiraba este muchacho y tantos otros que me rodeaban, con bombas de humo y alguna que otra bala de goma.  

La marcha había comenzado de forma pacífica. Niños, abuelos, mujeres. Todos protestando por ese nuevo trozo del muro que el Gobierno de Israel estaba erigiendo y que los iba a separar de amigos, familias y vecinos con los que habían compartido destino durante cientos de años.  

El típico tira y afloja entre palestinos e israelíes en aquella época, desde que Ariel Sharon tuvo la brillante idea de mandar construir el muro que convertiría la vida de los locales en una ratonera de calles cortadas y puestos de control. Trayectos que antes duraban diez minutos ahora eran viajes de horas. Ese muro de la vergüenza en el que Banksy dejó algunos de sus grafitis más conocidos.  

Los niños bajo un trozo de playa que se abre entre el hormigón.  

La niña que vuela con globos hacia la libertad.  

A medida que la marcha se acercaba a la colina donde estaban construyendo la nueva sección del muro, los jóvenes se fueron envalentonando. Hacía rato que venían recogiendo piedras. Cuando tuvieron a los soldados israelíes a poca distancia, empezaron a lanzarlas. Niños, ancianos y mujeres corrieron a protegerse. Solo nos quedamos en el medio mi amigo y fotógrafo Mushir, español hijo de palestinos, y yo.  

Una de las bombas con gases nos pasó tan cerca de la cabeza que ambos nos lanzamos instintivamente al suelo. Si nos hubiese dado de lleno, habríamos terminado en el hospital.  

—Deberías llevar casco —me dijo con enfado.  

—Lo sé, pero es que tengo la cabeza demasiado grande.  

Nos volvimos a poner de pie. Seguimos sacando fotos en medio de aquel ir y venir de proyectiles.  

Me suena el teléfono. Es mi conductor.  

—Israel acaba de lanzar un ataque sobre la Franja de Gaza.  

—Joder. ¿Estás donde aparcamos?  

—Aquí sigo.  

—Vale, espérame que ya voy.

Le conté la situación a Mushir. Me dijo que, por favor, en Gaza sí usara el casco, que aquello no era una broma. Nos abrazamos y me fui corriendo hacia el coche, que me esperaba a un par de kilómetros de allí, donde había comenzado la manifestación.  

  • ¡En oferta!

Lecciones de una vida en guerra

Las lecciones de una vida dedicada a la guerra que nos ayudan a entender nuestro mundo y a nosotros mismos

Jerusalén, 2006  

En la habitación del hotel en que solía alojarme, sobre la peatonal Ben Yehuda, abrí el ordenador y me puse a escribir una carta. Se suponía que me la había enviado un conocido periódico español. En la misiva, decían que trabajaba para ellos y que tenía que entrar a la Franja de Gaza. Copié y pegué el logo de internet. La mandé a imprimir a la recepción.  

Bajé a buscarla.  

No era un Rembrandt, pero estaba bien.  

Seguro que colaba.  

Sobre la cama, desplegué las cuatro o cinco credenciales falsas que tengo de prensa. Las descargaba de una web, les ponía mi foto, las imprimía y las plastificaba. Así de sencillo. Seleccioné la que pareciera más seria. Una cuestión es una frontera africana, otra es el Gobierno de Israel.  

Siempre he tenido que falsificar cartas, credenciales de prensa, permisos. A los burócratas no les entra en la cabeza que alguien decida ir motu proprio a una guerra. Lo que en la jerga periodística se llama freelance. Tampoco es que tenga mucho sentido, pero nada, es un oficio como cualquier otro. 

En la previa a los viajes a países en conflicto, además de visitar la casa de cambio de divisa, me daba una vuelta por El Rastro. Allí cogía pines, camisetas, del Barcelona y del Madrid. Compraba cromos de Cristiano Ronaldo y Leo Messi. Imito a la perfección la firma de ambos. Con los dos tengo alguna historia, apócrifa, pero con un punto de verdad indispensable para que resulte verosímil. Resulta más fácil mentir cuando posees alguna referencia que es cierta. Mejor te sale la cara de póquer en un puesto de control militar o una aduana.  

El fútbol es el lenguaje universal.  

Y como me genera un interés similar al de las danzas tradicionales de Kazajistán, nunca he tenido problemas éticos en cambiar de escudo según perciba la afinidad de mi interlocutor. 

 —Messi, el mejor del mundo.  

—¿Messi? El mejor de todos los tiempos. Además, es mi amigo, hicimos juntos una película. Tengo aquí una foto autografiada que me regaló.  

Se iluminan los ojos de quien recibe aquella burda falsificación como si le estuviera dando una estampita de la Virgen de Lourdes. 

En realidad, no hice una película con Messi, pero sí que Jorge, su padre, tuvo la generosidad de cederme el nombre para un documental sobre la explotación de los niños en el fútbol: Quiero ser Messi.  

Algo que los honra a ambos.  

—Cristiano Ronaldo, el mejor del mundo.  

—¿Cristiano? El mejor de todos los tiempos. Somos vecinos. Tengo aquí una foto autografiada que me regaló.  

Como Madrid es una ciudad de un tamaño amigable, alejada del caos de urbes sobrepobladas como Bombay, Lagos o Los Ángeles, al vivir en el mismo barrio puedo perfectamente afirmar que somos «vecinos».  

La verdad de las mentiras, como diría Vargas Llosa.  

Lo importante era cruzar esa frontera.  

¿Por qué?  

Porque mi objetivo final gravitaba a kilómetros de altura sobre la línea que unos soldados, unos burócratas o unos colonizadores hubiesen decidido trazar en un paralelo, un río o una montaña. Iba a la guerra para amplificar la voz de las víctimas.  

Punto.  

Tenía todo el derecho moral a hacer lo que estuviera en mi poder para sortear esas lindes que eran de otros, no mías. Respondía a mi vocación. Y no iba a dejar que invento estúpido alguno me impidiera realizarla.  

Mural en honor a la periodista Shireem Abu Akleh, asesinada por fuerzas israelíes el 11 de mayo de 2022 en Cisjordania. Crédito: Getty Images.

Mural en honor a la periodista Shireem Abu Akleh, asesinada por fuerzas israelíes el 11 de mayo de 2022 en Cisjordania. Crédito: Getty Images.

La noche anterior a la partida hacia Gaza casi no pude conciliar el sueño. No era por la culpa que sentía por haber falsificado una carta, sino por las noticias que llegaban desde allí y por el miedo que me invade antes de acercarme a la violencia.  

Durante meses, comandos de Hamás habían estado cavando un túnel al sur de la Franja. Cuando estuvo terminado, salieron a la superficie en una misión suicida. Mataron a dos soldados israelíes y se llevaron secuestrado a un tercero: Gilad Schalit. Por el lado palestino, murieron cuatro combatientes.  

La respuesta del gobierno de Ehud Olmert, que años más tarde terminaría preso por corrupción, no por crímenes de guerra, fue desmesurada. Una vez más, el principio de la «proporcionalidad» que establece el derecho humanitario era ignorado sin rubor alguno.  

Puso en marcha la operación Lluvia de Verano. Miles de soldados, tanques Merkava, aviones F-16, se lanzaron contra la paupérrima franja palestina. La mayor ofensiva de la historia en Gaza. Luego vendrían peores, como la de 2014, en la que también estuve, aunque la entrada no fue tan caótica como la que me esperaba ahora.  

Después, la más terrible de todas, 2024.  

Siempre con los niños como principales víctimas.  

A la mañana siguiente, cogí mi carta falsa, mi carnet falso de periodista, y me fui a la oficina de prensa en castellano del Gobierno israelí. Necesitaba un documento especial para entrar a Gaza.  

Tras esperar un periodo de tiempo que se me hizo eterno, me recibió la responsable de aquella oficina: Claudia, una israelí de origen colombiano. Mientras miraba mis papeles, me echó la bronca:  

—Los medios españoles no son objetivos, lo que cuentan es siempre en favor de los palestinos. No dejes de comunicarte todos los días a este teléfono.  

Me pasó un papel.  

—Se llama Hernán, es el responsable de prensa del mando sur del ejército. Habla perfectamente español.  

Original nombre.  

Lo curioso del asunto es que, una vez en Gaza, cada vez que hablaba con Hernán, parecía un monólogo de Gila.  

—Hola, Hernán.  

—Hola, Hernán.  

—Mira, tocayo, acaba de caer un misil cerca de la ciudad de Gaza. Ha impactado de lleno en una abuela y su nieto que iban en un burro. Ambos han muerto. ¿Alguna declaración? 

 —No tengo noticias. Dame unos minutos que averiguo.  

A mi alrededor, los restos de aquella abuela, su nieto y el burro. Llega el marido de la mujer, que no puede dejar de llorar. Sus vecinos intentan consolarlo. Aparece una ambulancia de la Media Luna Roja.  

Al rato suena mi teléfono móvil.  

—Hola, Hernán.  

—Hola, Hernán.  

—Mira, me dicen por acá que son terroristas.  

—¿La abuela y el nieto?  

—Terroristas.  

Todah.  

Que quiere decir «gracias» en hebreo.  

Todah.  

Juro que así fueron todas nuestras conversaciones durante los tres meses que estuve en Gaza.  

Pero le había dado mi palabra a Claudia.  

Así que llamaba, aunque la respuesta era la misma o similar:  

—¿Por qué han bombardeado una escuela de la ONU llena de refugiados?  

—Porque estaban los terroristas de Hamás.  

Todah.  

Todah.  

Por mi parte, encantado de que Claudia me estuviera regañando a causa de la supuesta parcialidad de los medios españoles. Eso hacía que no prestara demasiada atención a aquella carta que, a la luz del día, delataba bastante su dudosa procedencia.  

Había pasado de un Rembrandt a un desdibujado Basquiat.  

Para evitar suspicacias, me inventé una historia. También vale inventarse historias para tratar de cruzar una frontera.  

Estaba de vacaciones en Israel cuando empezó la guerra. Me encontraba en la playa con mi mujer y mis hijos. Me habían jodido mis quince días de descanso.  

Eso me hacía quedar bien con Claudia, pues soy un hombre de familia que pasa sus vacaciones en Israel, ambas flagrantes patrañas, y justificaba el estado de aquel documento. 

Era culpa de la impresora.  

Palestina, año 2024. Manifestación en la Basílica de la Natividad en Belén en conmemoración de un periodista asesinado por el ejército israelí. Crédito: Getty Images.

Palestina, año 2024. Manifestación en la Basílica de la Natividad en Belén en conmemoración de un periodista asesinado por el ejército israelí. Crédito: Getty Images.

Apenas tuve el permiso en la mano, salí a la calle y corrí hacia la puerta de Damasco con los cuarenta kilos de bártulos que me acompañan a todas partes: un bolso lleno de cámaras, lentes, cargadores, algo de ropa; una mochila con el ordenador y los discos duros; y, colgando del otro brazo, el chaleco antibalas y el casco.  

Sí, Mushir, el casco también.  

Sabía que en la puerta de Damasco había taxistas palestinos que te llevaban hasta la frontera con Gaza. Y así era. Tras negociar con varios conseguí uno que me ofreció un precio dentro de mi presupuesto, que era bastante lamentable. Algo habitual en los freelance. No sueles llevar seguro. El chaleco antibalas te lo prestan o lo alquilas. Mandas crónicas que los medios te pagan tarde y mal, si es que te pagan. De aquel conflicto, la Cadena Ser aún me debe una factura. Pero nada, la perseverancia que tengo para colarme en conflictos armados, o para conseguir que me abran ciertas puertas, no la tengo para perseguir a los que me deben dinero. 

La distancia que separa a Jerusalén de la Franja palestina es de apenas ochenta kilómetros. Una hora de viaje en coche. Y de las fronteras que he cruzado en el mundo, quizá sea la de mayor desigualdad. Mucho más que la que separa a EE. UU. de México o a Europa del Magreb.  

Aislada del resto del planeta por la valla que la rodea, Gaza vive en una suerte de lóbrego medioevo. Carros tirados por burros, montañas de basura, edificios decrépitos o reducidos a escombros por los misiles. Una especie de Calcuta bajo las bombas.  

Jerusalén, con su lujoso hotel King David, su peatonal Ben Yehuda, su modernidad, sus turistas, te da la sensación de estar en cualquier ciudad de un país próspero y desarrollado. Bien situado en el siglo XXI.  

La distancia que separa a Jerusalén de la Franja palestina es de apenas ochenta kilómetros. Una hora de viaje en coche. Y de las fronteras que he cruzado en el mundo, quizá sea la de mayor desigualdad. 

Antes de partir, había desayunado con un amigo argentino, Meir Margalit, contrario a la ocupación como tantos otros israelíes con los que había hablado en aquellos días. La magnífica escritora Amira Hass, autora de Beberse el mar en Gaza, o el valiente periodista Gideon Levy, columnista del periódico Haaretz.  

Meir me había dado un consejo:  

—No cuentes lo que cuentan todos. Hazlo con esa pasión que tienes.  

Era una recomendación inteligente. Ya que carecía de los recursos de los que gozan los grandes medios, debía buscar otro ángulo.  

Estaba solo con mi cámara.  

De hecho, logré entrar a Gaza antes que la BBC o la CNN. Como había combates en la frontera, alrededor de Beit Hanun, no nos dejaban pasar. Estábamos varados en el paso de Erez. En lo que parece ser una constante en mi existencia, el taxista se había marchado y me había dejado solo allí con el bolso, los equipos y el chaleco antibalas.  

Cuando empezó a anochecer, los periodistas serios volvieron a sus hoteles de lujo en Ascalón o Jerusalén. Yo, que no tenía un duro, me recosté contra un muro mientras caían las bombas. Con las prisas, ni siquiera había cogido una botella de agua.  

Un capitán israelí llamado Marc, de origen estadounidense, se apiadó de mí y me dejó cruzar la frontera en una pausa en los combates. Eso sí, antes de darme luz verde, me dijo:  

—Mira que son chavales; si los terroristas disparan, ellos van a disparar, así estés tú en el medio.  

Una aclaración muy tranquilizadora.  

They are kids.  

Son chicos.  

Le di las gracias y tiré hacia Gaza cargado con mis bártulos.  

La suerte estaba echada.  

Alea iacta est.  

Fotograma del documental "Nacido en Gaza", de Hernán Zin.

Fotograma del documental Nacido en Gaza, de Hernán Zin.

De alguna manera, lo que me sugirió Meir Margalit era también lo que había estado haciendo hasta el momento. 

No me gustaba tener que crear documentos apócrifos o hacerme el fan número uno de Cristiano Ronaldo, sobre todo por la incertidumbre que me generaba, pero carecía de los medios que tienen las cadenas de noticias internacionales o los periódicos de prestigio. 

No contaba con un productor en Jerusalén que me gestionara los papeles para poder llegar y ponerme a trabajar sin mayores distracciones.  

Tampoco tenía una red de fuentes fiables dentro de Gaza.  

Mi único aliado era Kayed, que hacía de traductor, chófer y conseguidor de lo que le pidiera. A su lado viviría infinidad de odiseas. Momentos de dolor, risas, rabia, llantos, en esa guerra, que fue la primera sobre la Franja, y en las siguientes de 2008 y 2014.  

Tan lamentable era lo nuestro, que Kayed ponía las letras «TV» con cinta adhesiva en el capó de su Daewoo Lanos para evitar que nos cayera un misil Hellfire de un helicóptero Apache o de un dron (era el primer conflicto en el que vi el uso masivo de aviones no tripulados).  

Avanzábamos a paso de tortuga hacia donde estaban los combates, por miedo a que nos confundieran con un comando del brazo armado de Hamás o de la Yihad Islámica. No queríamos terminar como aquella pobre abuela y su nieto.  

Sin embargo, Kayed cogía el móvil y me conseguía lo que quisiera. Parecía tener el número de teléfono de los dos millones de habitantes de la Franja de Gaza.  

La voluntad sobre los recursos. 

Estábamos en las mismas.  

Quizá por eso formamos un buen equipo.  

Durante los meses que pasé en la guerra de 2006, hasta logré entrar a los túneles que conectan al territorio palestino con Egipto. Un acceso que pocos periodistas habían conseguido. Reportaje que vendería a varios medios internacionales y que me ayudaría a costear aquella larga estancia.  

Es otra gran lección que me dejó la guerra: convertir tus falencias en virtudes. Tus debilidades en tus fuerzas.  

La noche anterior a la partida hacia Gaza casi no pude conciliar el sueño. No era por la culpa que sentía por haber falsificado una carta, sino por las noticias que llegaban desde allí y por el miedo que me invade antes de acercarme a la violencia. 

De esta premisa surgió la idea de la película Nacido en Gaza, que rodé en 2014. No tenía capital para excesivos alardes técnicos, así que contando con la ayuda de Kayed, solo con mi cámara, mis lentes y mis micrófonos, retrataría historias mínimas, que creasen puentes de empatía.  

Como parte de la estrategia, había decidido que rodaría con drones, en el mar y en cámara lenta. Quería romper el punto de vista. La frontalidad con la que había narrado mis historias hasta el momento. A la cantante Bebe, que era mi pareja y a la que tanto debo, le fascinó la idea. Así que me llamaba por las noches para asegurarse de que no me apartara del plan establecido.  

—¿Seguro que estás grabando como me has prometido?  

A ver quién se anima a decirle que no.  

Además, ella también era productora de la película. Puro corazón, generosidad, con un talento de otra galaxia, había invertido dinero de su propio bolsillo para ayudarme a financiar los viajes y el sueldo de Kayed.  

Cuando me tocaba grabar en el mar Mediterráneo, los reporteros que estaban alojados en el hotel me miraban con absoluta incredulidad. Bajaba a desayunar en bañador, camiseta de tirantes y chanclas. Una toalla sobre el hombro. Unas gafas de buceo colgando del cuello.  

Vacaciones en la guerra.  

La carcasa para la cámara me la había prestado mi hermano de sangre Sergio Carmona. Como soy un ser humano privado de la más mínima habilidad cuando se trata de labores manuales, me resultó imposible evitar que el agua se colara dentro.  

De esta manera me metía en el mar junto al pequeño Mohamed, un hijo de pescadores que se había visto obligado a recoger basura para alimentar a su familia.  

Con miedo a que nos cayera un misil, sin casi llegar a ver lo que estaba rodando, luchando para que el agua que entraba en la carcasa me permitiese hacer foco y para que la corriente no me arrastrara de regreso a España, lo grababa mientras él nadaba y el sol se perdía en el horizonte.  

Así surgió una de las secuencias más conmovedoras que he hecho nunca, en la que Mohamed dice:  

«Yo quiero al mar. He nacido en el mar. Me gustaría poder estar siempre en el mar, nadando y viviendo en él. Olvidarme de todos los problemas a mi alrededor y seguir viviendo en el mar».  

No solo en la guerra sino en nuestra cotidianeidad, la pregunta es: ¿Qué me juega en contra? ¿Qué falencias tengo? ¿Qué puedo hacer para que se ponga a mi favor?  

En este sentido, las fronteras físicas son un claro obstáculo cuando vas a una guerra. Pero hay, en este lado de la lotería de los códigos postales, otra serie de barreras conceptuales, jerárquicas, normativas, sobre lo que sea que quieras hacer, que en ningún caso te deben empujar a ver solo tus debilidades.  

No puedes realizar un documental sin ayuda, sin haber estudiado cine, casi sin dinero, en solo tres meses y en un lugar como Gaza.  

¿Quién lo dice?  

Los cánones establecidos por la industria audiovisual.  

Mandadle saludos de mi parte.  

Nacido en Gaza no solo ganaría docenas de premios, sino que llegaría a ser uno de los documentales más vistos a nivel mundial en Netflix.  

Una película que estuvo en los cines a los tres meses de haberse comenzado a grabar, que me llevó a compartir nominación con Wim Wenders y su magnífica La sal de la tierra, en los Premios Platino.  

En las gradas de la ceremonia, el equipo de esa producción que había recaudado más de un millón de euros. A su lado, con la impostada sonrisa de los que saben que van a perder por goleada, Bebe y yo, responsables de una película que tenía un presupuesto de doce mil euros.  

Con un obstáculo añadido: antes de que estallara la guerra en Gaza me había comprometido con Canal Plus para hacer un reportaje sobre la violencia en Honduras. Esto me obligó a pasar, en un mismo plano secuencia, de Tel Aviv a Tegucigalpa.  

Por el día filmaba los cuerpos descuartizados por la mara Salvatrucha. Por la noche me hinchaba a café para editar lo que había grabado deprisa, con miedo y corriendo de un lado a otro durante la ofensiva israelí.  

La pasión que, con tanta sabiduría, Meir Margalit me había alentado a usar para contrarrestar mis carencias.  

Algo que llevaba años viendo en mis viajes y que sin duda también me había inspirado: la voluntad de todas esas personas que no se dejan vencer, que siguen adelante con lo que tienen a mano, contra viento y marea.  

El conductor del Congo que arregla el motor de su coche con unos alambres. El adolescente que, con una gran sonrisa, intenta vender cometas en una calle de Kabul. El taxista que sigue saliendo a trabajar en San Pedro Sula, aunque la mara Salvatrucha lo haya amenazado de muerte por no pagarle la mordida del mes. La familia de refugiados sudaneses que, con unas cañas, un poco de barro y unos plásticos de la ONU, se monta una vivienda en cuestión de horas. La madre que se pone a barrer la entrada apenas está construida. Sus hijos, que hacen girar un viejo neumático al que empujan con un palo, que se regalan el lujo de seguir jugando a pesar de todo.  

Premios, estrenos, ruedas de prensa, resultan minúsculas hazañas del ego y la vanidad en comparación.  

Ellos son los únicos que tienen mérito en esta historia. 

Fronteras, himnos, banderas, religiones, ¿qué lógica tienen en una línea temporal de miles de millones de años? ¿En un universo infinito del que apenas somos un punto casi invisible?

Había sido un aliciente en este proceso, la necesidad que sentía de que el mundo escuchase la voz de los niños que había grabado en Gaza antes de que la rueda informativa y nuestra escasa capacidad de atención se desviasen a otros temas.  

Un trabajo que ya había hecho con las mujeres violadas en el Congo, Sudán, Bosnia y Uganda, con las víctimas de Al Shabab en Somalia, como lo haría al año siguiente con quienes sufrieron los horrores del ISIS en Siria.  

Para mí no hay bandos ni banderas.  

Solo están los que causan las guerras y los que las sufren.  

Ahí se encontraba otra fortaleza que equilibraba mis carencias: la profunda convicción de que no somos más que unos primates 2.0 agarrados con las uñas a un planeta que da vueltas por un universo cuyas dimensiones y sentido escapan a nuestra capacidad de compresión.  

Las lindes que nos han sido impuestas y que hemos asumido como propias carecen de razón de ser si las observamos desde la perspectiva del tiempo y el espacio.  

Fronteras, himnos, banderas, religiones, ¿qué lógica tienen en una línea temporal de miles de millones de años? ¿En un universo infinito del que apenas somos un punto casi invisible?  

Estas creaciones tienen el mayor de mis respetos si te ayudan de alguna manera, pero no cuando sirven para confundirnos, para separarnos y enfrentarnos, en beneficio de unos pocos.  

Somos todos uno.  

Somos lo mismo.  

Esos primates desconcertados.  

Hasta el día en que no asimilemos esto, lo incorporemos y ejercitemos, seguiremos abocados a la niebla de la guerra, la injusticia y el sufrimiento.