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George Orwell sobre «Mein Kampf»: Hitler o el mártir Prometeo

En marzo de 1940, apenas seis meses después de que diera comienzo la II Guerra Mundial, George Orwell publicó en «The New English Weekly» una reseña de «Mein Kampf», título que Hitler escribió años atrás durante su paso por prisión y en el que sienta las bases ideológicas del nazismo. El texto de Orwell, íntegro bajo estas líneas, dejaba evidencia de las astutas narrativas con las que Hitler había logrado el apoyo económico del tejido industrial de su país y el emocional de buena parte del pueblo alemán. Llevándolo a nuestro tiempo -desde una perspectiva tan actual que provoca escalofríos-, este ensayo breve firmado por uno de los autores más lúcidos del siglo XX advierte de las amenazas que vienen de la mano de aquellos líderes totalitarios que se presentan ante su pueblo como héroes o -lo que es peor- víctimas.

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El texto de Orwell, \u00edntegro bajo estas l\u00edneas, dejaba evidencia de las astutas narrativas con las que Hitler hab\u00eda logrado el apoyo econ\u00f3mico del tejido industrial de su pa\u00eds y el emocional de buena parte del pueblo alem\u00e1n. Llev\u00e1ndolo a nuestro tiempo -desde una perspectiva tan actual que provoca escalofr\u00edos-, este ensayo breve firmado por uno de los autores m\u00e1s l\u00facidos del siglo XX advierte de las amenazas que vienen de la mano de aquellos l\u00edderes totalitarios que se presentan ante su pueblo como h\u00e9roes o -lo que es peor- v\u00edctimas.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"t575ybh\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Orwell Mi lucha Adolf Hitler GettyImages-503970646.jpg\",\"id\":1},\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"center\",\"align_mobile\":\"center\",\"caption\":\"Copias hist\u00f3ricas de Mein Kampf (Mi lucha), el primer libro de Adolf 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Copias hist\u00f3ricas de <em>Mein Kampf (Mi lucha),<\/em> el primer libro de Adolf Hitler, que es a la vez una autobiograf\u00eda y una presentaci\u00f3n de sus puntos de vista pol\u00edticos. Hitler escribi\u00f3 este t\u00edtulo mientras estaba prisionero en Alemania en la d\u00e9cada de 1920. 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se\u00f1al de lo r\u00e1pido que se est\u00e1n precipitando los acontecimientos se ve en el hecho de que la edici\u00f3n completa de <em>Mein Kampf,<\/em> publicada hace tan solo un a\u00f1o por Hurst and Blackett, se editara desde un punto de vista favorable <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/34410-libro-de-adolf-a-hitler-9788466349345\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a Hitler<\/a><\/span>. Obviamente, la intenci\u00f3n del prefacio y las notas del traductor era atenuar la fiereza del libro y presentar a Hitler bajo una luz lo m\u00e1s amable posible. Y es que por esas fechas Hitler a\u00fan era respetable. Hab\u00eda aplastado el movimiento laborista alem\u00e1n y, en consecuencia, las clases de los patronos estaban dispuestas a perdonarle casi cualquier cosa. Tanto la izquierda como la derecha coincid\u00edan en la noci\u00f3n, sumamente superficial, de que el nacionalsocialismo era una mera versi\u00f3n del conservadurismo.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Luego result\u00f3 que Hitler no era respetable. A ra\u00edz de ello, la edici\u00f3n de Hurst and Blackett se ha relanzado con una nueva cubierta en la que se explica que los beneficios de sus ventas se donar\u00e1n a la Cruz Roja. Sin embargo, si nos limitamos a las pruebas internas de <em>Mein Kampf,<\/em> cuesta creer que los objetivos y las opiniones de Hitler de veras hayan cambiado. Cuando se comparan las declaraciones que hizo hace unos doce meses con las de quince a\u00f1os antes, salta a la vista la rigidez de su mente, el estancamiento de su cosmovisi\u00f3n. El suyo es el punto de vista inamovible de un monoman\u00edaco, y no parece probable que las maniobras pasajeras de la pol\u00edtica del poder vayan a afectarle mucho. Con toda seguridad, en la mente de Hitler\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el pacto ruso-alem\u00e1n<\/a><\/span> no representa m\u00e1s que un cambio de calendario. El plan elaborado en <em>Mein Kampf<\/em> era destruir primero a Rusia, con la intenci\u00f3n impl\u00edcita de acabar luego con Inglaterra. Ahora da la casualidad de que hay que ocuparse primero de Inglaterra, porque, de los dos,<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rusia ha sido el pa\u00eds m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil de sobornar<\/a><\/span>. Con todo, a Rusia le llegar\u00e1 su turno cuando se haya despachado a Inglaterra; as\u00ed es, sin duda, como lo ve Hitler. Otra cosa, por supuesto, es que los hechos vayan a ocurrir de esa 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que el programa de Hitler pudiera ponerse en pr\u00e1ctica. Lo que contempla, dentro de cien a\u00f1os, es un ancho Estado de doscientos cincuenta millones de alemanes con mucho \u00abespacio vital\u00bb (es decir, un territorio que se extienda m\u00e1s o menos <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">hasta Afganist\u00e1n<\/a><\/span>), un horrendo imperio descerebrado en el que nunca ocurrir\u00eda nada salvo la instrucci\u00f3n de los j\u00f3venes para la guerra y el incesante engendramiento de nueva carne de ca\u00f1\u00f3n. \u00bfC\u00f3mo es posible que Hitler haya sido capaz de transmitir <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/art-spiegelman-liniers\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">esta visi\u00f3n monstruosa<\/a><\/span>? Es f\u00e1cil decir que, durante una etapa de su carrera, cont\u00f3 con la financiaci\u00f3n de los grandes industriales, que vieron en \u00e9l al hombre capaz de aplastar a los socialistas y a los comunistas. Sin embargo, aquellos no lo habr\u00edan apoyado si \u00e9l no hubiese conseguido crear antes un gran movimiento con sus palabras. Por cierto, la situaci\u00f3n de Alemania, con siete millones de desempleados, sin duda era favorable para los demagogos. Pero Hitler no podr\u00eda haber prevalecido entre sus muchos rivales de no ser por el atractivo de su personalidad, que se observa incluso en la torpe escritura de <em>Mein Kampf,<\/em> y que sin duda es avasallador cuando se escuchan sus discursos\u2026\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wqvoem2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La causa primera y personal de su resentimiento contra el universo solo puede adivinarse; pero lo cierto es que el resentimiento existe. \u00c9l es el m\u00e1rtir, la v\u00edctima, Prometeo encadenado a la roca, el h\u00e9roe abnegado que lucha en solitario contra viento y marea.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wizav21\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Me gustar\u00eda dejar constancia de que nunca he sido capaz de sentir especial aversi\u00f3n por Hitler. Desde que lleg\u00f3 al poder \u2014hasta entonces, como casi todo el mundo, me hab\u00eda tragado las mentiras de que no era alguien importante\u2014 he pensado que sin duda lo matar\u00eda si lo tuviera al alcance de la mano, pero no he sentido ninguna animadversi\u00f3n personal. El hecho es que hay algo muy atractivo en su persona. Se presiente tambi\u00e9n al ver sus fotograf\u00edas; recomiendo especialmente la fotograf\u00eda incluida al principio de la edici\u00f3n de Hurst and Blackett, que exhibe a Hitler <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">en sus primeros d\u00edas de camisas pardas<\/a><\/span>. La suya es una cara pat\u00e9tica, perruna, la cara de un hombre que sufre agravios intolerables. Con un poco m\u00e1s de virilidad, reproduce la expresi\u00f3n de innumerables im\u00e1genes del Cristo crucificado, y poco puede dudarse de que as\u00ed se ve Hitler. La causa primera y personal de su resentimiento contra el universo solo puede adivinarse; pero lo cierto es que el resentimiento existe. \u00c9l es el m\u00e1rtir, la v\u00edctima, Prometeo encadenado a la roca, el h\u00e9roe abnegado que lucha en solitario contra viento y marea. Si fuera a matar a un rat\u00f3n, sabr\u00eda hacer que pareciera un drag\u00f3n. Transmite la sensaci\u00f3n, como lo hizo Napole\u00f3n, de que se enfrenta al destino, de que no puede ganar y de que, sin embargo, en cierto modo merece hacerlo. 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Hitler ha comprendido la falsedad de una actitud hedonista ante la vida. Desde la \u00faltima guerra, casi todo el pensamiento occidental, y sin duda todo el pensamiento \u00abprogresista\u00bb, ha dado por sentado que los seres humanos solo quieren comodidades, seguridad y ausencia de dolor. Esa concepci\u00f3n de la vida excluye, por ejemplo, el patriotismo y las virtudes militares.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El socialista<\/a><\/span> que ve a sus hijos jugar con soldados suele molestarse, pero nunca se le ocurre un sustituto para los soldaditos de plomo; por esas cosas, los \u00abpacifistas de plomo\u00bb no sirven. Hitler, que lo siente con una fuerza excepcional en su mente adusta, sabe que los seres humanos no solo quieren comodidad, seguridad, jornadas laborales cortas, higiene, control de la natalidad y, en general, sentido com\u00fan; al menos cada tanto, tambi\u00e9n quieren lucha y abnegaci\u00f3n, por no hablar de tambores, banderas y desfiles en pro de la lealtad.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kybnmzw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hitler ha comprendido la falsedad de una actitud hedonista ante la vida. Desde la \u00faltima guerra, casi todo el pensamiento occidental, y sin duda todo el pensamiento<em> progresista,<\/em> ha dado por sentado que los seres humanos solo quieren comodidades, seguridad y ausencia de dolor. Esa concepci\u00f3n de la vida excluye, por ejemplo, el patriotismo y las virtudes militares.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8qy93h1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Con independencia de sus m\u00e9ritos como teor\u00edas econ\u00f3micas,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el fascismo y el nazismo<\/a><\/span> son mucho m\u00e1s s\u00f3lidos en sentido psicol\u00f3gico que toda concepci\u00f3n hedonista de la vida. Lo mismo puede decirse de la versi\u00f3n militarizada del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">socialismo de Stalin<\/a><\/span>. Los tres grandes dictadores han incrementado su poder imponiendo cargas intolerables a sus pueblos. Mientras que el socialismo y, un poco a rega\u00f1adientes, incluso el capitalismo ha ofrecido a la gente \u00abpasar un buen rato\u00bb, Hitler le ha ofrecido \u00ablucha, peligro y muerte\u00bb, y de resultas toda una naci\u00f3n se ha rendido a sus pies. Tal vez m\u00e1s adelante esta se harte y cambie de opini\u00f3n, como al final de la pasada guerra. Tras a\u00f1os de matanza y hambre, \u00abLa mayor felicidad del mayor n\u00famero de personas\u00bb es un buen eslogan, pero en este momento se lleva la palma aquello de \u00abes mejor un fin con horror que un horror sin fin\u00bb. Cuando luchamos contra el hombre que acu\u00f1\u00f3 esa frase, no deber\u00edamos subestimar su atractivo en el plano emocional.\u00a0<\/p><p><em><br \/><br \/>Art\u00edculo publicado originalmente en\u00a0<\/em>The New English Weekly<em> el 21 de marzo de 1940.\u00a0Traducci\u00f3n de Mart\u00edn Schifino,\u00a0editor de Penguin Cl\u00e1sicos y DeBolsillo.<\/em><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Primero, la rebeli\u00f3n; despu\u00e9s, el futuro: la improbable g\u00e9nesis de \u00ab1984\u00bb, la obra magna de George Orwell<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/George-Orwell-Homenaje-a-Cataluna\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00ab\u00a1La gloria de la guerra!\u00bb: as\u00ed resuenan hoy los ecos de Orwell y su \u00abHomenaje a 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6 minutos
Copias históricas de Mein Kampf (Mi lucha), el primer libro de Adolf Hitler.

Copias históricas de Mein Kampf (Mi lucha), el primer libro de Adolf Hitler, que es a la vez una autobiografía y una presentación de sus puntos de vista políticos. Hitler escribió este título mientras estaba prisionero en Alemania en la década de 1920. Crédito: Getty Images.

Una señal de lo rápido que se están precipitando los acontecimientos se ve en el hecho de que la edición completa de Mein Kampf, publicada hace tan solo un año por Hurst and Blackett, se editara desde un punto de vista favorable a Hitler. Obviamente, la intención del prefacio y las notas del traductor era atenuar la fiereza del libro y presentar a Hitler bajo una luz lo más amable posible. Y es que por esas fechas Hitler aún era respetable. Había aplastado el movimiento laborista alemán y, en consecuencia, las clases de los patronos estaban dispuestas a perdonarle casi cualquier cosa. Tanto la izquierda como la derecha coincidían en la noción, sumamente superficial, de que el nacionalsocialismo era una mera versión del conservadurismo.  

Luego resultó que Hitler no era respetable. A raíz de ello, la edición de Hurst and Blackett se ha relanzado con una nueva cubierta en la que se explica que los beneficios de sus ventas se donarán a la Cruz Roja. Sin embargo, si nos limitamos a las pruebas internas de Mein Kampf, cuesta creer que los objetivos y las opiniones de Hitler de veras hayan cambiado. Cuando se comparan las declaraciones que hizo hace unos doce meses con las de quince años antes, salta a la vista la rigidez de su mente, el estancamiento de su cosmovisión. El suyo es el punto de vista inamovible de un monomaníaco, y no parece probable que las maniobras pasajeras de la política del poder vayan a afectarle mucho. Con toda seguridad, en la mente de Hitler el pacto ruso-alemán no representa más que un cambio de calendario. El plan elaborado en Mein Kampf era destruir primero a Rusia, con la intención implícita de acabar luego con Inglaterra. Ahora da la casualidad de que hay que ocuparse primero de Inglaterra, porque, de los dos, Rusia ha sido el país más fácil de sobornar. Con todo, a Rusia le llegará su turno cuando se haya despachado a Inglaterra; así es, sin duda, como lo ve Hitler. Otra cosa, por supuesto, es que los hechos vayan a ocurrir de esa manera.

Supongamos que el programa de Hitler pudiera ponerse en práctica. Lo que contempla, dentro de cien años, es un ancho Estado de doscientos cincuenta millones de alemanes con mucho «espacio vital» (es decir, un territorio que se extienda más o menos hasta Afganistán), un horrendo imperio descerebrado en el que nunca ocurriría nada salvo la instrucción de los jóvenes para la guerra y el incesante engendramiento de nueva carne de cañón. ¿Cómo es posible que Hitler haya sido capaz de transmitir esta visión monstruosa? Es fácil decir que, durante una etapa de su carrera, contó con la financiación de los grandes industriales, que vieron en él al hombre capaz de aplastar a los socialistas y a los comunistas. Sin embargo, aquellos no lo habrían apoyado si él no hubiese conseguido crear antes un gran movimiento con sus palabras. Por cierto, la situación de Alemania, con siete millones de desempleados, sin duda era favorable para los demagogos. Pero Hitler no podría haber prevalecido entre sus muchos rivales de no ser por el atractivo de su personalidad, que se observa incluso en la torpe escritura de Mein Kampf, y que sin duda es avasallador cuando se escuchan sus discursos… 

La causa primera y personal de su resentimiento contra el universo solo puede adivinarse; pero lo cierto es que el resentimiento existe. Él es el mártir, la víctima, Prometeo encadenado a la roca, el héroe abnegado que lucha en solitario contra viento y marea.

Me gustaría dejar constancia de que nunca he sido capaz de sentir especial aversión por Hitler. Desde que llegó al poder —hasta entonces, como casi todo el mundo, me había tragado las mentiras de que no era alguien importante— he pensado que sin duda lo mataría si lo tuviera al alcance de la mano, pero no he sentido ninguna animadversión personal. El hecho es que hay algo muy atractivo en su persona. Se presiente también al ver sus fotografías; recomiendo especialmente la fotografía incluida al principio de la edición de Hurst and Blackett, que exhibe a Hitler en sus primeros días de camisas pardas. La suya es una cara patética, perruna, la cara de un hombre que sufre agravios intolerables. Con un poco más de virilidad, reproduce la expresión de innumerables imágenes del Cristo crucificado, y poco puede dudarse de que así se ve Hitler. La causa primera y personal de su resentimiento contra el universo solo puede adivinarse; pero lo cierto es que el resentimiento existe. Él es el mártir, la víctima, Prometeo encadenado a la roca, el héroe abnegado que lucha en solitario contra viento y marea. Si fuera a matar a un ratón, sabría hacer que pareciera un dragón. Transmite la sensación, como lo hizo Napoleón, de que se enfrenta al destino, de que no puede ganar y de que, sin embargo, en cierto modo merece hacerlo. Esa postura ejerce una atracción enorme, por supuesto; la mitad de las películas que vemos giran en torno a ese tema.

Portada de The New English Weekly del 21 de marzo de 1940, ejemplar en el que Orwell publicó este texto sobre Mein Kampf.

Portada de The New English Weekly del 21 de marzo de 1940, ejemplar en el que Orwell publicó este texto sobre Mein Kampf. Crédito: D. R.

Además, Hitler ha comprendido la falsedad de una actitud hedonista ante la vida. Desde la última guerra, casi todo el pensamiento occidental, y sin duda todo el pensamiento «progresista», ha dado por sentado que los seres humanos solo quieren comodidades, seguridad y ausencia de dolor. Esa concepción de la vida excluye, por ejemplo, el patriotismo y las virtudes militares. El socialista que ve a sus hijos jugar con soldados suele molestarse, pero nunca se le ocurre un sustituto para los soldaditos de plomo; por esas cosas, los «pacifistas de plomo» no sirven. Hitler, que lo siente con una fuerza excepcional en su mente adusta, sabe que los seres humanos no solo quieren comodidad, seguridad, jornadas laborales cortas, higiene, control de la natalidad y, en general, sentido común; al menos cada tanto, también quieren lucha y abnegación, por no hablar de tambores, banderas y desfiles en pro de la lealtad. 

Hitler ha comprendido la falsedad de una actitud hedonista ante la vida. Desde la última guerra, casi todo el pensamiento occidental, y sin duda todo el pensamiento progresista, ha dado por sentado que los seres humanos solo quieren comodidades, seguridad y ausencia de dolor. Esa concepción de la vida excluye, por ejemplo, el patriotismo y las virtudes militares. 

Con independencia de sus méritos como teorías económicas, el fascismo y el nazismo son mucho más sólidos en sentido psicológico que toda concepción hedonista de la vida. Lo mismo puede decirse de la versión militarizada del socialismo de Stalin. Los tres grandes dictadores han incrementado su poder imponiendo cargas intolerables a sus pueblos. Mientras que el socialismo y, un poco a regañadientes, incluso el capitalismo ha ofrecido a la gente «pasar un buen rato», Hitler le ha ofrecido «lucha, peligro y muerte», y de resultas toda una nación se ha rendido a sus pies. Tal vez más adelante esta se harte y cambie de opinión, como al final de la pasada guerra. Tras años de matanza y hambre, «La mayor felicidad del mayor número de personas» es un buen eslogan, pero en este momento se lleva la palma aquello de «es mejor un fin con horror que un horror sin fin». Cuando luchamos contra el hombre que acuñó esa frase, no deberíamos subestimar su atractivo en el plano emocional. 



Artículo publicado originalmente en 
The New English Weekly el 21 de marzo de 1940. Traducción de Martín Schifino, editor de Penguin Clásicos y DeBolsillo.




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