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«¡La gloria de la guerra!»: así resuenan hoy los ecos de Orwell y su «Homenaje a Cataluña»

La combinación de testimonio personal y habilidad narrativa hacen de «Homenaje a Cataluña» una obra magistral de la literatura de guerra y de la historia del siglo XX, así como un retrato clave para entender hoy lo que fue la guerra civil española. Además, el paso del tiempo nos permite valorar este título como un punto de inflexión en la posición política y en la configuración del legado cultural de George Orwell, a quien recordamos a través de las palabras de Miquel Berga, profesor de literatura inglesa en la facultad de Humanidades de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra y experto en la figura del autor británico.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">1936. Los milicianos del POUM vigilan la sede del\u00a0partido en Barcelona. Entre ellos,\u00a0al fondo, se encuentra George Orwell. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.upf.edu\/es\/web\/humanitats\/entry\/-\/-\/15900\/404\/miquel-berga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">MIQUEL BERGA<br \/><br \/><br 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La primera edici\u00f3n de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/18740-homenaje-a-cataluna-edicion-definitiva-avalada-por-the-orwell-estate\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Homenaje a Catalu\u00f1a<\/a><\/span>\u00a0<\/em>se public\u00f3 el 25 de abril de 1938, en plena Guerra Civil. En el lomo de la cubierta aparece la imagen de una guitarra espa\u00f1ola con las cuerdas rotas. Una met\u00e1fora visual cruda (aunque algo c\u00f3mica) de la verdad central que quer\u00eda transmitir el autor: <strong>la revoluci\u00f3n traicionada en Espa\u00f1a por obra y gracia del estalinismo de las purgas y de los asesinatos \u00ab<\/strong><strong>necesarios\u00bb<\/strong><em><strong>.<\/strong>\u00a0<\/em><\/span>Con la perspectiva que dan los ochenta y tres a\u00f1os transcurridos desde entonces y la evoluci\u00f3n de las obras posteriores que <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/articulos\/george-orwell-1984\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Orwell<\/span> <\/a>consigui\u00f3 escribir en los casi doce a\u00f1os de vida que le restaban, no es dif\u00edcil afirmar que<em> Homage to Catalonia <\/em>constituye el punto de inflexi\u00f3n decisivo en su posici\u00f3n pol\u00edtica y en la configuraci\u00f3n de su proyecto literario.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Despu\u00e9s de Espa\u00f1a, sus novelas y ensayos period\u00edsticos constituyen una peculiar lucha personal e intelectual para preservar la libertad de decir que dos y dos son cuatro ante los mecanismos que activa el poder totalitario para destruir cualquier atisbo de verdad objetiva. <strong>Se trata, visto lo visto en la Catalu\u00f1a de 1937, \u00abde establecer la verdad de los hechos hasta donde sea posible\u00bb<\/strong>, para decirlo en palabras del propio Orwell. Este es el combate que el autor libra, b\u00e1sicamente, en dos frentes: la denuncia del totalitarismo fusionando literatura y pol\u00edtica en dos obras maestras <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/240307-george-orwell-pack-con-las-ediciones-definitivas-avaladas-por-the-orwell-estate-de-1984-y-rebelion-en-la-granja-9788466358507\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">(<\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/240307-george-orwell-pack-con-las-ediciones-definitivas-avaladas-por-the-orwell-estate-de-1984-y-rebelion-en-la-granja-9788466358507\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rebeli\u00f3n en la granja\u00a0<\/a><\/em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/240307-george-orwell-pack-con-las-ediciones-definitivas-avaladas-por-the-orwell-estate-de-1984-y-rebelion-en-la-granja-9788466358507\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">y<\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/240307-george-orwell-pack-con-las-ediciones-definitivas-avaladas-por-the-orwell-estate-de-1984-y-rebelion-en-la-granja-9788466358507\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> 1984<\/a><\/span><\/em>) y las reflexiones sobre lenguaje y verdad en ensayos diversos que son, en esencia, los reunidos en el volumen<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/filosofia\/19064-el-poder-y-la-palabra-edicion-definitiva-avalada-por-the-orwell-estate\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El poder y la palabra<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0(Debate, 2017).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bz42nhy\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">\u00ab\\\"<span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Quien controla el pasado controla el futuro. Y quien controla el presente controla el pasado\\\".\u00a0<\/span><span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La mentira es indispensable para la construcci\u00f3n del pasado, para cimentar sin grietas la\u00a0<\/span><em>raison d'\u00e9tat<\/em>\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8mlek95\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">La relaci\u00f3n entre pensamiento totalitario y corrupci\u00f3n del lenguaje es el mismo problema que Victor Klemperer abord\u00f3 en su estudio de caso sobre el lenguaje del Tercer Reich. El fil\u00f3logo jud\u00edo alem\u00e1n public\u00f3 las perversiones ling\u00fc\u00edsticas de los dirigentes nazis (y los efectos narc\u00f3ticos que produc\u00edan en la poblaci\u00f3n) en su c\u00e9lebre e imprescindible <em>Lingua Tertii Imperii<\/em> (1947). Como el ficticio Winston Smith en\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/articulos\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>1984<\/em><\/a><\/span>, Klemperer intent\u00f3 preservar su humanidad y su capacidad cr\u00edtica escribiendo un diario personal clandestino. Afortunadamente, el Reich que deb\u00eda durar mil a\u00f1os se qued\u00f3 en doce mal contados y Klemperer, casado con una mujer aria, consigui\u00f3 sobrevivir. <strong>Orwell no vivi\u00f3 nunca en un r\u00e9gimen totalitario, pero su militancia antifascista lo llev\u00f3 a combatir el golpe fascista de Franco como soldado en el frente.<\/strong> Parad\u00f3jicamente, fue en Espa\u00f1a donde se vio obligado a focalizar en los m\u00e9todos del estalinismo, que pudo experimentar directamente. Cuando Orwell muri\u00f3, Stalin segu\u00eda en el poder.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Quiz\u00e1 por eso, m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de los apuntes filol\u00f3gicos de Klemperer sobre el lenguaje del nazismo, Orwell indag\u00f3 tambi\u00e9n sobre los diversos mecanismos del poder totalitario que parten de la premisa de asumir sin rodeos que el poder no es un medio, sino un fin. Si el poder corrompe, concluye Orwell, el poder absoluto corrompe absolutamente. En el Ministerio de la Verdad orwelliano saben de qu\u00e9 se trata: <strong>mecanizar el lenguaje; reducir el vocabulario para acotar el pensamiento; y, por supuesto, practicar la ambig\u00fcedad ling\u00fc\u00edstica para que los conceptos puedan significar una cosa y su\u00a0contraria seg\u00fan convenga al partido.<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Al final, lo que de verdad importa es la falsificaci\u00f3n permanente de\u00a0la historia porque el mundo de <em>1984\u00a0<\/em>se basa en un axioma:\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abQuien controla el pasado controla el futuro. Y quien controla el presente controla el pasado\u00bb.<\/a><\/strong><\/span> La mentira es indispensable para la construcci\u00f3n del pasado, para cimentar sin grietas la <em>raison 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Todo o casi todo lo que hoy valoramos como el legado intelectual de Orwell, lo que Steiner (nada sospechoso de simpat\u00edas izquierdistas) llam\u00f3 \u00abun espacio para la renovaci\u00f3n moral de nuestra \u00e9poca\u00bb, tiene rastro en la experiencia espa\u00f1ola del autor. Citemos, en este contexto y como uno entre muchos ejemplos, lo que escribe en su ensayo <em>Recuerdos de la guerra de Espa\u00f1a<\/em> (1943): \u00abEl objetivo t\u00e1cito de este modo de pensar es un mundo de pesadilla en el que el l\u00edder m\u00e1ximo, o bien la camarilla dirigente, controla no solo el futuro, sino incluso el pasado. Si sobre tal o cual acontecimiento el l\u00edder dictamina que jam\u00e1s tuvo lugar, pues bien: no tuvo lugar jam\u00e1s. Si dice que dos y dos son cinco, as\u00ed tendr\u00e1 que ser.<strong> Esta posibilidad me atemoriza mucho m\u00e1s que las bombas\u00bb.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">El autor de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/36227-homenaje-a-cataluna-edicion-definitiva-avalada-por-the-orwell-estate-9788499890876\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Homenaje a Catalu\u00f1a, <\/em>ese libro de t\u00edtulo equ\u00edvoco<\/a><\/span>, fue herido gravemente en el Frente de Arag\u00f3n por una bala fascista y, a pesar de esto, tuvo que escapar de Espa\u00f1a ante la persecuci\u00f3n estalinista de militantes del POUM. Lo cont\u00f3 todo en el libro que escribi\u00f3 sin reposo durante los meses siguientes a su epopeya en las tierras de Espa\u00f1a. No obstante, <strong>Orwell muri\u00f3 convencido de que el relato de la experiencia central en su trayectoria hab\u00eda sido un fracaso editorial<\/strong> (cuando muri\u00f3 se hab\u00edan vendido apenas novecientos ejemplares de la obra) y que de poco hab\u00eda servido. Consuela pensar que aquella sensaci\u00f3n de fracaso fue el motor de la enorme energ\u00eda f\u00edsica y moral que tuvo que derrochar para escribir un libro como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/24582-1984-edicion-definitiva-avalada-por-the-orwell-estate\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">1984<\/a><\/span><\/em><\/span>, un esfuerzo tit\u00e1nico dado su estado de salud, afectado de tuberculosis aguda, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os de su vida<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"euup05i\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Con el tiempo y contra pron\u00f3stico, <em>Homenaje a Catalu\u00f1a<\/em> se ha convertido en el libro m\u00e1s le\u00eddo en todo el mundo como entrada a la guerra civil espa\u00f1ola. Algo habr\u00e1 de justicia po\u00e9tica. Su relato suena ver\u00eddico porque el lector oye la voz del combatiente de a pie, del que lucha tambi\u00e9n contra los piojos <strong>(\u00ab\u00a1La gloria de la guerra! (\u2026) todos y cada uno de quienes combatieron en Verd\u00fan, Waterloo, Flodden, Senlac o las Term\u00f3pilas ten\u00edan los test\u00edculos cubiertos de piojos\u00bb).<\/strong> No se olvide que detr\u00e1s del miliciano Eric Blair est\u00e1 George Orwell, el seud\u00f3nimo de un escritor sofisticado capaz de organizar sus materiales para ser escuchado sin renunciar a diseccionar el embrollo pol\u00edtico. El narrador nos obliga, todav\u00eda hoy, a problematizar nuestra memoria cultural de la Guerra Civil, a huir de simplificaciones y a asumir las complejidades del conflicto.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">La combinaci\u00f3n de testimonio personal y habilidad literaria ha mantenido el libro como una obra significativa de la literatura de guerra y de la historia del siglo XX. <strong>Hoy, m\u00e1s que nunca, se aprecia hasta qu\u00e9 punto <em>Homenaje a Catalu\u00f1a<\/em> es el embri\u00f3n y el punto de partida de un proyecto literario que Orwell culmin\u00f3 justo a tiempo.<\/strong> Pasados setenta a\u00f1os de su muerte prematura, pocos dudan de que la voz literaria y pol\u00edtica de Orwell, su lenguaje singular y penetrante, ocupa un lugar prominente en la percepci\u00f3n de los problemas de nuestros d\u00edas y persiste, saludablemente, como un ant\u00eddoto eficaz contra los delirios ideol\u00f3gicos all\u00e1 donde se presenten.\u00a0<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Primero, la rebeli\u00f3n; despu\u00e9s, el futuro: la improbable g\u00e9nesis de <em>1984<\/em>, la obra magna de George Orwell<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfPuede volver el fascismo?<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuba: entre la Patria y la 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8 minutos

1936. Los milicianos del POUM vigilan la sede del partido en Barcelona. Entre ellos, al fondo, se encuentra George Orwell. Crédito: Getty Images.

La primera edición de Homenaje a Cataluña se publicó el 25 de abril de 1938, en plena Guerra Civil. En el lomo de la cubierta aparece la imagen de una guitarra española con las cuerdas rotas. Una metáfora visual cruda (aunque algo cómica) de la verdad central que quería transmitir el autor: la revolución traicionada en España por obra y gracia del estalinismo de las purgas y de los asesinatos «necesarios». Con la perspectiva que dan los ochenta y tres años transcurridos desde entonces y la evolución de las obras posteriores que Orwell consiguió escribir en los casi doce años de vida que le restaban, no es difícil afirmar que Homage to Catalonia constituye el punto de inflexión decisivo en su posición política y en la configuración de su proyecto literario.

Después de España, sus novelas y ensayos periodísticos constituyen una peculiar lucha personal e intelectual para preservar la libertad de decir que dos y dos son cuatro ante los mecanismos que activa el poder totalitario para destruir cualquier atisbo de verdad objetiva. Se trata, visto lo visto en la Cataluña de 1937, «de establecer la verdad de los hechos hasta donde sea posible», para decirlo en palabras del propio Orwell. Este es el combate que el autor libra, básicamente, en dos frentes: la denuncia del totalitarismo fusionando literatura y política en dos obras maestras (Rebelión en la granja y 1984) y las reflexiones sobre lenguaje y verdad en ensayos diversos que son, en esencia, los reunidos en el volumen El poder y la palabra (Debate, 2017).

«"Quien controla el pasado controla el futuro. Y quien controla el presente controla el pasado". La mentira es indispensable para la construcción del pasado, para cimentar sin grietas la raison d'état».

La relación entre pensamiento totalitario y corrupción del lenguaje es el mismo problema que Victor Klemperer abordó en su estudio de caso sobre el lenguaje del Tercer Reich. El filólogo judío alemán publicó las perversiones lingüísticas de los dirigentes nazis (y los efectos narcóticos que producían en la población) en su célebre e imprescindible Lingua Tertii Imperii (1947). Como el ficticio Winston Smith en 1984, Klemperer intentó preservar su humanidad y su capacidad crítica escribiendo un diario personal clandestino. Afortunadamente, el Reich que debía durar mil años se quedó en doce mal contados y Klemperer, casado con una mujer aria, consiguió sobrevivir. Orwell no vivió nunca en un régimen totalitario, pero su militancia antifascista lo llevó a combatir el golpe fascista de Franco como soldado en el frente. Paradójicamente, fue en España donde se vio obligado a focalizar en los métodos del estalinismo, que pudo experimentar directamente. Cuando Orwell murió, Stalin seguía en el poder.

Quizá por eso, más allá de los apuntes filológicos de Klemperer sobre el lenguaje del nazismo, Orwell indagó también sobre los diversos mecanismos del poder totalitario que parten de la premisa de asumir sin rodeos que el poder no es un medio, sino un fin. Si el poder corrompe, concluye Orwell, el poder absoluto corrompe absolutamente. En el Ministerio de la Verdad orwelliano saben de qué se trata: mecanizar el lenguaje; reducir el vocabulario para acotar el pensamiento; y, por supuesto, practicar la ambigüedad lingüística para que los conceptos puedan significar una cosa y su contraria según convenga al partido.

Al final, lo que de verdad importa es la falsificación permanente de la historia porque el mundo de 1984 se basa en un axioma: «Quien controla el pasado controla el futuro. Y quien controla el presente controla el pasado». La mentira es indispensable para la construcción del pasado, para cimentar sin grietas la raison d’état. 

Todo o casi todo lo que hoy valoramos como el legado intelectual de Orwell, lo que Steiner (nada sospechoso de simpatías izquierdistas) llamó «un espacio para la renovación moral de nuestra época», tiene rastro en la experiencia española del autor. Citemos, en este contexto y como uno entre muchos ejemplos, lo que escribe en su ensayo Recuerdos de la guerra de España (1943): «El objetivo tácito de este modo de pensar es un mundo de pesadilla en el que el líder máximo, o bien la camarilla dirigente, controla no solo el futuro, sino incluso el pasado. Si sobre tal o cual acontecimiento el líder dictamina que jamás tuvo lugar, pues bien: no tuvo lugar jamás. Si dice que dos y dos son cinco, así tendrá que ser. Esta posibilidad me atemoriza mucho más que las bombas». 

El autor de Homenaje a Cataluña, ese libro de título equívoco, fue herido gravemente en el Frente de Aragón por una bala fascista y, a pesar de esto, tuvo que escapar de España ante la persecución estalinista de militantes del POUM. Lo contó todo en el libro que escribió sin reposo durante los meses siguientes a su epopeya en las tierras de España. No obstante, Orwell murió convencido de que el relato de la experiencia central en su trayectoria había sido un fracaso editorial (cuando murió se habían vendido apenas novecientos ejemplares de la obra) y que de poco había servido. Consuela pensar que aquella sensación de fracaso fue el motor de la enorme energía física y moral que tuvo que derrochar para escribir un libro como 1984, un esfuerzo titánico dado su estado de salud, afectado de tuberculosis aguda, en los últimos años de su vida.

Con el tiempo y contra pronóstico, Homenaje a Cataluña se ha convertido en el libro más leído en todo el mundo como entrada a la guerra civil española. Algo habrá de justicia poética. Su relato suena verídico porque el lector oye la voz del combatiente de a pie, del que lucha también contra los piojos («¡La gloria de la guerra! (…) todos y cada uno de quienes combatieron en Verdún, Waterloo, Flodden, Senlac o las Termópilas tenían los testículos cubiertos de piojos»). No se olvide que detrás del miliciano Eric Blair está George Orwell, el seudónimo de un escritor sofisticado capaz de organizar sus materiales para ser escuchado sin renunciar a diseccionar el embrollo político. El narrador nos obliga, todavía hoy, a problematizar nuestra memoria cultural de la Guerra Civil, a huir de simplificaciones y a asumir las complejidades del conflicto.

La combinación de testimonio personal y habilidad literaria ha mantenido el libro como una obra significativa de la literatura de guerra y de la historia del siglo XX. Hoy, más que nunca, se aprecia hasta qué punto Homenaje a Cataluña es el embrión y el punto de partida de un proyecto literario que Orwell culminó justo a tiempo. Pasados setenta años de su muerte prematura, pocos dudan de que la voz literaria y política de Orwell, su lenguaje singular y penetrante, ocupa un lugar prominente en la percepción de los problemas de nuestros días y persiste, saludablemente, como un antídoto eficaz contra los delirios ideológicos allá donde se presenten. 




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